Sunday, June 3, 2007

30. Ambient heat

(chemicals, caves, oil, hot springs/geothermal, tallow, wood fires, anti-freeze)


Mark said...

Recycling methane on an industrial scale for whole cities, instead of letting it go to waste from sewer sludge. Cuts back on other heat based applications like coal or natural gas.

This will be an INFRASTURCTURAL use of recycled waste methane for several Chinese cities by 2012.

William McDonough on cradle to cradle design
20:11 Posted: Apr 2007

Mark said...

his is from a friend, Eric, on welding technologies and ambient heat:

"One of the more interesting
aspects of Brown's gas is it's utilization in creating a vacuum that has been picked up by the "flat screen" manufacturers. As far as I'm concerned, the welding aspect is absolutely astonishing in it's capacity to heat up any substance to it's 'plasma" state. If the object needs to be heated to 6,000 degrees, Brown's gas will do that.

If it needs 300 degrees, it does that.

Here is a link to the generator. The price is awesome considering
that the fuel used in this welder is water.

Watch the 8 minute video on this Korean company's patented Browns Gas Generators.
[click on the Arirang TV link on the bottom right of the screen]

This product won top Korean national awards several years ago when it was put on the market.

Water is the fuel, and there is zero catalytic waste products since the oxygen and hydrogen is the only source of burning--which goes back to water vapor.

Move over petroleum and liquified natural gas.

Lots of uses for this technology, at different scales: for welding, ambient heat, etc.

Mark said...


Born in 1922 in Bulgaria, Yull Brown went to Australia in 1958 as an electrical engineer with a deep belief that Jules Verne’s vision of "There is fire in water", could be realized. He worked as an unknown laboratory technician until he could develop his own laboratory. By 1978 Professor Brown was being described by The Australian Post as "the most talked about inventor in Australia today". He discovered in the early 1970's a proprietary method of water electrolysis that yields a non-explosive mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gas in the precise atom-to-atom ratio of two volumes of hydrogen to one volume of oxygen. Professor Yull Brown discovered that hydrogen and oxygen gas can be safely mixed (plus or minus 5 percent) if that ration is strictly maintained. The result is Brown's Gas, a hydrogen and oxygen mixture that can be economically generated, compressed, and used safely.

In Professor Brown's process, the hydrogen and oxygen gases are immediately and intimately mixed at exactly the right ratio (the scientific term is “stoichiometric mix"). Brown's Gas is produced within an electrolysis cell, without membranes and with safety, invented by Professor Brown.

One of the design features of the gas generator is that its electrodes consist of inexpensive, ordinary mild steel, unlike many conventional electrodes that employ expensive, exotic noble metals. (Noble metals are chemically inert or inactive, especially toward oxygen).

There are extraordinary characteristics of Brown's Gas when produced by the patented generator. The properties of the gas have been the subject of considerable international interest and various research projects and third party reports.

The first Australian Patent 590309 was granted to Yull Brown in 1977. U.S. Patent 4014777 was granted in 1977 and U.S. Patent 4081656 was granted in 1978. Yull Brown has the intellectual rights to Brown's Gas. These rights are his for fifty years and are far from expired. While a person could build a machine from the original patent, they would not be allowed to produce Brown's Gas without Yull Brown's written approval, which has been exclusively granted to Better World Technology for the United States. Many of the larger industrialized countries have granted patents or offer protection through international treaties. (A strategy of patent enhancement that may further extend the life of U.S. patents is presently in development.)

With the initial granting of patents, emphasis was placed on documentation and analysis of the properties, behavior and safety of the gas. Commercial development of the widespread potential applications was not a principal focus until 1986.


The raw materials for the production of Brown's Gas are water and electricity. One kwh of electricity produces approximately 340 liters of gas. Virtually any amount of Brown's Gas can be produced in any volume through cells in series, cells miniaturized, or cells enlarged.

One unit of water yields 1,860 units of gas. The inverse applies as well. Upon ignition, Brown's Gas implodes. When implosion of the gas mixture occurs, the result is a 1,859 unit vacuum with one unit of water.

Tests have demonstrated various potential applications for pumps and motors operating as a result of the vacuum created by igniting the gas in a closed chamber. The end result of the implosion is always water. The effect of the gas's self implosion is to create a nearly perfect vacuum, almost instantaneously. The vacuum can be generated in a device without moving parts.

A standard torch, such as used in oxy/acetylene welding, can be used to burn Brown's Gas. Ignition is achieved with a hot spark. There are remarkable properties to the flame that are considerably different from a flame produced by mechanically combining oxygen and hydrogen gases. It appears that the unique nature of the extreme thermal energy produced by Brown's Gas is from interactive effects with the particular material being heated.

Hydrogen burning in an oxygen environment should theoretically reach a temperature of between 2210 and 2900 degrees centigrade. Tungsten was vaporized (sublimated) which requires a temperature of 5900 degrees centigrade, considerably above the flame temperature. A section of tungsten rod (1/8 inches in diameter) was sublimated in about 30 seconds.

The flames properties are different from those of conventional welding gases. For example, the flame is exceedingly pure and the flame results from the burning of the gas without the addition of oxygen, as required for acetylene. When the gas flame is directed to a fire brick, the contact area quickly reaches a condition of white heat and then begins to melt. Such results are not observable with conventional welding gases. In various demonstrations of the burning of Brown's Gas, holes were thermally bored through bricks, bricks were welded together with the material melting to an igneous rock similar to volcanic material, ceramic tiles were pierced by the flame, and steel was welded to brick.

An observable characteristic of the implosive flame is that it concentrates heat into a small area. Various independent consultants have tested this aspect by holding a piece of mild steel (six inches long) in one bare hand, and using the flame, cutting an inch or more from the other end. The cutting operation is completed before heat is significantly conducted through the metal. Welders familiar with conventional welding devices would assume the absolute requirement of asbestos gloves for such an experiment.

The intense heat concentration of the flame is immensely important in welding certain metals where the conducted overflow heat can weaken the metal adjacent to a weld. A typical example would involve aluminum welding. With Brown's Gas, the heat energy is concentrated into a small area where it performs its function without a wide dispersal of the applied heat. In applications which involve roll cutting steel plate, the smoothness of the cut is significant, in part because of this characteristic of greater heat concentration.


There have been supportive studies and conclusions reached about Professor Brown's discovery by various independent authorities and consultants. Some of those are summarized below.

Dr. C.D. Ellyett, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Newcastle University, N.S.W., Australia, prepared an independent technical assessment of Professor Brown's technology in 1986. Dr. Ellyett has a double masters in chemistry and physics and a Ph.D. in physics. He was Foundation Professor of Physics at the University of Newcastle from 1964 to 1980,. specializing in geophysics. He is the author of 64 articles in various professional journals and has been consultant to the U.S. government in upper atmospheric and space physics. He has lectured in the USA Sweden, Antarctica, South Africa, Holland, Canada, Singapore, the Philippines, West Germany and Finland.

In preparing his observations of the Brown’s Gas Generator, Dr. Ellyett went through several demonstrations of the technology, reviewed the U.S. patent, and also reviewed three reports prepared by Dr. John Bockris, various technical reports supplied by a large Australian industrial firm (prepared in 1976), a report by Caltex Oil (1979), and two Australian consultant’s report (1979 and 1983).

Dr. Ellyett noted that Professor Brown's Gas was considerably different in properties from a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. He wrote: "The resulting differences are so unexpected that they raise initial skepticism in many technically trained people, including the present author, but the weight of demonstration forces its acceptance.

"It should be stated here that the study of uses and applications has gone ahead of a complete scientific understanding of all facets of this process. Such a study will probably take several years to complete. However, enough has now been demonstrated to justify the techniques being commercialized immediately, and the first country to do so may in the long run achieve an enormous advantage in many technical processes.

"Brown's Gas is burnt in a blowtorch. The oxygen combines with the hydrogen itself, and as much energy is released on recombination as was needed to produce the initial dissociation. This results in a high temperature. The product is water.”

"Surrounding air and its associated moisture is excluded so the temperature is not lowered due to this factor, as it can be with other flames. However, at the high temperatures reached, some of the resulting water is again probably dissociated and hydrogen will interact to varying degrees with the material being heated. The extent of creation of atomic hydrogen and oxygen is presently unknown, but complex reactions occur within the flame and between the flame and the solid, so that some materials being heated reach greater temperatures than others".

Dr. Ellyett, in reporting on various welding applications of the gas wrote: "Metal welding, including aluminum, become simple processes. Metal welds are particularly clean, due to the correct hydrogen/oxygen balance".

Regarding the stability of the gas, he wrote: "It is stable and non-explosive at any reasonable pressure, and has been approved for manufacture and use by the New South Wales Department of Explosives. Any simple mixture of the two gases would probably explode if it was significantly compressed, but Brown's Gas is stable in this regard".

Regarding the self-implosion characteristic of the gas, Dr. Ellyett noted, "If a spark plug is inserted in the gas and a spark passed, the gas immediately collapses to water with an 1860 to 1 reduction in volume. This creates a near vacuum and opens the way to many interesting, practical uses, such as the pumping of water or other fluids in emergency situations, using the surrounding atmosphere to move the fluid".

Dr. Ellyett also wrote: "The gas generator can produce the gas rapidly as it is required. This obviates the need for heavy storage cylinders, with all the cost factors of transport to and from the working site.

"Alternatively, if storage is required, it can be achieved quite simply in the field. Non-continuous generators of electricity, such as solar photovoltaic cells or windmills, could create the Brown's Gas by electrolysis of water, and the gas could be stored as a source of energy for use at any future time. This would be particularly advantageous in remote areas, and would eliminate the use of storage batteries.

"Study of the calculations for the production of Brown's Gas by electrolysis indicates a highly efficient process; 1 kWh of electricity producing 340 liters of gas. Direct current is used for the electrolysis, so there is a small energy loss in converting from alternating current. The electrolysis itself is considered to be approximately 95% efficient, so the overall efficiency from an alternating current source is calculated to be in excess of 90%. The cost of Brown's Gas appears from observation and calculation to be many times cheaper than the cost of obtaining a similar quantity of bottled oxyacetylene or oxyhydrogen gases on-site."

Dr. John Bockris prepared comments following a comprehensive review and demonstration of Professor Brown's generator and the various heat and implosion characteristics of the gas. Dr. Bockris has a PH.D. from the University of London who was appointed to the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College, London in 1945. He organized a team of professors in electrode processes at Imperial College that resulted in significant new contributions to the field. In 1953 he was appointed a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he formed and led the Electrochemistry Laboratory and another team that made additional advances in the field of electrochemistry. In 1972 he became a professor at The Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia, where he continued his studies in photo-electrochemistry and the potential for a hydrogen economy.

Dr. Bockris is a founding member of the International Society of Electrochemistry and the International Association of Hydrogen Energy. He is an associate editor of four international energy journals, the author of several hundred research papers and some dozen books. He is widely considered a world authority on hydrogen and its potential use as an energy source.

Dr. Bockris prepared several research reports on Professor Brown's invention. In his July 1977 report, he observed the following: "I witnessed the welding of stainless steel. I also saw the hydrogen/oxygen mixture which came from the generator driving an internal combustion engine."

Dr. Bockris concluded in an August 1977 report, "I should think that a company making this device could take over the entire welding market in a few years, possible worldwide."

He continued to write about Professor Brown's invention in a report in 1978. He stated that, "there was no doubt whatsoever that the things which Mr. Yull Brown talks about are genuine." This was a letter to the Livestock & Grain Producer's Association of New South Wales. He had been asked to comment on the potential of using Professor Brown's technology for running tractors and farm machinery. He wrote: "As a Scientist who operates largely overseas, and has spent most of his life in the UK and the U.S., I am utterly flabbergasted that Mr. Yull Brown's inventions have lasted so long without their being exploited by Australian concerns. The general situation of Mr. Brown's inventions-the production of hydrogen from water, and the use of hydrogen as a fuel--is almost certainly some big part of the future..."

The Australian Welding Research Association issued a formal report on Professor Brown's Gas generator and its applications in 1977. The Association's study, which reviewed operational costs relative to oxyacetylene operational costs, stated: "In terms of costs of operation, even when an electrical inefficient welding transformer is employed, (Professor Brown's generator) is less expensive to operate than oxyacetylene..." The Welding Research Association indicated that "the production of explosive gas mixtures poses potential dangers. It is observed, however, that these have been given considerable attention in the design of the hydrogen/oxygen apparatus, which has received the approval of the appropriate authorities in New South Wales..."

Gerard P. Martins is a ten-year professor of metallurgy at the Colorado School of Mines. Mr. Martins prepared this report based in his visit and observation of a Brown's Gas demonstration of May 16, 1986;

Characteristics and Interactions of Flame with Solid Materials

A. A piece of 1/16" thick mild steel sheet was cut by 'burn through' of the steel as the torch was moved transversely across the sheet.

B. The flame was directed onto the surface of a refractory brick. An intense, bright spot was produced over the impingement region between the flame and the brick. Localized melting occurred and a glazed spot was observed on the brick.

C. The end of a piece of 1/8" diameter high alumina rod (melting point 2020 degrees C.), supplied by me, was contacted with the flame. The end 'melted' back to form a globule of molten material.

D. The end of a 1/8" wide strip of 0.010" thick tantalum (melting point 2996 degrees C.) metal sheet, also supplied by me, was contacted with the flame. A liquid phase was produced as the end of the strip 'melted' back.

"From the above qualitative observations, I concluded that the temperature, which was produced when the flame contacted these materials, could be as high as 6000 degrees C. based on the observations with tantalum, (d). The work melted as it appears in the above observation is used cautiously, since it is possible that chemical compounds could be formed during the contact with the flame, thus resulting in a melting point different to that of the original material. In addition, high luminosity was only produced when the flame contacted the surface of the materials tested."

Clifford E. Sawyer prepared a report on Professor Brown's Gas mixture in May 1986. Mr. Sawyer has national certificates in engineering and sciences and graduated from the Military College of Science prior to active service with the Canadian Army. He spent 22 years with the Ford Motor Company with broad manufacturing and senior management responsibilities. He also spent five years as vice president of industrial development at Brascan Ltd., with responsibility for the diversification of the Toronto-based multinational energy company. He is presently the president of Wespac Planning Corporation, with consulting assignments related to strategic planning and project evaluation for various companies, government agencies, and ministries. He serves as director for various publicly listed resources and manufacturing companies.

Mr. Sawyer observed Professor Brown's Gas demonstration over a two-week period. His report made the following comments: "In terms of usable energy sources, hydrogen offers a practical potential of more than 50,000 BTUs per pound compared, for example, to most coal, in the range of 10,000 to 12,000 BTUs per pound, and gasoline, in the 16,000 BTU-per-pound range. The problem which, in the past, has inhibited wider use of hydrogen as a viable fuel has concerned its volatility and practical problems involved in preventing an accidental mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the work area.

"There is convincing evidence that the combination of these two high potential energy gases has now been accomplished in Professor Brown's Gas to make available a safe and widely usable source of energy."

"The range of potential applications of the gas as an alternative energy source is extensive and will require considerable further research before all the opportunities can be described.”

"Furthermore, it is likely that the effective utilization of the amazing implosion effect of Brown's Gas will require the development and engineering of some entirely new devices.”

"However, additional time and expense for research and development is not anticipated in the case of flame welding and metal fabrication applications, where the very unusual qualities are believed to have the potential to impact the present practices and associated economics in a very substantial fashion.”

"The utilization of the gas as a source of process heat could be accomplished within a shortened period of time because standard types of welding and cutting equipment can be used as is or easily adapted.”

"From the reported direct experience of users of Brown's Gas in Australia and New Zealand, it is apparent that all the regular flame welding and gas cutting functions are feasible.”

"In addition, there are important cost saving advantages, particularly over the oxyacetylene and similar systems. For example, the delivered price of acetylene includes high distribution and delivery costs. It is premature to discuss specific policies with respect to pricing and distribution for Professor Brown's Gas. However, it is anticipated that the use of water and electricity as the 'raw materials' and the probability that the gas will be generated at, or close to, the point of use, should facilitate a reasonably competitive and profitable cost structure.”

"Another key advantage concerns safety. By nature, manufacture of the other commercial gases face problems of instability and are vulnerable to explosion after receiving the slightest shock. These gases are heavier than air, and if a leak occurs, the highly explosive gases will collect around the low point on the floor or in stairwells and are easily set off by a spark. In contrast, Brown's Gas is lighter than air and will easily disperse into the ambient air without help.”

"Finally, in terms of quality work standards, the cut edges produced by the gas are similar to those using oxyacetylene cutting systems. The capability to produce the same heat reactions underwater without creating special atmosphere bubbles will be of great significance to the field of underwater construction engineering."

Ronald B. Davis has had the opportunity to work as Professor Brown's assistant for approximately six years in Australia. He has an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Sydney University and a masters degree from the University of New South Wales. He was a visiting professor to the University of California, Berkeley, and is presently a lecturer in mathematics at the University of New South Wales. Mr. Davis made the following personal remarks about Professor Brown and his achievement; "Some of the applications of the implosion action of Brown's Gas that could be researched include pumping, marine motors, the transportation ability potential as a primary fuel, and an energy source for rocket propulsion. Safe storage of hydrogen in a bi-atomic state with oxygen as a self-contained fuel is a scientific break through that will fuel transportation on the ground, under the sea, in the air, and into space in future generations.

"In my opinion, Yull Brown could be called a 'living treasure' as described by the Japanese of their contemporaries having skills par excellence. Yull has the ability to mentally visualize very complicated atomic models at variance to the Bohr model, and to ‘see' interactions which would require a new look at quantum physics."


The gas burns with a clear flame. The gas generator supplies gas at 280 - 320 k PA (40 to 60 psi).

The flame contains hydrogen and oxygen and no other elements. The end product after burning = water (only H20).

The gas burns through a variety of nozzle sizes and presently can have a flame length of up to 400 mm.


Theoretical flame temperature is 2,210 to 2,900 degrees C. However, it changes with different applications. Tests have been made which exceed 6,000 degrees C. Further tests have been conducted indicating in excess of 8,400 degrees C. (8,400 C. = 15,152 F.).

The flame produced when Brown's Gas is ignited under 40 to 60 psi pressure is initially yellow in color and quickly reverts to a neutral blue cone with a long extension of a pale red/blue flame. There are several distinct regions, called mantles, within the flame's sheath. The remarkable property of this flame is that it is NOT formed as a set of explosions, but is formed as a set of implosions. Consequently, the classical theory of combustion products, highest temperature region and other specifics must be revised.

The central blue cone is the region separating the inner sustained vacuum from the continuously forming implosion produced and it is in this narrow hand that the novel combustion situation is sustained.

All fuel types, including gasoline, LPG, butane, propane, diesel fuel and natural gas have constant combustion or burn temperatures. Brown's Gas flame, upon application to an element or compound of elements, changes its temperature due to an interactive combustion property. This is the unique characteristic of Brown's Gas.

There is no theoretical temperature limit to the applied flame as the environment of the combustion will determine the extension of incremental calorific energy supplied. The outer mantles surrounding the blue cone region prevent oxygen from interfering in the combustion process. In fact, the mantles located within the central hot region form an inert substance as found in modern TIG and MIG welders.

In that each material, such as soil, rocks, metals or liquids have a different atomic makeup, each material will burn, liquefy or sublimate (turn into a gas form) at its own respective temperature. In each case, when Brown's Gas is administered to a material, the temperature of the Brown's Gas changes. To date, the capability to define the high end temperature of generated by the gas has not been possible due to the lack of appropriate testing equipment.

The flame produced from this gas is capable of drilling holes in high-temperature refractory products in seconds. It turns brick to glass.

To illustrate the temperature range, it is possible, using the same gas flame pressure (with no change in flow rate) to both (1) successfully weld aluminum sheet without a gas envelope at 660 degrees C. and (2) sublimate (vaporize) tungsten at approximately 6,000 degrees C. Again, this is accomplished in seconds with the same flame with no increase in volume. (See the Video tape).

The intriguing explanation for the large range of calorific response when the flame is applied to different materials is governed by the rate of mono-atomic absorption of hydrogen on the surface of these materials. For example, when the flame is applied to aluminum, white heat isn't the immediate reaction as it is when applied to brick. Instead, the flame may be shown to produce water on the aluminum by condensing the steam in the mantles on this hard conductive surface. The reasons for this low temperature reaction are three-fold.

A) The flame temperature is not high in its natural state. B) The aluminum is a good conductor of heat. C) The hydrogen in the heated region is only mildly absorbed into the aluminum.

However, when the flame is applied to tungsten, the heated metal surface readily absorbs mono-atomic hydrogen, thus releasing the additional calorific energy obtained from the interactive division and absorption as subsequent surfaces of the metal are exposed to the applied flame. The process accelerates under the high temperature build-up, coupled with the shielding effect of the surrounding mantles of water which, incidentally, are poor absorbers of hydrogen.

The salient features of this combustion process are that nascent hydrogen is readily absorbed in most elements, and especially when this reaction occurs with a neutral flame and water is re-cycles through dissociation caused at elevated temperatures within that environment.


DC power conversion efficiency to thermal energy of the produced gas is 95%. AC to DC conversion may be as high as 98%; so the maximum efficiency of the gas production from AC supply is 91.3%. A focal factor of this system is its ability to produce gas immediately (and cheaply) on demand as required. Inherent problems of storage and loss by leakage are not relevant. The neutral flame of the gas is important for welding and also as a clean heat source of energy capable of replacing fossil fuels.


Totally new vacuum technology is now possible using the implosion of Brown's Gas. The vacuum is produced with no contaminants whatsoever. No other technique for producing a vacuum of such a high purity in such a short period of time with inexpensive equipment exists. Cost of operation is an order of magnitude below existing vacuum systems.


If Brown's Gas is exposed to a heat source, it will expand. Implosion of this expanded gas will utilize atmospheric pressure. Numerous pumping applications and the development of atmospheric implosion motors are the result.

Implosion, as a single reaction, only occurs with this gas and is impossible with other known substances!

When Brown's Gas burns, it turns into water. When it is produced from water using electrolysis, it expands 1,860 to 1.

Implosion is achieved with a high frequency spark of 9,000 Volts or higher. When subjected to electric ignition. it uniquely implodes (patented in March, 1990 after 8 years process time) producing a near perfect vacuum. Upon implosion, vacuum is 1,859. The remaining "1" becomes once again a pure form of water. Only a low decibel "ping" accompanies the implosion.

The speed of detonation (or burn rate) is greater than 3,600 meters per second. There is no contraction - expansion effect when the gas is imploded only contraction. Little heat is lost to the equipment in an implosion cycle. The low cost of gas production than ensures an inexpensive method for production of ultra high vacuum.


1 Liter H20 expands to 1,860 Liters of Brown's Gas.

1 kWh creates = 340 Liters of Brown's Gas.

1,860 divided by 340 = 5.47 kWh.

Example.- 5.47 kWh X 0.084 cents = 0.459 cents for 1,860 Liters of Brown's Gas.

(NOTE: Cost per kWh depending upon locality).

Losses are dependent upon where DC energy is acquired.

More information at Better World Technologies

Mark said...

And I think that the Brown's Gas process can help us understand the mere chemical nuclear effects interactions seen in 'cold fusion'. The creation of a instant vacuum is the constant that seems to touch on the zero point energy and allows it to burst through, whether in cold fusion (done with high frequency in the liquids and special sized pellets to create the cavitation sometimes--that's a common theme in all the various places that it's been reported). The high temp vacuum state when the hydrogen and oxygen burn/implode in Brown's Gas seems to generate the same physics/cold fusion noted effects.

Just an observation. Watch the cold fusion video if you haven't seen it, and think about the chemical/nuclear effects of Brown's gas (for nuclear waste remediation for instance)...

The chemists don't talk to the physicists and the physicists don't talk to the chemists, though there is a world of interactive chemical/nuclear interactions out there that the academic separations are keeping us in the dark about.

The War Against Cold Fusion [part 1 of 5]
[originally from the Phenomenon Files entitled Heavy Watergate: The War Against Cold Fusion]
10 minutes

Hydrogen leak testing said...

Brown's Gas flame, changes its temperature, upon application to an element or compound of elements, due to an interactive combustion property and this property makes it unique.