Sunday, June 3, 2007

34. Energy

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(thermodynamics (including mechanical/kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, sound, elastic, light, and electromagnetic energy [oil, solar, electromagnetic dynamos, compressed air engines, magnetic motors, wood, electrogravitics, nuclear, cold fusion, water based electrolysis engines, hydro/waterpower, charcoal, horse power, human labor, chemical reactions, etc.] and non-thermodynamic sources [zero point field]

Mylow's copy of Howard Johnson's Magnetic Motor
[Magnetic Motor, Working Copy of Howard Johnson's 1980's device (see comments below)]

Who Killed the Electric Car? Documentary (part 1 of 10)

International car companies of General Motors, Ford, Crysler, Honda, Toyota and Nissan all had completely electric cars 10 years ago; they failed to tell everybody they were mass manufacturing completely electric cars, because they only leased a few for the California market and then the suppliers destroyed their creations despite massive consumer support; now they hypocritically pretend they never existed; demand consumer alternatives that break energy clientelism because alternatives exist and a variety of consumer choices makes a better world and removes some of the corrupt raw material regimes directly responsible for environmental degradation.




To introduce this section, energy is perhaps the most politically contentious raw material arrangement for two rationales. First, it is because there is so much money and dependency to be created in energy. Second, it is because none of that centralization or dependency is required. Only massive amounts of political corruption hold it in place as raw material regimes that hold off consumer choices in the interest of achieving consumer clientelism and power in that way in a forced (non)-choice. It's like having a (non) 'choice' of 20 different brands of gasoline without having a choice in what engines run on, in your car.

Who Killed the WATER Car? Part 2 of 6 [part 1 of 6 was deleted, still lots of examples of the above]

"Oil company murdered family. A friend of mine bought a car from an old lady. She said she was selling because she was moving out of the country. Her son a Geologist, daughter in law, and baby were found murdered. She said they were killed because her son refused to falsify oil survey findings. He son called her and told her he was in fear for his life. He and his family were killed shortly thereafter. She was so upset that she was becoming a missionary assistant and moving to the Philippines. Here are some clips that prove what she is saying. These clips are not directly related, but it shows how inventors are murdered or suppressed [and how energy is available everywhere without the energy clientelism to transnational corporations or the ideologies they implant in your mind that they are required, or the myth that 'energy is running out' to justify their high price regimes and extraordinary clientelistic profits by destroying competitive market choices]."




Below is a short video for you. It is from Greenpeace-UK, and talks exclusively about the UK except for a short trip to Finland. However, it addresses an issue that resonates worldwide: degradative subsidizations in risky, overpriced, energy production technology while easy economies of abundant energies are all around us. Thus the video's title: "The Convenient Solution." However it a good introduction to raw material regimes and how the principle is applicable in many other environmentally degradative relationships in other raw material categories, instead of only this thread of energy.

The video focuses on how subsidies toward institutionalizing massive pollution and nonrenewables are quite silly when you look at their economic and environmental costs.

It is doubly silly when solutions are so cheap and so quickly possible to bring online to replace these environmentally degradative sources of power.

In many of the links below in this category, it shows how we are hardly 'running out of energy'. To paraphrase something Buckminister Fuller noted years ago, instead of a scarcity of energy, there is only a scarcity of intelligence, invention, and inspiration.

There is more energy being made all around you (as below links show) that most ever imagine. Therefore, ideas of "energy running out and making itself costly" is just a corporate advertising--a softening up campaign to bilk consumers of millions and billions of dollars in wasteful investments that are unrequired. Far more "convenient solutions" are around us all the while. The other propoganda campaign so closely connected to the one about "energy running out" is that "energy production is innately polluting"--which is untrue as well.

And technology keeps getting better. The "so 2006"-looking wind turbines in the video below--or the image above just about to take flight--may have just been replaced entirely. Far more quiet, far more efficient, far more bird-and-bat-friendly 'stormblade' turbine ideas have just been invented. Search for that below. In other words, concentrate on thinking about the energy source, instead of fixating on a particular technology used to tap it--since the technology is endlessly improvable.

The Convenient Solution (The Economics of Abundant Renewables vs. Non-Required Unrenewables)
Greenpeace UK
9 min 27 sec




A related presentation is "Decentralised Energy" in the UK Magazine The Ecologist's first podcast for 2008. In that podcast, "Phil England talks about decentralised energy and in particular the inefficiency of current production methods where 60% power generated is lost, and the benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) [mentioned in the video as well above] where heat from generation is used to warm the houses that surround the plant. Click here to download (MP3; 22.5 MB; 24:34 min)

An interesting four short videos below reveal a brilliant cross-over example mixing several consumptive use categories: waste remediation, energy generation, and water purification all in one! Any applications from implosive, water based energy is a very green technology on many levels. This is additionally known as Brown's Gas generation for energy though it is not mentioned in the first video in that name.

This entry by Xogen Technologies (an outfit whose technology is slightly connected with the late water-car inventor Stan Meyer), provides a form of energy generation that is modular, localizable to a watershed, and thus an ingenious application of sustainable technology. It can additionally make use of an energy technology's by-product effects (clean water and energy) to conduct waste water treatment or space heating. Talk about solving many issues at once! It works so well that a lot of "hate webpages" about this technology have sprung up recently--creating a disinformation campaign about it. I take that later development as a sign it works "too well"--too well for those elite groups that stand to lose big when we switch to sustainable technologies.

Xogen Technology's Oxy Hydrogen Process (Water Fuel Cell)
8:25 min



This special stoichiometric mix of oxygen and hydrogen yields an implosive, hotter flame-- from mere tap water. It is better known as Brown's Gas. It is the same mixture generated in the video above as the one below--just with a different technology to generate the same special mixture:

Brown's Gas Generators
8:40 min




A poorly recorded video quickly explains the physics of this strange oxygen/hydrogen implosive combustion that only occurs at a particular ratio known as Brown's Gas:

Brown's Gas - Implosion of Water
9:23 min



Another company from Taiwan is manufacturing these oxy-hydrogen generators (i.e., Brown's Gas mixtures for massive energy on demand from tap water). I particularly like the "EP-200"--the homey-looking domestic stove with flames running from burning water instead of natural gas! (That is about five minutes into it for that.)

Epoch Energy Technology Corporation (Oxy-Hydrogen Generators from Water Fuel)
8:29 min




Since much political corruption flows from consumptive clientelism across ostensible political borders, it turns into the 'real' political borders through these tendrils of material dependence.

Therefore, all material and technological changes toward sustainability in the bioregional state should be judged on how well then can be decentralized as much as materially sustainable--optimized to a particular watershed or bioregional area's own sustainability.

In other words, this decentralized material sustainability is its own political sustainability. This means judging novel technologies and materials on more than simply soft sustainability (material sustainability), it means hard sustainability that integrates a degree of judgment on whether the technology or material can be implemented locally and in a decentralized fashion to avoid future cross-border political economic dependences that become the source of corruption in the watershed, and soon a source of a political developmentalism that encourages more unsustainability through more political corruption, etc., in a feedback loop of corruption that is political and material. Many of the examples below or in the videos above fulfill this hard sustainability.

Another example that fulfills modular, localized technologies of cheap, inexhaustible energy generation would be the tabletop chemistry effects that generate non-radioactive nuclear level heat effects: otherwise dubbed 'cold fusion.'


Heavy Watergate: The War Against Cold Fusion [part 1 of 5]
10:54 min



And cold fusion seems to be some sort of similar zero point energy effect. I think that the Brown's Gas process can help us understand the mere-chemical nuclear effects interactions seen in 'cold fusion'.

The creation of a instant vacuum is the constant that seems to touch on the zero point energy and allow it to burst through whether in cold fusion (done with high frequency in the liquids and special sized pellets to create the cavitation sometimes--that vacuum/cavitation is a common theme in all the various places that the massive energy has been reported from Brown's Gas to cold fusion.)

The high temperature vacuum state when the hydrogen and oxygen burn/implode in Brown's Gas seems to generate the same physics/cold fusion noted effects. Just an observation. Watch the cold fusion video if you haven't seen it, and think about the chemical/nuclear energy scales of Brown's Gas's implosion or even its nuclear modulation effects itself (Brown's Gas heat causing chemistry-only reduction in nuclear radiation wastes for instance, within minutes)...

The chemists don't talk to the physicists, and the physicists don't talk to the chemists, though there is a world of interactive chemical/nuclear interactions out there that the academic separations are keeping us in the dark about. The general point is that pollution is unrequired for energy generation in any of the examples mentioned here.

FREE ENERGY: THE RACE TO ZERO POINT (1 of 11)
9:57 min



"I trust you are aware that we are being controlled in every area of our lives"--says speaker/author Lindsey Williams. I post his talk less because I agree with his sentiment of 'go get that classified oil', though to show that he is right when he says oil is a political weapon. However, it is only a political weapon if our technologies require it. Once we institutionalize many of the working technologies in this thread, the politics supporting a heavily polluting oil and coal era will be at a close.

Lindsay Williams on The Energy Non-Crisis
75 min




Though oil fails to be required to be a political weapon. It can be green--made in biodiesel. One of the difficulties with biodiesel is that it is unethically linked to making cars compete for food with people. However, that fails to have to happen.

The following ideas from Valcent Products is for biodiesel (however much biodiesel in the long run is unrequired). The following short video demonstrates a workable model. As an introduction to that video:

"The Vertigro process, a joint venture between Global Green Solutions Inc. and Valcent Products Inc., is now mass producing rapidly-growing algae to be used as biofuel feedstock and ingredients in food, pharmaceutical and health and beauty products. Requiring minimal water and land usage, Vertigro algae is the ultimate renewable energy."

It is an interesting 'green bridge technology' to allow green conversion of current pollutive rock oil technological complex arrangement for petroleum that the physical plant of cars and other oil based frameworks utilize. It still keeps their economic value so switching can be quick. Their idea is to let algae lipids could go into it. This algae-based biodiesel is far more efficient and less politically suspect because it avoids having cars compete with starving people for food. Corn or sugar biodiesel is a terrible idea, immoral and inefficient.

Why algae? First, it's an efficient choice. He claims algae is the fastest growing plant, so it's almost destined to be biodiesel standard. Several "oil" (petroleum) companies are rapidly becoming lipid companies, like Royal Dutch Shell and Galp oil companies pilot plants for algae biodiesel, both announced in the past year. (More about that is in the comments below).

Second, algae is ideal for biodiesel because it produces a lot of lipids--we can make oil directly from it, and from the waste could make ethnanol as well! Almost 50% of algae is a high grade lipid that can be used for a variety of purposes.

Third, because of this algae immediately outclasses wasteful corn or sugar ethanol for biodiesel. He claims that an acre of corn can only grow 18 gallons of oil per acre per year. He describes the next highest, most currently prevalent, is palm oil: it's only 700 gallons of oil per acre per year. With algae, 20,000 gallons of oil per acre per year is possible--and that's just "natural algae production" in an open pond system. This featured technique would be hugely higher in production for the rationales that he describes.

Fourth, with this technology, we can be selective for what carbon chains enter production: if you want bio-jet fuel just put in a different species of algae that makes that type of lipids/carbon chain; want a different carbon chain, put in another algae for making lipids for gasoline. So lipid/algae production can be tailored to the final application. Genetically engineered algae should be avoided: we should institutionalize ourselves into current ecologies and find ways of living together in mutual dependencies instead of manufacturing an artificial lifeworld that destroys the current ecological fabric.

Fifth, it would make sulfur free diesel--cutting down on S02 smog.

The commodity ecology rationale for this is that it is a biological loop that has benefits even from its wastes. One of its effects is that it sequesters carbon (CO2) from the atmosphere in the production cycle. The second good point is that wastes are products: after the lipids are extracted, the wastes can go into [1] animal feedstocks, [2] soil remediation for fertilizer, [3] and then you could even make ethanol from the waste as well. He claims that currently unproductive desert areas could be utilized for this: 1/10 of the area of New Mexico desert could meet the energy requirements for oil for the entire United States.

Vertical Algae biofuel Growing (see description and invest) [I have no financial connections to this company]
3:17 min




Two more comments. The first is that the best thing is that it is a useful bridge technology to existing structures. Critiques about the high maintenance of its facilities I think would be solved by its huge profitability and efficiency. Another concluding point I like about it is that it exemplifies an ideal: it institutionalizes choice in supply lines with scaled technological production--something that is very rare to have technology encourage ongoing material choices and adjustment instead of enslaving us to a particular choice of the past. Typically most technological arrangements are designed around exclusively one particular crop or extraction at scale. It is so wonderfully rare it is worth showing this other ideal: a tech arrangement that allows ongoing choice to be institutionalized in the arrangement instead of dependency. It's a flexible technological scaled production, a multi-choice arrangement. And it's green. And it's now.

130 comments:

Mark said...

Personally, I agree with the sentiment that 'hybrids' are only oil/gas hanging on like grim death when it is unrequired. However, this just shows how much tinkering can be accomplished with the half-electric 'hybrids'.


250 miles per gallon? They're doing it
Tinkerers fiddle with hybrids to increase efficiency

Monday, August 15, 2005; Posted: 4:25 p.m. EDT (20:25 GMT)

Gremban
Ron Gremban works with the 18 extra batteries in his Toyota Prius. The power boosts the car's mileage to 80 miles per gallon.
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Gallery: Boosting hybrid efficiency
• CalCars Initiativeexternal link
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CORTE MADERA, California (AP) -- Politicians and automakers say a car that can both reduce greenhouse gases and free America from its reliance on foreign oil is years or even decades away.

Ron Gremban says such a car is parked in his garage.

It looks like a typical Toyota Prius hybrid, but in the trunk sits an 80-miles-per-gallon secret -- a stack of 18 brick-sized batteries that boosts the car's high mileage with an extra electrical charge so it can burn even less fuel.

Gremban, an electrical engineer and committed environmentalist, spent several months and $3,000 tinkering with his car.

Like all hybrids, his Prius increases fuel efficiency by harnessing small amounts of electricity generated during braking and coasting. The extra batteries let him store extra power by plugging the car into a wall outlet at his home in this San Francisco suburb -- all for about a quarter.

He's part of a small but growing movement. "Plug-in" hybrids aren't yet cost-efficient, but some of the dozen known experimental models have gotten up to 250 mpg.

They have support not only from environmentalists but also from conservative foreign policy hawks who insist Americans fuel terrorism through their gas guzzling.

And while the technology has existed for three decades, automakers are beginning to take notice, too.

So far, DaimlerChrysler AG is the only company that has committed to building its own plug-in hybrids, quietly pledging to make up to 40 vans for U.S. companies. But Toyota Motor Corp. officials who initially frowned on people altering their cars now say they may be able to learn from them.

"They're like the hot rodders of yesterday who did everything to soup up their cars. It was all about horsepower and bling-bling, lots of chrome and accessories," said Cindy Knight, a Toyota spokeswoman. "Maybe the hot rodders of tomorrow are the people who want to get in there and see what they can do about increasing fuel economy."
Plugged or unplugged?

The extra batteries let Gremban drive for 20 miles with a 50-50 mix of gas and electricity. Even after the car runs out of power from the batteries and switches to the standard hybrid mode, it gets the typical Prius fuel efficiency of around 45 mpg. As long as Gremban doesn't drive too far in a day, he says, he gets 80 mpg.

"The value of plug-in hybrids is they can dramatically reduce gasoline usage for the first few miles every day," Gremban said. "The average for people's usage of a car is somewhere around 30 to 40 miles per day. During that kind of driving, the plug-in hybrid can make a dramatic difference."
batteries
Gremban promotes the CalCars Initiative, a volunteer effort encouraging automakers to make plug-in hybrids.

Backers of plug-in hybrids acknowledge that the electricity to boost their cars generally comes from fossil fuels that create greenhouse gases, but they say that process still produces far less pollution than oil. They also note that electricity could be generated cleanly from solar power.

Gremban rigged his car to promote the nonprofit CalCars Initiative, a San Francisco Bay area-based volunteer effort that argues automakers could mass produce plug-in hybrids at a reasonable price.

But Toyota and other car companies say they are worried about the cost, convenience and safety of plug-in hybrids -- and note that consumers haven't embraced all-electric cars because of the inconvenience of recharging them like giant cell phones.

Automakers have spent millions of dollars telling motorists that hybrids don't need to be plugged in, and don't want to confuse the message.

Nonetheless, plug-in hybrids are starting to get the backing of prominent hawks like former CIA director James Woolsey and Frank Gaffney, President Reagan's undersecretary of defense. They have joined Set America Free, a group that wants the government to spend $12 billion over four years on plug-in hybrids, alternative fuels and other measures to reduce foreign oil dependence.

Gaffney, who heads the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Security Policy, said Americans would embrace plug-ins if they understood arguments from him and others who say gasoline contributes to oil-rich Middle Eastern governments that support terrorism.

"The more we are consuming oil that either comes from places that are bent on our destruction or helping those who are ... the more we are enabling those who are trying to kill us," Gaffney said.
Now vs. later

DaimlerChrysler spokesman Nick Cappa said plug-in hybrids are ideal for companies with fleets of vehicles that can be recharged at a central location at night. He declined to name the companies buying the vehicles and said he did not know the vehicles' mileage or cost, or when they would be available.

Others are modifying hybrids, too.

Monrovia-based Energy CS has converted two Priuses to get up to 230 mpg by using powerful lithium ion batteries. It is forming a new company, EDrive Systems, that will convert hybrids to plug-ins for about $12,000 starting next year, company vice president Greg Hanssen said.

University of California, Davis, engineering professor Andy Frank built a plug-in hybrid from the ground up in 1972 and has since built seven others, one of which gets up to 250 mpg. They were converted from non-hybrids, including a Ford Taurus and Chevrolet Suburban.

Frank has spent $150,000 to $250,000 in research costs on each car, but believes automakers could mass-produce them by adding just $6,000 to each vehicle's price tag.

Instead, Frank said, automakers promise hydrogen-powered vehicles hailed by President Bush and Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, even though hydrogen's backers acknowledge the cars won't be widely available for years and would require a vast infrastructure of new fueling stations.

"They'd rather work on something that won't be in their lifetime, and that's this hydrogen economy stuff," Frank said. "They pick this kind of target to get the public off their back, essentially."

2005 The Associated Press.

Mark said...

[And the raw material regime of oil of course keeps mass production from occurring in this, though literally any child could do it in their backyard...]

High School Sophomore
Builds Model Hydrogen Car
By Kelsey Warner
Cortez Journal
5-10-2005


CORTEZ - While Micah Hinton aspires to be a heavy metal drummer, his real talent may be for engineering.

The sophomore at Southwest Open School in Cortez demonstrated this recently when he built a model car powered by hydrogen and placed it on display in a gallery at the school.

Hinton first suggested the idea while studying renewable energy in a class combining science and math taught by Colin Biard.

The notion baffled the teacher. "I never knew they existed," Biard said.

Hinton's car - about the size of a football - runs on distilled water. A solar panel provides energy to begin the reaction that splits hydrogen from water. The car is so efficient it can even motor and create hydrogen at the same time.

"When it's running, it's making water," Biard said. "When it's stopping, it's turning it back into hydrogen."

As a result, the fuel source is never depleted, and the car never needs a fill-up.

"It lasts forever," said Hinton, 15. "It will run off pure hydrogen."

Of course, he said, a life-sized version could look a bit different.

"On a commercial level, you're actually combusting hydrogen," Hinton said, so a solar panel would not be necessary.

During the six-week project, Hinton learned basic electrolysis and a little physics.

"It's interesting to me that you can use water as fuel," he said.

His teacher offered an additional review.

"This is an amazing gizmo," Biard said. "Micah had a lot of fun doing it."

http://durangoherald.com/asp-bin/article

Mark said...

Solar Panels May Get Five Times More Efficient
CTV.ca
1-12-2005

TORONTO (CP) -- Researchers at the University of Toronto have invented an infrared-sensitive material that's five times more efficient at turning the sun's power into electrical energy than current methods.

The discovery could lead to shirts and sweaters capable of recharging our cellphones and other wireless devices, said Ted Sargent, professor of electrical and computer engineering at the university.

Sargent and other researchers combined specially-designed minute particles called quantum dots, three to four nanometres across, with a polymer to make a plastic that can detect energy in the infrared.

Infrared light is not visible to the naked eye but it is what most remote controls emit, in small amounts, to control devices such as TVs and DVD players.

It also contains a huge untapped resource -- despite the surge in popularity of solar cells in the 1990s, we still miss half of the sun's power, Sargent said.

"In fact, there's enough power from the sun hitting the Earth every day to supply all the world's needs for energy 10,000 times over," Sargent said in a phone interview Sunday from Boston. He is currently a visiting professor of nanotechnology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Sargent said the new plastic composite is, in layman's terms, a layer of film that "catches" solar energy. He said the film can be applied to any device, much like paint is coated on a wall.

"We've done the same thing, but not with something that just sit there on the wall the way paint does," said the Ottawa native.

"We've done it to make a device which actually harnesses the power in the room in the infrared."

The film can convert up to 30 per cent of the sun's power into usable, electrical energy. Today's [as of 2005, it's much larger now in 2007] best plastic solar cells capture only about six per cent.


Sargent said the advance would not only wipe away that inefficiency, but also resolve the hassle of recharging our countless gadgets and pave the way to a true wireless world.

"We now have our cellphones and our BlackBerries and we're walking around without the need to plug in, in order to get our data," he said.

"But we seem trapped at the moment in needing to plug in to get our power. That's because we charge these things up electrically, from the outlet. But there's actually huge amounts of power all around us coming from the sun."

The film has the ability to be sprayed or woven into shirts so that our cuffs or collars could recharge our IPods, Sargent said.

While that may sound like a Star Trek dream, venture capitalists are keen to Sargent's invention.

Josh Wolfe, managing partner at Lux Capital, a New York City-based venture capital firm, said while such a luxury may be five years away, the technology knows no bounds.

"When you have a material advance which literally materially changes the way that energy is absorbed and transmitted to our devices... somebody out there tinkering away in a bedroom or in a government lab is going to come up with a great idea for a new device that will shock us all," he said in a phone interview.

"When the Internet was created nobody envisioned that the killer app (application) would be e-mail or instant messaging."

Sargent's work was published in the online edition of Nature Materials on Sunday and will appear in its February issue.

2005 Bell Globemedia Inc.

http://www.ctv.ca
http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1105319242587_49?hub=SciTech

Mark said...

[composting and energy; a lot of fruit goes to waste worldwide in shipment and lost sales and simply because once it gets there no one buys it...]

Aussie scientists go bananas over energy idea

Scientists in Australia have found that rotten bananas could provide enough energy for 500 homes.

A government-funded study is investigating the possibility of using the rotten fruit, says The Guardian.

The idea would see the bananas combined with bacteria to produce methane. Pipes would then take the gas to a turbine which could be plugged into the electric grid.

Tony Heidrich, chief executive of the Australian Banana Growers' Council, said: "It's not a hoax."

He added: "Essentially it's just like a big composting bin. It's a waste product and currently we're not doing anything else with it. This would harness the electrical capacity that it can bring."

However, he said, homes powered by other fruit, like apricots or pineapples, were some way off. "Initially, I think they will stick to bananas, but potentially you could use other fruit," he said.


---

Bananas Could Power
Aussie Homes
BBC News
8-28-4

Australian engineers have created an electricity generator fuelled by decomposing bananas, and hope to build a full size fruit-fired power station.

At present, much of Australia's annual banana crop goes to waste, because the fruit are too bruised or small.

But rather than just letting them rot, the researchers would like to put the rejects to good commercial use.

If all goes according to plan, a banana-fuelled power plant capable of powering 500 homes could be built.

Mountains of waste

Engineering lecturer Bill Clarke, from the University of Queensland, said he hit upon the unusual idea when the Australian Banana Growers' Council approached him, looking for ways to use a mountain of waste fruit.

"In North Queensland, bananas are abundantly available and could be a great source of renewable energy," Dr Clarke said.

About one third of tropical Queensland's banana crop - which is more than 20,000 tonnes a year - never makes it into the shops.
Normally they are just left to rot on the ground, but Dr Clarke says this damages the soil - and wastes a potentially useful resource.
He has successfully used bananas to generate electricity in the laboratory, and is assessing whether a power plant could be commercially viable.
Dr Clarke lets the bananas decompose in sealed vats and uses the methane from the rotting fruit to power an electricity turbine.
So far so good, but the real test is whether this idea can be a commercial winner.

"We don't know yet whether bananas are a cost-effective energy source," said Dr Clarke. "So my research parameters are designed to discover how long it will take to convert the bananas to methane, and how much methane is produced."
His work involves mashing, pulping and shredding waste bananas to find the most efficient way to make them decompose - as well as adding enzymes to speed things up.

Viable energy

Dr Clarke says he will know by February of next year whether bananas are a viable energy source.
If they are, the banana industry will consider building a banana-fuelled power plant that could bring power to 500 homes.
Electricity generated at the plant would be sold to the national grid, providing banana growers with an additional source of income.
However Dr Clarke admits this technology has a flaw: it takes an awful lot of bananas to generate a small amount of power.
He said: "60kg of bananas are needed to power a household appliance such as a fan heater for 30 hours."

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3604666.stm

Mark said...

Dennis Lee's all magnetic asymmetrical rotary 'hummingbird engine'

Mark said...

Could A 200-Yr-Old
Engine Solve Our Gas Crisis?
By James Reynolds
The Scotsman - UK
6-6-2004

A little-known invention by a Church of Scotland minister almost 200 years ago could help to reduce the world's insatiable and ever-growing appetite for oil.

As prices on the oil markets continue to approach their highest for 21 years - threatening a repeat of the fuel protests of four years ago - a leading expert on the Stirling engine has claimed it could reduce petrol and diesel consumption in motor vehicles by more than half.

Dr Peter Waddell, a retired reader in mechanical engineering at Strathclyde University, believes the internal combustion engine - workhorse of the western world for more than a century - could be replaced by a modern interpretation of Robert Stirling's 1812 engine.
He claims that, using new advances in technology, the Stirling engine could easily match a modern petrol or diesel engine of a similar capacity, but with an improvement in efficiency of about 30 per cent.

Robert Stirling was a Church of Scotland minister who invented the Stirling engine because steam engines of his day often blew up, killing and maiming people who happened to be close by.

His new type of engine could not explode and produced more power than steam engines then in use. In 1816 he received his first patent for a new type of "air engine".

The engines he built and those that followed eventually became known as "hot air engines" and continued to be called that until the 1940s when other gases such as helium and hydrogen were used as the working fluid. As opposed to the modern internal combustion engine, the Stirling engine is an external combustion engine and uses the "Stirling Cycle".

This means that the gases inside never leave the engine. There are no exhaust valves that vent high-pressure gases, as in a petrol or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place. Because of this, Stirling engines are very quiet.

Although they have very limited application in their present stage of development, they are used in some submarines, refrigerators and auxiliary power units for yachts.

The Stirling Cycle uses an external heat source - which could be anything from petrol to solar energy to the heat produced by decaying plants. No combustion takes place inside the cylinders of the engine.

However, until recently the main problem with the technology was that engineers could never get any power out of them.

Dr Waddell said: "The problem is that you have to work under pressure. As the pressure increases the power output does so dramatically as well.

"But as helium is prohibitively expensive, you have an enclosed mass of hydrogen under high pressure.

"If that leaks out and there is a spark you are on potentially lethal ground. It would cause a catastrophic explosion."

Rubber seals to prevent the gas leakage were always seen as the Achilles heel of the Stirling engine, as they leaked under pressure, posing significant danger.

Using liquid sealant, Dr Waddell and his research team at Strathclyde University cracked the problem to the point where they could "blow the engine apart due to pressure, without losing any of the volatile gas".

He added: "Having discovered the key to working the engine under high pressure we started to get absolutely brilliant results, and proved the principle that it works.

"It would be totally feasible to make the Stirling engine work now.
"Ford gave up in the early 1990s because they could not seal the hydrogen under high pressure.

"With our success it has already been proven that, cylinder capacity to cylinder capacity, you could get as much power out of a Stirling as you could with a petrol engine.
"The problem was that it would cost a pile of money to re-tool up to build Stirling engines," said Dr Waddell.

"It is as good as the petrol or diesel engine and could replace the current internal combustion engine in most cars without any problem at all."

2004 Scotsman.com

http://news.scotsman.com/scitech.cfm?id=637532004&20040606212053

Mark said...

The Mad Genius from the Bottom of the Sea

Unlimited energy. Fast-growing fruit. Free air-conditioning. John Piña Craven says we can have it all by tapping the icy waters of the deep.

By Carl Hoffman

Feature:
The Mad Genius from the Bottom of the Sea
Plus:
Creating a Deep-Sea Oasis on Dry Land

Halfway through an important lunch meeting in Kona, Hawaii, with the lieutenant governor of the Northern Mariana Islands, John Piña Craven is suddenly restless. The topic under discussion is Craven's plan to use cold water pumped up from the deep ocean to provide low-cost and environmentally sustainable power, water, and food to a new residential and commercial development in the Marianas, a chain of islands some 3,000 miles to the west. But none of his colleagues expect Craven to schmooze anyway, so he ditches the group and heads to the restaurant's parking lot.

Craven, who will soon turn 80, moves at a brisk shuffle, his black sneakers taking two steps for every one of mine. Back and forth we pace, like inmates in a jail yard. Craven's mind is already way beyond the Marianas project. "I've decided to run a marathon to demonstrate my newest innovation," he says. "You see, I apply cold temperatures to different parts of my body in three bastings. The third is the most complicated - I ice the terminuses of my lymphatic system. My body heals itself. Look at these hands," he says, opening and closing his fists. "I have no joint pain of any kind!"

Craven may sound like a brilliant psychotic, but he's got plenty of credentials: a PhD in ocean engineering, a law degree, and a stint as chief scientist for the US Navy's Special Projects Office. There he was instrumental in developing the Polaris missile program, the submarine-based backbone of America's nuclear deterrence and one of the most complex defense systems ever. In fact, most deep-ocean activities - saturation diving, exploring with submersibles, searching for tiny objects on the ocean floor - owe their origins to top secret, cold war-era Navy projects in which Craven had a hand.

A polymath who is as comfortable talking about the Law of the Sea as he is the plumbing nightmares inherent when 200 men a day urinate in a submarine, Craven is hard to keep up with. His mind darts from why the Navy should make subs out of glass to the sad end of his long telephone friendship with the late Marlon Brando to the remarkable prodigiousness of his small experimental Hawaiian vineyard. "One week the plants have no leaves," he says, "the next they just go zing, zing, zing and are full of fruit!"

The grapes are a key part of his plan, through his Common Heritage Corporation, to build communities around the world sustained by deep-ocean water, starting on the Mariana island of Saipan. And he's not doing it just out of the goodness of his heart. "I fully intend for CHC to be a multibillion-dollar corporation," Craven says.

His grand plan could come across as a bar-stool fantasy, but it's already won $75 million from Alpha Pacific, a Memphis, Tennessee, venture capital firm, and $1.5 million in federal funds. Craven hopes that within a year, bulldozers will begin clearing land on Saipan and engineers will start sinking a pipe to pump icy water from the ocean depths to produce electricity and freshwater. And back in Kona, Craven expects to use cold-water agriculture to transform five acres of otherwise barren lava fields into the world's most productive vineyard. "The economics are absurd," he boasts. "Once we prove the technology on Saipan, imagine what it could do for places like Haiti!"

Craven's system exploits the dramatic temperature difference between ocean water below 3,000 feet - perpetually just above freezing - and the much warmer water and air above it. That temperature gap can be harnessed to create a nearly unlimited supply of energy. Although the scientific concepts behind cold-water energy have been around for decades, Craven made them real when he founded the state-funded Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii in 1974 on Keahole Point, near Kona. Under Craven, the lab developed the process of using cold deep-ocean water and hot surface water to produce electricity. By the 1980s the Natural Energy Lab's demonstration plant was generating net power, the world's first through so-called ocean thermal energy conversion.

"The potential of OTEC is great," says Joseph Huang, a senior scientist for the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration and an expert on the process. "The oceans are the biggest solar collector on Earth, and there's enough energy in them to supply a thousand times the world's needs. If you want to depend on nature, the oceans are the only energy source big enough to tap."

Stephen Oney, vice president of Ocean Engineering and Energy Systems in Honolulu, which will design CHC's Saipan pipes, agrees: "The technology is there, and the science is there. It just needs to be improved." Oney, who recently inked a deal with the Pentagon to build an OTEC power plant for a US naval base on the Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia, envisions a day when floating OTEC platforms produce enough hydrogen to meet all of the world's energy needs.

Craven likes the way they think, but he believes there are simpler, cheaper, and more immediate applications of cold-water technology. He favors building systems in ideal locations, such as islands adjacent to deep water with no continental shelf. Sink a big pipe, crank a pump, and - voilà! - you've entered a world powered by ocean water. Once primed, the pipe acts like a giant siphon, requiring relatively little energy to keep an inexhaustible supply of cold at hand. Already, 39-degree-Fahrenheit water courses through the Natural Energy Lab's newest pipe - a 55-inch-diameter, 9,000-foot-long polyethylene behemoth - at the rate of 27,000 gallons a minute, 24 hours a day.

Running the frigid pipes through heat exchangers produces unlimited air-conditioning that costs almost nothing. Draining their sweat yields an endless supply of freshwater for drinking and irrigation. The cold water also creates a temperature difference between root and fruit that Craven believes speeds growth. And by turning the flow on and off, Craven has found he can further accelerate the plants' growth cycle by forcing them in and out of dormancy - he can get three crops of grapes a year and pineapples in eight months instead of the usual 18. Feeding some of the water through a contraption Craven calls a hurricane tower generates clean electricity. "What the world doesn't understand," says Craven, still zigzagging through the parking lot, "is that what we don't have enough of is cold, not heat."

Feature:
The Mad Genius from the Bottom of the Sea
Plus:
Creating a Deep-Sea Oasis on Dry Land
A day later, the sun feels like a giant piece of red-hot charcoal overhead as Craven unlocks the gates to his small demonstration garden at the Natural Energy Lab. In tow are a handful of CHC's technical partners and managers escorting the lieutenant governor around the garden. The black lava ground is hard and hot, but behind the chain-link fence, Craven has created a little oasis: a 10- by 20-foot rectangle of lush lawn, a closely cropped putting green, a 10-foot-square "soccer field," flower gardens, an orchid patch, and rows of grapes. A wooden structure that Craven calls the skytower holds what resembles a radiator of sweating PVC pipes dripping steadily into a tub, providing freshwater for drinking, washing, and irrigation.

As proud as he is, Craven knows his marketing and administrative abilities leave much to be desired. In 2000, he placed his company stock in a blind trust, became "chief scientist," and let others take CHC forward as a for-profit business. Ke Kai Kealoha, CHC's project manager, is charged with the selling of his vision. Craven prefers to get things started, then have others manage the operation so he can wander on to something new. "I get put to death every seven years as great kings do, until I start a new kingship," he says, leading me away from the group to the grapes.

CHC's success depends on two projects that expand on Craven's ideas: a vineyard in Kona to grow table grapes for local restaurants, and a more complex, much larger-scale version of his oasis, on Saipan. A stable US territory, the island is a booming destination for Japanese tourists. Tokyo is just two and a half hours away by air. And the Marianas offer generous tax deals to Japanese who retire there. But Saipan has a limited supply of freshwater and must import, at great expense, all of its food and oil. On the northern end of the island, CHC plans to sink a 24-inch-diameter pipe and build a hundred-acre development featuring 100 townhouses, a golf course, soccer fields, and even an athletic complex where Japanese sports teams can train. Like a cross between an industrial park landlord and a public utility, CHC will supply electrical power (generated by a mix of ocean water, sun, and biomass), freshwater, and air-conditioning, as well as its cold-water agriculture tech to tenants and farmers of specialty crops. It will also sell freshwater to hotels that now rely on expensive reverse osmosis desalination.

Caught under the glare of Craven's brainpower, it all seems doable. "John Craven is a visionary," says Sylvia Earle, former director of NOAA and a CHC board member. "He's effectively demonstrated his pilot approach on a small scale, and who knows where it will lead? Who could have guessed how Henry Ford's auto design would change the world? Craven is not always right, but he's always worth listening to."

Craven has no doubts. On the grapes and freshwater alone, he says, "we'll make a fortune. We'll make freshwater for nothing, 13,000 to 15,000 pounds of grapes per acre per year, three times what the best vineyard in California can do." If the numbers pan out, Craven says, CHC will pay off its investors in seven years.

As the official tour winds on, Craven drags a plastic chair to the middle of the lawn, plunks himself down, and resumes talking about his anti-aging experiments. Investigating the osmotic and thermodynamic properties of plants led him to wonder about the human body, and now he's hooked. "I've patented my cold-water therapy, and I want to open a cold-water health spa right there," he says, pointing to the rocky coast. "The doctors don't agree with me, but that's because innovation is the enemy of the status quo - it puts people out of business."

Craven flexes his limber ankles and smiles. It won't be long before we know whether he's unleashed a new wave of octogenarian marathon runners or stepped off the deep end at last.

Feature:
The Mad Genius from the Bottom of the Sea
Plus:
Creating a Deep-Sea Oasis on Dry Land
Creating a Deep-Sea Oasis on Dry Land

The key to Craven's cool world is converting the ocean's thermal energy. The first step: Sink a pipe at least 3,000 feet deep and start pumping up seawater. The end result: an environmentally sustainable, virtually inexhaustible supply of electricity, freshwater for drinking and irrigation, even air-conditioning. Here's how it works:

Refrigeration:
Cold seawater circulates through a closed loop of pipes that replace the coolant and compressor found in conventional air-conditioning units.

Irrigation:
Pipes carrying cold water run beneath fields of crops, sweating freshwater to irrigate plants and chilling their roots, promoting faster crop cycles.

Desalination:
Cold seawater passes through Craven's "skytowers," which contain closely packed radiator-like networks of pipes. The frigid pipes sweat in the tropical heat, producing­ freshwater condensate.

Power Generation:
Pipes draw warm water from the ocean surface and cold water from the seabed. The warm water enters a vacuum chamber and is evaporated into steam that drives an electricity-producing turbine. The cold water condenses the steam back into water for drinking and irrigation.

Contributing editor Carl Hoffman (carlhoffmn@earthlink.net) wrote about wave scientist Kerry Black in issue 12.05.

Wired Magazine

Mark said...

With working links here

INTRODUCTORY QUOTE:

"I believe that water will one day be employed as a fuel. That hydrogen and oxygen that constitute it, used singularly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light, of an intensity that coal is not capable. I believe that when the deposits of coal are exhausted, we will heat and warm ourselves with water. Water will be the coal of the future." ~ Jules Verne, 1870. [writing before oil was utilized more than only about five years, oil in some ways coming out of the U.S. Civil War.]

I. WATER CAR

A related group of videos on this point:

VIDEO: Stan Meyer: Water Car Inventor Murdered
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3333992194168790800 [THIS
IS AN EXCERPT of this longer 50 minute BBC aired film, "It Runs on
Water", below]
16 min - Apr 8, 2006 - (802 ratings)
[New Zealand] water bike on 60 minutes: Free energy is here NOW:
http://www.gigagone. ...
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3333992194168790800

VIDEO: The next 'Stan Meyer', below. Fox News covered it of all
organizations, in Florida. Denny Klein of Hydrogen Technologies,
with patents like Meyers actually goes to lackey Congress and
demonstrated his water car to them all. Still silence:
Denny Klein of Hydrogen Technologies, Water Car & HHO water welding torch
Water Car http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wb8wIqECwGE
3 min - May 23, 2006 - (25 ratings)
A car that runs on water. I tried to e-mail the news people to get
when this ...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wb8wIqECwGE (3 min)

VIDEO: Very good backgrounder, on the same effect under a different name
and different technological tweaking:
Phenomenon Archives: Heavy Watergate, The War Against Cold Fusion
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2229511748333360205
46 min - Oct 19, 2006 - (130 ratings)
Heavy Watergate, the War Against Cold Fusion,' viewers investigate
the idea of cold ...
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2229511748333360205 (46 min)

VIDEO: Equinox - It Runs on Water (1995)
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2464139837181538044
50 min - Apr 17, 2006 - small full starsmall full starsmall full
starsmall full starsmall half star (634 ratings)
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2464139837181538044 (50 min)

VIDEO: Excerpts from Cold Fusion: Fire from Water (1999)
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6426393169641611451
38 min - Jan 5, 2007
... phenomenal 1999 documentary Cold Fusion: Fire from Water,
produced by [soon dead under supposedly suspicious circumstances]
Eugene Mallove...[the ex-MIT researcher who quit when he found high
level U.S. government orchestrated scientific fraud in the MIT study
"disproving" cold fusion--MIT had huge 'hot fusion' physics
contracts to keep up, like many other areas--and this was
watersplitting with typical 'nuclear ash' like helium and tritium,
though without radiation--and done with chemistry instead of with 50
years of pricey Big Science technology
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6426393169641611451 (38 min)

[That last one 'talks down' on solar, though that was from 1999.
There are three novel technologies now that make solar even cheaper
than coal/oil
http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/05/358874.shtml, and
operatable in different climates.]

I've heard of this guy, though this is the first time I have seen
him interviewed:

VIDEO: Interview with Philippines Inventor Daniel Dingel About his Water
Car (2002)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UVhXrvCCILw&mode=related&search=
(9:37) Dingel has run his prototype cars on water since the 1960s
(he talks of the World Bank/IMF keeping it from development in his
country, with the threat of they will refuse to give the greater
Philippines any loans if they help Dingel; he talks quickly about
one-sided contracts that Germans and Japanese have attempted to give
him, that he refused. He says he wants to start a foundation to fund
mass production, instead of the potential strings that come from
exclusive patent rights that the German automakers or Japanese
automakers wanted from him, who have contacted him.

VIDEO: Here's another Japanese water car
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1OWDcWoXHs&mode=related&search= (3:31)

One more coda: I didn't know the huge conglomerate General Motors
now has one. Literally. Only one. Though others are mass producing
other things already though, GM seems to be working toward turning
it into the ultimate cross-roadway platform (since the driver's
location can be quickly moved back and forth, from left or right),
as well as a 'one car for all uses' since you can remove the top,
and 'clip on' a different body for convertibles, trucks, vans,
etc.--all from one car base you own.

VIDEO: GM Hy-Wire water car on Top Gear
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLKExuHlQMQ&NR=1 (5:49)

-----

II. AIR CAR, GOING INTO MASS PRODUCTION FROM FEBRUARY 2007

Here's an Air Car arrangement.

VIDEO: Frenchman Guy Negre's Air Car (additionally features an Australian rotary Wankel AIR engine, though only Negre's is going into mass production right now, 2007)
http://youtube.com/watch?v=QmqpGZv0YT4 (8:52)
Beyond Tomorrow 2005 more info: http://www.theaircar.com/
MDI (Motor Development International, Inc., located in Nice, France),
on the show Beyond Tomorrow (2005). Supposedly, this program
indicates they are starting to sell these commercially in 2006--in
2, 4, or 6 cylinder versions starting around $15,000.

Ideally, one tweak would be to put some solar power panels on the
roof and an air compressor onboard, and the whole infrastructure of
even having to stop to "refuel" (put in more compressed air) is
unrequired.

Negre just signed mass production of the air car!

MDI signed an agreement with Tata Motors - NEW

An engine which uses air as fuel
Tata Motors and technology inventor, MDI of France, sign agreement

MUMBAI, 5th of February 2007

Tata Motors, in keeping with its role as the leading company in India for automotive R&D, has signed an agreement, in yet another exciting engineering and development effort, with MDI of France for application in India of MDI's path-breaking technology for engines powered by air.

The MDI Group is headed by Mr. Guy Negre, who founded the company in the 1990s in pursuit of his dream to pioneer an engine using just compressed air as fuel - which may be the ultimate environment-friendly engine yet. Besides, the engine is efficient, cost-effective, scalable, and capable of other applications like power generation.

The agreement between Tata Motors and MDI envisages Tata's supporting further development and refinement of the technology, and its application and licensing for India.

Commenting on the agreement, Mr. Guy Negre has said, "MDI has for many years been engaged in developing environment-friendly engines. MDI is happy to conclude this agreement with Tata Motors and work together with this important and experienced industrial group to develop a new and cost-saving technology for various applications for the Indian market that meets with severe regulations for environmental protection. We are continuing the development with our own business concept of licensing car manufacturers in other parts of the world where the production is located close to the markets. We have also developed this new technology for other applications where cost competitiveness combined with respect for environmental questions has our priority."

- About MDI
MDI is a small, family-controlled company located at Carros, near Nice (Southern France) where Mr. Guy Negre and Mr. Cyril Nègre, together with their technical team, have developed a new engine technology with the purpose of economising energy and respect severe ecological requirements - at competitive costs.

- About Tata Motors
Tata Motors is India's largest automobile company, with revenues of US$ 5.5 billion in 2005-06. With over 4 million Tata vehicles plying in India, it is the leader in commercial vehicles and the second largest in passenger vehicles. It is also the world's fifth largest medium and heavy truck manufacturer and the second largest heavy bus manufacturer. Tata cars, buses and trucks are being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and South East Asia and in Australia. Tata Motors and Fiat Auto have announced the formation of an industrial joint venture in India to manufacture passenger cars, engines and transmissions for the Indian and overseas markets. Tata Motors already distributes Fiat-branded cars in India. The company's international footprint include Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Co. Ltd. in South Korea; Hispano Carrocera, a bus and coach manufacturer of Spain in which the company has a 21% stake; a joint venture with Marcopolo, the Brazil-based body-builder of buses and coaches; and a joint venture with Thonburi Automotive Assembly Plant Company of Thailand to manufacture and market pickup vehicles in Thailand. Tata Motors has research centres in India, the UK, and in its subsidiary and associate companies in South Korea and Spain.

http://www.theaircar.com/tata_agreement.html

YOU CAN CONTACT THEM AT THE WEBSITE TO LET THEM KNOW TO CONTACT YOU ABOUT MAKING YOU ONE, SO THEY CAN GAUGE THE MARKET.

VIDEO: CNN-India: Car that runs on air in India soon
http://youtube.com/watch?v=J_i3aMz7q1w (01:11)
http://www.ibnlive.com/news/car-that-runs- on-air-in-india-soon/36806-11.html


-----

III. SOME PREVIOUS POSTS:

[1]

Oil Regime Keeps Us from Investing in Sustainable Wind/Sun: More Power Than Oil Ever Could

SUN: ONLY HALF OF 1% of globe required to match current energy use, before the above inventions: much smaller than that required now. Every year the sun pours down the equivalent of 1.5m barrels of oil of energy for every square kilometre, without pollution. Estimates it takes only 0.5% of the world's hot deserts with current technology called concentrated solar power (CSP) to provide the world's entire electricity needs.

WIND: ONLY 5% OF KNOWN WIND SITES required to DOUBLE global energy capacity above current usage, and without pollution. Wind power could generate enough electricity to support the world's energy needs several times over, according to map of global wind speeds--first of its kind. The map, compiled by researchers at Stanford University, shows wind speeds at more than 8,000 sites around the world. They found that at least 13% of those sites experience winds fast enough to power current wind turbines. If turbines were set up in all these regions, they would generate 72 terawatts. That's more than five times world's current energy needs...if only potentially doubled energy use is projected, then that means [only (13/5)x2] it takes ONLY 5.2% OF THOSE SITES being used to double world energy capacities. That's only about 400 wind farms and you DOUBLE global energy capacity.

North America and parts of Northern Europe have a high number of ideal spots for setting up wind turbines. Approximately 20% of Denmark's energy is wind power. USA, with best place in world for wind turbines, only generates 1% from wind.

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/11/350013.shtml

[2]

Gary Vesperman 19.06.2006 20:22
A History Of 52 'New Energy' Technology Invention Suppressions That Demote Consumer Choice
permanent batteries; "hydrogen on demand" engines (burning high frequency low amp electric split H2O: two monoatomic hydrogens in an oxygen atmosphere, waste is what you started with--water, once more); nuclear waste remediation technologies; Brazil just went energy sufficient; and more, all suppressed.

"In the last two months, there have been three incidents of energy inventors threatened with death by gun-toting thugs....This is the third version of my compilation of specific ENERGY SUPPRESSION cases [including NUCLEAR WASTE REMEDIATION SUPPRESSION technologies, suppressed by U.S.'s Department of Energy, particularly, in their aegis, Spencer Abraham]. This time I decided to get serious. I thoroughly reviewed my own files and a few web sites pertaining to energy suppression [and came up with 52 CASES OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPRESSION]. Deleted were some cases that didn't appear to be authentic suppression. I also incorporated some thoughtful comments that had been emailed to me...."

"Inventors in their zeal to improve the well-being of their fellow inhabitants of Planet Earth face such perils as poverty, slander, ridicule, and neglect. Inventors of energy devices sometimes have also been bullied by large energy-related corporations and allies in the United States Government who seek to maintain their energy slavery....The illegal as well as legal tactics of these suppression actions have encompassed: imprisonment on false charges, IRS harassment, burglaries, bribery with huge sums of money, and even murder....[T]he oil companies will do EVERYTHING in their power to suppress this kind of technology, because it could reduce the gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 76% over a 5-year term. The government will lose mega bucks in gasoline taxes. The major car manufacturers will lose billions spent on the technology of the fuel injection systems, my technology makes theirs obsolete. I put all my patent and shop drawings up on this website..."

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/06/341317.shtml

[3]

repost 04.06.2006 15:33
Water Fuel Experimenters Ken Rasmussen & Team in CA Threatened with Death by Hired Goons

On May 16, 2006, a technician of a team of garage experimenters investigating a hydrogen-on-demand technology from water was run off the road near a rural intersection, and then accosted by four white, middle-aged males in black suits, carrying Glocks and Mac tens. The assailants were driving a late model, black Lincoln Town Car. This technician is the latest victim in a growing American crime spree of mafia-like threats, and is an associate of the New Energy Congress member, Ken Rasmussen. Both he and Rasmussen had been working together on the water cell project, and were lining up investors for the water cell for the first time in just the last week. Rasmussen runs an alternative energy news service as well. This threat is only one month after Bill Williams was similarly accosted and threatened because of his separate experimentation and success with running a regular gas-engine vehicle on a water fuel based Joe cell instead.

"In closing, Rasmussen said, "We have this kind warning to fellow experimenters who try to challenge the conventional physics being taught to students around the world. Challenge the system, the system that says oil is god, and there are paid mafia goons all over the world who will stop you for a few measly dollars. We know, because we met their guns face to face. Please continue your noble research, but PLEASE PLEASE watch your backside."

Rasmussen's words to the assailants were that if anyone was harmed, the plans for this technology would be plastered all over the Internet. He believes that cowering to bullies is not good policy.

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/06/340528.shtml

[4]

it runs on water 31.05.2006 12:11
More Water Engine, Inventor Danny Klein's HHO water car and patented HHO welding torch
another version; patents of Florida Inventor Danny Klein, video is from Fox News no less...

says Klein is "off to demonstrate his water car to Congress", oil corporation run newsmaker blackout assuredly to follow...

The future is already here.

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/05/340246.shtml

[5]

thoughtful grouping 24.05.2006 07:52
Forget Peak or Veg Oil, go Water Engine: plans, video, politics of zero point excited H20

Water Car Inventor Stanley Meyer Presumably Murdered in 1998, another (Bill Williams) recently threatened in April 2006. Other inventors in New Zealand (on a 60 Minutes programme) are presently patenting "excitated" water--running in UNADAPTED regular engines. Other versions, however, show anyone can make a Joe Cell because its basic energy physics, though definitely not exclusively thermodynamics....I could care less to hear the terms "orgone" or "etheric" in some of the less recommended layman's videos below, though I include them because nothing else I have found demonstrates the visual aspects more spot on than some of these.

FIRST, to brace and educate yourself, I recommended a set of videos from 1995 that have more scientific terms. (These are followed by some on Tesla if you want, though they are unrequired.) Then, SECOND, watch the latter ones. in THAT order. It's labeled below.

"It would appear that Pandora's box has been opened on this, never to be shut." And it does mean that the only thing holding oil in place anymore for an energy choice is politics instead of economics: the purpose of oil now more than ever is clearly to maintain environmentally degradative political frameworks and corporate state corruption of the world's democracies. Free yourself from oil, put the oil majors out of business. Put Schlumberger, Halliburton, BP, Chevron-Texaco, the Rockefellers, the Saudis, the Bushes, all out of business. And save the planet at the same moment. Stanley Meyer mentioned that NASA is already using water engines technology in black operations, and admitted to contracts with him. This is big. Really really big. See 20 sequence "Joe Cell" water engine building process videos below as well. It's all you could ever want. Forget Peak Oil and Forget Veg Oil. Go Water Engine. (and Go Air Engine.)

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/05/339892.shtml


"It would appear that Pandora's box has been opened on this, never to be shut." And it does mean that the only thing holding oil in place for an energy choice is politics instead of economics: the purpose of oil now more than ever is clearly to maintain environmentally degradative political frameworks and corporate state corruption of the world's democracies.

Mark said...

some excerpts (very small ones) from the above article:

Biofuel is a synthetic fuel created by blending starch-based corn and sugar with gasoline. Prices for ethanol in the United States recently hit an all-time high at over $3 a gallon. To hinder competition from ethanol, the oil companies have arranged for the United States to impose a $0.54 cent per gallon tariff on ethanol imports, which keeps prices for the alternative biofuel artificially high. Brazil, which recently became energy self-sufficient in 2006, is the world's largest producer of sugar-based ethanol and would benefit greatly from a tariff reduction in the United States. Apparently it is [many times] cheaper [and far more powerful] and more energy efficient to produce ethanol from sugar cane than corn.

Former US Patent Examiner Thomas Valone, fired for producing a conference in Washington DC on these new energy technologies, claims that there is a vault at the US Patent Office containing over 4,000 patents ordered secret by the government, confiscated from the inventors who are threatened with 20 years in jail if they release the information as per "dual-use" secrecy law uncovered under Freedom of Information Act and reprinted on p.162 of Jeane Manning's book "The Coming Energy Revolution" overviewing various new energy tech inventors.

Isn't it about time we did something to take this situation under public investigation and control, especially motivated by the current Enron fiasco exemplifying the "ethics" of the oil industry and government complicity in "rigging" the energy industry?

Energy Invention Suppression Case Statistics

Number of Energy Invention Suppression Incidents - 53
Number of Dead, Missing, or Injured Energy Inventors, Activists, and Associates - 13
Number of Energy Inventors Threatened with Death - 16
Number of Energy Researchers and Associates Imprisoned - 7
Number of Incidents Involving the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - 4
Number of Incidents Involving the US Government - 27
Number of Inventions Classified Secret by US Patent Office - Approx. 4000
Number of Incidents Involving Oil Companies - 9
Names of Oil Companies and Banks Involved - Standard, Atlantic Richfield, Shell Oil Company, World Bank, Wells Fargo Bank

Possibly Most Impressive Energy Invention - Philippines Inventor has Converted More than 100 Cars to Run Only on Plain Water!

Inventor Daniel Dingel, who lives in the Philippines, since 1969 has converted more than 100 gasoline cars to be powered by hydrogen derived ON DEMAND from plain water. Aluminum is used in the tank to suppress a possible explosion. The Philippines President is not interested because of an agreement with the World Bank. For a link to a water car movie, see Section 12-G of http://www.byronwine.com/

...

Have 3 people been assassinated because of the Cincinnati Group's discovery of a low-energy nuclear transmutation process that can be used, e.g., for radioactive waste remediation?

...

In Japan [without its own repressive oil energy regime], inventors are treated as national heroes and are lavishly supported. For example, the Japanese government's annual R&D budget in cold fusion is now $100 million per year (since greatly reduced). In contrast the United States patent office has so far approved only one cold fusion patent application out of 300.

...

Bob Stewart spent millions of dollars developing patents on his "Stewart Cycle" engines for transportation vehicles and large-scale water lifters during the 1970's. His efficient and pollution-free engines use ambient heat to expand a working fluid such as ammonia and move pistons through sealed cylinders. He claimed that his low-temperature phase-change engine was more efficient and powerful than Dennis Lee's version. Twice he built a factory, first in Coeur d-Alene, Idaho, and then in Deming, New Mexico to make available for sale such valuable and beneficial technology. Both times, the factories were raided and shut down by the federal Securities and Exchange Commission. Through the Las Vegas area grapevine, he fortunately in time heard that a contract on his life was in effect and had to go into hiding for nearly a year.

...

July 20 - 23, 1995, at the International Tesla Society Symposium in Colorado Springs, McClain and Wootan gave a lecture on their magnetic resonance amplifier. The oscilloscope waveforms of output vs. input they showed were very odd. They sort of loop around themselves. A few days after the conference, Wootan's two-year-old boy had been abducted, Wootan was running for his life in Canada, and McClain was in hiding.

...

link to www.spiritofmaat.com both list 48 energy inventions - nearly all of which are suppressed or at least not being commercially made and sold.

...

In 1940 Henry T. Moray demonstrated before the members of the Public Utilities Commission (in Utah?) his [nonthermodynamic] free energy generator that gave a continuous output of 250,000 volts with no apparent [coal corporation hegemony] input. The next day he was found shot in his lab and all of his notes and device were stolen.

...

In May, 1974, John Andrews, a Portugese chemist, demonstrated a [electronically adjusted?] water-to-gas additive before Navy officials which allowed ordinary water to be added to gasoline without decreasing the combustability of the gas and would drive the cost of gasoline down to 2 cents per gallon. When Navy officials finally went to his lab to negotiate for the formula, they found Andrews missing and his lab ransacked.

...

Shell Oil Company: Achieves 376.59 MPG with a Modified 1959 Opel in 1973

Shell Oil Company wrote "Fuel Economy of the Gasoline Engine" (ISBN 0-470-99132-1); it was published by John Wiley & Sons, New York, in 1977. On page 42 Shell Oil quotes the President of General Motors who in 1929 predicted 80 MPG by 1939. Between pages 221 (see link to www.byronwine.com ) Shell writes of their achievements: 49.73 MPG around 1939; 149.95 MPG with a 1947 Studebaker in 1949; 244.35 MPG with a 1959 Fiat 600 in 1968; 376.59 MPG with a modified 1959 Opel in 1973

...

During the 1950's, Phil Stone, a retired Florida college physics professor, had a patent for a device to run an engine on water. The US government then classified his patent and this prevented him from developing his device. The US Patent Office has unfairly classified 4000 energy patents. Their helpless inventors will be jailed for 20 years if they work on, develop, make, sell, write about, or even simply talk about their inventions.


AND THE HIDDEN ANTI-OIL HISTORY OF FORD'S MODEL T CAR: had housing for magnetic engine, Ford threatned by oil companies to stop it. [Later, Ford wanted to use corn alcohol (and even built factories for it) to help farmers in the Great Depression have a market for their crops as well as to power his Ford cars outside of the oil companies.)

...

William Bolon, Rialto, California, developed an unusual steam engine design in 1971 that was said to get up to 50 miles to the gallon. The engine used only 17 moving parts and weighed less than 50 pounds. It eliminated the usual transmission and drive train in an automobile. After much publicity, the inventor's factory was fire bombed with damages totaling $600,000. Letters to the White House were ignored so the inventor finally gave up and let Indonesian interests have the design.

...

Could it be that powerful people within the US government are implementing covert policies to keep new energy inventions suppressed that would threaten the oil fuel and nuclear power industries? Copious evidence says yes, and that Lantz' troubles really started after he began making new-energy system prototypes for other inventors in 1977 culminating with his 1989 discovery of an "overunity" energy generation system which combines his System 77 with a ultracentrifuge so the overall device not only purifies any kind of water but also produces sufficient heat to produce megawatts of electricity without any fuel at all, perhaps by "tapping the zero-point energy" with a kind of device the DOE in 1998 called "the Holy Grail of energy research".

How else could it be possible for this bogus fraud case to even be prosecuted after expiration of statute of limitations, with falsified evidence and the apparent collusion of prosecutors who lied and and public defenders who refused to contest the lies and offer documentation of innocence? Why else would Boduncan have brought this "gold certificate scheme" to Lantz as a funding mechanism for his invention? The Lantz Water and Power System was first tested in 1989. It can solve our global energy and water quality problems. And what does he get for it? An unacceptable "deal" offered by prosecutors and pushed by two successive public defenders who each claimed he "would die in jail" unless he took the plea bargain acknowledging guilt and forfeiting his assets (over $100k of that confiscated was not even in his name), a "raw deal" which this War Veteran refuses to accept.

Are we to sit by and let this happen or will concerned citizens and media bring his story out so he can get the legal help he needs to get his bogus conviction reversed, his name cleared and his money back so he can pursue development of his New-Energy System?

Mark said...

For Immediate Release
February 13, 2006 Contact: Jason Gorss
Phone: (518) 276-6098
E-mail: gorssj@rpi.edu

“Double Crystal Fusion” Could Pave the Way for Portable Device

Troy, N.Y. — Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a tabletop accelerator that produces nuclear fusion at room temperature, providing confirmation of an earlier experiment conducted at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), while offering substantial improvements over the original design.
An internal view of the vacuum chamber containing the fusion device, showing two pyroelectric crystals that generate a powerful electric field when heated or cooled.

Photo by Rensselaer/Yaron Danon

The device, which uses two opposing crystals to generate a powerful electric field, could potentially lead to a portable, battery-operated neutron generator for a variety of applications, from non-destructive testing to detecting explosives and scanning luggage at airports. The new results are described in the Feb. 10 issue of Physical Review Letters.

“Our study shows that ‘crystal fusion’ is a mature technology with considerable commercial potential,” says Yaron Danon, associate professor of mechanical, aerospace, and nuclear engineering at Rensselaer. “This new device is simpler and less expensive than the previous version, and it has the potential to produce even more neutrons.”

The device is essentially a tabletop particle accelerator. At its heart are two opposing “pyroelectric” crystals that create a strong electric field when heated or cooled. The device is filled with deuterium gas — a more massive cousin of hydrogen with an extra neutron in its nucleus. The electric field rips electrons from the gas, creating deuterium ions and accelerating them into a deuterium target on one of the crystals. When the particles smash into the target, neutrons are emitted, which is the telltale sign that nuclear fusion has occurred, according to Danon.

A research team led by Seth Putterman, professor of physics at UCLA, reported on a similar apparatus in 2005, but two important features distinguish the new device: “Our device uses two crystals instead of one, which doubles the acceleration potential,” says Jeffrey Geuther, a graduate student in nuclear engineering at Rensselaer and lead author of the paper. “And our setup does not require cooling the crystals to cryogenic temperatures — an important step that reduces both the complexity and the cost of the equipment.”

The new study also verified the fundamental physics behind the original experiment. This suggests that pyroelectric crystals are in fact a viable means of producing nuclear fusion, and that commercial applications may be closer than originally thought, according to Danon.

“Nuclear fusion has been explored as a potential source of power, but we are not looking at this as an energy source right now,” Danon says. Rather, the most immediate application may come in the form of a battery-operated, portable neutron generator. Such a device could be used to detect explosives or to scan luggage at airports, and it could also be an important tool for a wide range of laboratory experiments.

The concept could also lead to a portable x-ray generator, according to Danon. “There is already a commercial portable pyroelectric x-ray product available, but it does not produce enough energy to provide the 50,000 electron volts needed for medical imaging,” he says. “Our device is capable of producing about 200,000 electron volts, which could meet these requirements and could also be enough to penetrate several millimeters of steel.”

In the more distant future, Danon envisions a number of other medical applications of pyroelectric crystals, including a wearable device that could provide safe, continuous cancer treatment.

Frank Saglime, a graduate student in nuclear engineering at Rensselaer, also contributed to the research. The work was funded through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) Program.

About Rensselaer
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, is the nation’s oldest technological university. The university offers bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in engineering, the sciences, information technology, architecture, management, and the humanities and social sciences. Institute programs serve undergraduates, graduate students, and working professionals around the world. Rensselaer faculty are known for pre-eminence in research conducted in a wide range of fields, with particular emphasis in biotechnology, nanotechnology, information technology, and the media arts and technology. The Institute is well known for its success in the transfer of technology from the laboratory to the marketplace so that new discoveries and inventions benefit human life, protect the environment, and strengthen economic development.

Mark said...

Beyond the barrel idea #1: Run your car on tap water

By Jerry Mazza
Online Journal Contributing Writer

Download a .pdf file for printing.
Adobe Acrobat Reader required.
Click here to download a free copy.

December 23, 2004—There's nothing like a good mystery, especially with your own Deep Throat.

This time an email from a stranger, a reader, Miguel X, who says "Run your car on water. It's been around since 1937. The federal government doesn't want you to know that because they cannot kill for water. Nor do they want you to know it would cost less than four new tires to convert your car from gasoline to hydrogen. The man who invented it or the man who stole the idea, I am not sure which, was murdered because the Fed did not want it to come out. Big Oil, Big Bank, and Big War have been running this game. We will never be the same. Go to Google or Ebay and type Run Car on Water and you will see, you can have all the power you need and have it for FREE. Don't tell Dubya I was the one who told you. MX."

Naturally, I go to Google, type in the five words and ffftt, there it is at the top of a page of Run Cars on Water:

PRELIMINARY PLANS

TO RUN YOUR CAR ON TAP WATER

It Also Works on Your Truck, TV, Motorcycle, Airplane, etc.

The page's headline boldly asks, "Will This Work?" And answers, "These plans were sent to the Spirit of Ma'at website anonymously, from someone who does not want his or her name printed for obvious reasons. We have had them checked by an expert that believes they are real. We also have talked with another individual who has patented a similar device, and we know from personal experience that the technology is sound . . . We know for certain that an automobile will run on water . . ."

Fortunately, no particular brand of water like Evian or Poland Springs is necessary. Spirit of Ma'at continues, "This could be an interesting project for you mechanical types, with a great reward of never having to purchase gasoline for the rest of your life—and helping humanity at the same time."

I immediately email Miguel X back and thank him. He responds. "I don't want credit. I just want the truth to come out. I know it won't on NBC. But some Spanish based TV stations have been reporting on the water car being developed in Mexico. The Mexican design requires a catalyst, a product that would allow water (H20) to electrolyze into hydrogen in a cylinder's combustion chamber without gasoline. The residue would be 02 or clean oxygen in the form of a mist. Caterpillar is working on a product called A55 (I believe) that allows a mix of gasoline and water with a proprietary product to blend and not separate. The product is supposed work in an internal combustion engine without modification. The water can work alone on an ordinary engine with some changes. If you need any help researching any or all parts, let me know."

My first thought is does Michael Ruppert know about this? Does George Bush? Well, I guess, he was talking about cars with hydrogen cells. But that involved, of course, billions of dollars to investigate, a potential massive rethinking of the way we live, all sorts of corporate implications, etc. This is "do it yourself." And the plans are on Zip-file format that can be down loaded to your computer. The next page says, "Now with existing technology, anyone can stand up and make a difference by reducing the local automotive pollution, eliminate gasoline expenses, help restore our atmosphere, and breathe a little easier. . . . You will be making use of your entire existing system except for the fuel tank and the catalytic converter." I look at the plans. They seem doable, reasonable. You could say they hold water.

The page goes on to say "The 'minisystem' runs easily with your existing battery and electrical system, and it plugs into your carburetor with simple off the shelf fittings. You will be installing a plastic water tank, a control circuit, a reaction chamber, a hi-pressure carb/FI fitting, and three gauges, and then hooking into your existing carb/FI." All right. Then, "the simplicity comes from its being an 'on-demand' system requiring no fancy storage or plumbing. You crank the gas pedal or throttle, and you electrically create more vapor for immediate consumption, on demand; low-high flow rate as needed, from idle to maximum power. The only real change is that you are using tap water as fuel, instead of the traditional petroleum-based fuel." Eureka! Shades of a Water Rush!

Could this be the solution to all this insanity, Peak Oil, nations tearing each other apart, superpowers vying over supply, deranged oilmen in the White House forcing the most powerful nation in the world to the brink, the apocalypse due any day now? This, while plans for turning your stinkpot into a water-propelled, oxygen-emitting machine were sitting on the Internet? Could life be quite that ironic? Do pretzels have salt? Does it really work?

"Yes," the page says emphatically. "This is a well-established technology. It dates back to stainless steel. But be sure to follow the instructions." Is it safe? "Safer than running on fossil fuel because you are no longer choking on your own emissions (health-wise)." What kind of performance can I expect? Can I still zoom past guys on the highway like Mario Andretti? "Properly adjusted, your modified vapor-only fuel system will run cooler, and at a modestly higher (HIGHER?) power level. The mileage performance expected from this design ranges from 50 to 300 miles per gallon of water." Oh my god. Will all those gas stations be water stations? Can they make a buck selling what you can run from the tap for pennies? The economy will be turned upside down. Will someone shoot me if I publish this? There must be a hitch.

Like what is the environmental impact my car will have, seriously now? "It will be producing H20 steam (water vapor) and unburned 02 (Oxygen). Hence, it will be cleaning the environment, not dumping nauseous toxins into it. So you will be saving our dwindling supply of atmospheric oxygen. Any excess vapor in the reaction becomes steam or oxygen. "

But isn't this an old-fashioned a steam engine? "No. Really. Exceedingly high temperature and pressure are not used. This is strictly an internal-combustion engine (burning orthohydrogen) with residual steam in the exhaust as a by-product."

The page says there's a lot of thermochemical energy in gasoline, but there's even more energy in water. Go know. The DOE (Department of Energy has quoted about 40 percent, so figure much more than that. And "internal combustion" is defined as "thermo-vapor process," as in "no liquid in the reaction." Most gasoline in the standard IC engine is actually consumed, cooked, finally broken down in the catalytic converter after the fuel has been not-quite-so-burned in the engine. So most of the fuel used this way is used only to cool the combustion process. It's pollution-ridden and inefficient. Dumber than dumb, dumber than Dubyah and oil his oil-drunk friends.

All right, enough with the ad hominem stuff. Bottom line, how does it work? "Water's pumped as needed to re-supply and hold the liquid level in the chamber. The electrodes are vibrated with a o.5-5A electrical pulse which breaks 2(H20)=>2H@. Pressure reaches 30 to 60 psi, you turn the key and go. Step on the pedal, you send more energy to the electrodes and so more vapor to the cylinders, fuel vapor on demand."

Well, I'll be, er, fossil fuel-free. Could that be, really? "Yes. Just set the idle max-flow rate to get most efficient power use and you're off to the races. The latent energy in the water's enough to power the engine and so drive the alternator and whatever belt-driven accessories. And the alternator's efficient enough to run the various electrical loads (10 to 20 amps), plus the additional low current to run this vapor reaction. No extra batteries included or required. Follow the instructions and assemble." Bizarre, totally bizarre. And those momsas in Detroit never said a word?

This is like L.A. starting as the city with the most advanced system of electric-powered streetcars, which was then systematically sabotaged and eliminated by the tire, gas/oil and road-building gangsters. So today you have a zillion cars on a spiderwork of freeways smogging the entire city. And you have a bus system that runs for the maids and other poor workers, a system that's in no hurry to arrive or get you there. If you've ever been to L.A., one of the signature icons is a Latino or black woman (sometimes man) sitting patiently on a bench, waiting for Godot or the bus, whichever comes first, probably Godot. Then there are the smog alerts (precursors of terror alerts) on days when you're not supposed to go out and what, breathe? Just sit in the AC or inhale from your private oxygen tank. Now, with a water engine, you could be inhaling from your tailpipe and loving it. Sex in the back of a car with the motor running would be a public service.

The next water car website I find is www.layo.com, featuring a copyrighted engine from France. Those damn frogs. With a frigging drawing and photo of it, too. This engine splits water into hydrogen and oxygen then combines it with aluminum. The hydrogen is sprayed in a standard carburetor as with methane gas. So, where are there these cars?

Have the gangsters quashed all these ideas, because they had the gas flow for the cash flow? And only now as Doomsday creeps in like an unhinged iceberg are we hearing, seeing about this? There's even a letter here sent by the English inventor of the French car in 1981 to BMW no less, asking what they think of the engine? And BMW, I mean Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft no less, says it's okay. Maybe a little problem with ze disposal of oxide deposits but everything else goodt to go. Go where? It went nowhere. There was plenty of gas for those 520s and 750s and the cute 320s. Vas is de problem? Don't fix vot isn't broken. In eleven steps, Mr. Francois P. Cornish of the UK, the inventor, spelled out the whole thing and nobody's seen him since1982. Mon dieu!

Parenthetically, did you know "frogs," the kind whose legs the French eat, are among the most vulnerable sensors of life on the planet, and they've been vanishing at an alarming rate? They are like canaries in the mines that keel over from methane gas before anyone. Anyhow, the frogs are keeling over and/or genetically mutating into strange shapes primarily because (1) the hole in the ozone layer is allowing in ultra violet rays that their spongy, human-like skin is absorbing like a deadly poison or (2) the acid rains produced by hydrocarbon emissions are poisoning their systems as well. So today the frogs, tomorrow you know who. Bring on the water cars and trucks and buses and planes. Let's hop on one and get the hell out of here.

In fact, the next thing I download is from Wired 11:04: "How Hydrogen Can Save America." Oh-oh, this looks tricky. What about the rest of the world? And in true Amero-rhetoric it says, "Oil is an indulgence we can no longer afford, not just because it will run out or turn the planet into a sauna, but because it inexorably leads to global conflict. Enough. What we need is a massive, Apollo-scale effort to unlock the potential of hydrogen, a virtually unlimited source of power. The technology is at a tipping point. Terrorism provides political urgency. Consumers are ready for an alternative. From Detroit to Dallas, even the oil establishment is primed for change. We put a man on the moon in a decade; we can achieve energy independence just as fast. Here's how." Wow! Ra, ra, sis boom bah! Just do it! Play the national anthem. Pledge Allegiance to the Fiat of America, one nation under God's foot.

Then comes a long rap about four decades ago, a creeping menace to national security, Soviet Union lobbing first satellite into space in 1957. Then in 1961, Yuri Gagarin blasted off in Vostok 1 and scared the bejesus out of everybody. And JFK understood dominating space could mean the difference between survival and not and unveiled Apollo, a 10-year program of federal subsidies "to land a man on the moon," which is why only three years later they assassinated him. They were so grateful.

"But now the country faces a similarly dire threat: reliance on foreign oil. And just as the beaver builds his dam, so too Mutual of Omaha." Sorry, "so too we will meet the challenge, pass out a lot of pork, make Cheney richer, hoard and overcharge for compressed hydrogen; in fact, sell it next to gas, from a stylishly different looking pump that looks like a large futuristic potato cutter with Mobil's winged horse on it.

Then there's more talk of America's oil addiction, environmental ugliness, the myth that America can afford the dire costs of international oil politics. Most probably written by the same people who last week were selling an invasion of Iran. This is PR hype at its hypiest. "The price of the nation's reliance on oil: Desert Storm-like military adventures, strained relationship with less energy-hungry allies and now terror on our shores." Yes sir, spin art. And here comes the best part.

"George W. Bush arrived in Washington, DC, as a Texan with deep [and crooked] roots in the oil business. In the days following September 11, however, he transformed himself into the National Security President." Stop. Anybody want to throw up? Now's the time. It gets worse. Here we go. "Today, his ambition to protect the United States from emerging threats overshadows his industry ties." Oops, excuse me while I. . . . . . in the bag. Oh my God. "By throwing his power behind hydrogen, Bush would be gambling that, rather than harming Big Oil, he could revitalize the moribund industry." Why? Why not make a coral reef out of the tankers, platforms and pipelines like they did with New York City's old subway cars? "At the same time," the page declares, "he [Bush] might win support among environmentalists, a group that felt abandoned by this White House." They didn't feel abandoned. Their knew their efforts were consciously cut to pieces by the White House.

The page goes on, spinning like a whirling dervish, advising how billions and billions must be spent. "Solving the hydrogen fuel-tank problem, encouraging mass production of fuel cell vehicles, converting the nation's fueling infrastructure to hydrogen, ramping up hydrogen production, mounting the public with a campaign . . ." Excuse me, "mounting a public campaign to sell the hydrogen economy." Oh, I like that, the "Hydrogen Economy," like "the Ownership Society." Nothing like a handle to hit somebody over the head with. More looking-down-the-road follows, including selling it all to Congress, (I'm seeing zeros and dollar signs but no simple kits to fix your car engine tomorrow so it can run on water). "Prospect of massive subsidies, industries squeezed between shrinking profits, rising costs. Sustainable courses for the future, etc." It's like one of those WWII March of Time Newsreels of the mind.

In fact, "In time, US fuel cell and hydrogen-extraction technology will provide enormous opportunities for developing nations like China and India . . ." Egads. And Miguel X said not to tell Dubya. But he/they knew. "Detroit already had it in production." Yet they kept banging away at Iraq and everywhere else. And speaking in Canada, February 7, 2003, Bush said, "Hydrogen power is clean to use. Cars that will run on hydrogen fuel produce only water, not exhaust fumes. Eliminating pollution from cars will obviously make our air healthier. Hydrogen power will dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, helping this nation take the lead when it comes to tackling the long-term challenges of global climate change." Always take that old lead, George. Ra, ra, ra!

But this was George speaking, accepting the science of climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, and going on to say, "One of the greatest results of hydrogen power will be energy independence for this nation." You mean, we won't have to liberate Iraq for Democracy, or Iran, or Afghanistan, China, Korea, Syria, Sudan? We can just keep selling them hydrogen, even use existing or soon-to-be-built pipelines to sock it to them, made in America, or by American companies overseas everywhere. Does this imply no more war for a week or so? Saudi Arabia won't be sucking around the White House and the Capitol trying to bribe the Bush family and the Congress? Should I sigh for relief? Something says, not yet. And I think of Miguel.

Why would he be so worried? Are we reverting to the same old same old, before we even try the simplest form of the new? He like me wants that-build-it-yourself thing. Let me start today. I've got the plans. You can have them too. Type in "Run Your Car on Water." Don't wait. The website will probably be gone by tomorrow, plans and all, and you'll have to talk to Exxon/Mobil, Shell, Chevron, Papa Bush's Penzoil and the gang.

Act now. This offer cannot be repeated. Grab the Zip files. This is Beyond the Barrel Idea #1! But you say you're not mechanical. You'll make a mess. Okay, get a cheap second car. Take it to your local mechanic with the plans. Do it. Before they go one step beyond the Hydrogen Cell and build with Japan, Russia, Canada and the Europeans, "a fusion test facility . . . you know fusion, the same kind of nuclear reaction that produces—that powers the sun?" That's how Bush described it in his 2003 speech. To create "the largest and most advanced fusion experiment in the world." Now there's an energy idea mushrooming way beyond the barrel. Stay tuned and duck if you see a flash.

Jerry Mazza is a fre-lance writer who lives in New York City. If he's not at Volvo service with his water plans, reach him at gvmaz@verizon.net.

Online Journal

Mark said...

Will You Buy a Car That Runs on Air?

Air Car

One day, in the near future, we'll have the opportunity to make driving safer for our health and environment with options like the pollution-free Air Car, being readied for market by Spain-based Moteur Developpement Int.

Based on proven technology used on the Space Shuttle, the Air Car runs on Compressed Air Technology, a pollution-free engine that burns compressed air stored in tanks made of carbon fiber. The only emission: Cold air that's used to run the car's onboard air conditioner.

The vehicle is built for city driving, as it gets about 100 miles per tankful. Why oil and gas companies are probably very worried about this latest innovation: The average cost of a fill-up is about $3.

The Science Channel March 10, 2006
http://science.discovery.com/fansites/discoveriesthisweek/videogallery/videogallery.html

Mark said...

Map Reveals Wind Power Potential

[Print story] [E-mail story] [Reprint story]
Page 1 of 1

By Amit Asaravala |
Also by this reporter

02:00 AM May. 23, 2005 PT

Wind power could generate enough electricity to support the world's energy needs several times over, according to a new map of global wind speeds that scientists say is the first of its kind.

The map, compiled by researchers at Stanford University, shows wind speeds at more than 8,000 sites around the world. The researchers found that at least 13 percent of those sites experience winds fast enough to power a modern wind turbine. If turbines were set up in all these regions, they would generate 72 terawatts of electricity, according to the researchers.

That's more than five times the world's energy needs, which was roughly 14 terawatts in 2002, according to the U.S. Department of Energy.

The researchers readily admit that existing buildings, land rights and other obstacles would make it impossible to set up turbines in every single one of the identified regions. But they point out that even 20 percent of those sites could satisfy world energy consumption as it stands today.

More importantly, the study shows that wind can be a feasible alternative to fossil fuels, said study co-author Cristina Archer.

"There is really a lot of wind out there that can be utilized for electricity generation," said Archer. "The 72-terawatt finding quantifies how much wind power is available.... It's like when people say how much oil is available on a global scale. It doesn't mean all of it will be extracted."

If anything, the 72-terawatt figure is likely to be on the low side. Most of the 8,199 wind-monitoring stations that contributed data to the map are concentrated in highly developed nations. So the researchers had to make broad and often conservative estimates for countries in Africa and Asia, and for other regions.

"They are probably significantly underestimating the total potential," said Christopher Flavin, CEO of the Worldwatch Institute, an environmental research firm.

For instance, Flavin pointed to China, which several environmental organizations have identified as having great potential for wind power. In contrast, the Stanford map shows only a few locations there having the wind speeds necessary to power a wind turbine.

Of the regions that are well-marked by the map, North America and parts of Northern Europe both have a high number of ideal spots for setting up wind turbines. To date, Northern Europe -- and Denmark in particular -- has made the best use of that potential. Approximately 20 percent of Denmark's energy consumption is fulfilled by wind power, according to the Danish Wind Industry Association.

The United States, on the other hand, generates less than 1 percent of its electricity with wind power.

Archer said it was "ironic and sad" that the United States wasn't doing more, given the resources available.

"But it's not too late," she said. "We can still do it and I really hope we do."

The authors' study is scheduled to appear in the Journal of Geophysical Research -- Atmospheres later this month.

End of story

More stories written by Amit Asaravala

Wired Magzaine

Mark said...

Seas Seen As Viable Power Source

By Stephen Leahy
Wired News
8-26-2004

Undaunted by past failures, a new wave of entrepreneurs is seeking to generate electricity by channeling the energy of the Earth's oceans.

In experiments from Southern Australia to Scotland to Northern California, startup energy firms and researchers will be testing a host of technologies in the coming months aimed at generating electricity from the sea.

Among the most ambitious, planned for this fall, is a 486-ton wave turbine that converts wave motion into electricity and will be anchored off the coast of Australia, 150 miles south of Sydney. Energetech, the Australian company that developed the turbine, said it will be the "first plant in the world to make wave energy commercially viable." A similar turbine is to be installed off Point Judith, Rhode Island, in 2006.

Escalating oil prices and worries about global warming have shifted the quest for renewable energy sources into high gear. While wind and solar claim most of the attention, and hopes are high for high-tech hydrogen, the dark horse in this race may be the restless energy of the sea.

Covering 71 percent of the Earth's surface, the oceans are in essence the world's largest collector of energy from the sun. According to the Department of Energy, waves could generate 2 terawatts of electricity -- enough to meet the world's current electricity needs. Energy embodied in the world's ocean currents and tides is twice that much. However, only a small percentage of this could be tapped and thus far efforts to do so have cost more than the energy they've generated.

Energetech has made significant improvements on previous efforts, said Alison Cornish, the company's business services manager. Its 115-foot-wide turbine directs a wide wave front into a chamber by means of a parabolic shaped opening. The rising and falling motion of the waves pushes a powerful jet of water inside the narrow chamber, much like a blowhole. That, in turn, forces a high-speed airflow past a controllable turbine that spins in the same direction no matter whether the air is coming in or going out.
Tom Denniss, the inventor and Energetech's CEO, has been working on this since 1991. Over that time a number of wave turbine prototypes by other companies in Denmark, Scotland and elsewhere have either broken down or been commercial failures. But with countries looking to reduce their carbon emissions, there's still a great deal of interest. In fact Energetech's Rhode Island project is partially funded by the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund.

Like most other renewable sources, wave generators can't store energy and the cost of building structures is high.

"It's a bit of (a) scientist's dream at this point," said Elena Nekhaev, director of programs at the World Energy Council.

Dream or not, there are a number of wave and tidal energy projects currently underway. At least two new wave-energy power plants are being tested in Scotland, which is also home to the newly established European Marine Energy Center. This month, the British government also said it would invest $85 million to develop the technology.

Independent Natural Resources, a Minnesota energy engineering company, wants to install its Seadog wave turbine off the coast of Humboldt County in Northern California. The Seadog uses wave action to pump seawater to an elevated reservoir onshore. Water from the reservoir is then released down a flume to turn an onshore turbine.

The Seadog offers the advantage of being able to store some energy as water in the reservoir. When more electricity is needed, more water is released down the flume. The first trial pump is expected to be installed by the end of the year. If it succeeds, a 16-pump project will follow, producing enough power to service about 600 homes.

In September, New York City will receive some of its electricity from six underwater turbines attached to concrete piles in the East River that will be powered by the tides. Although only generating enough power for about 200 homes, this will be the first tidal-turbine power plant in the world. Virginia-based Verdant Power, the company overseeing the project, said if all goes well 200 to 300 turbines will be installed.

One of the toughest tests for wave and tidal power plants is surviving the continual pounding, storms and all that salt, said Rick Mercier, director of the Offshore Technology Research Center. "The seas pose a severe challenge to any equipment over the long term," Mercier said.

OTRC normally tests offshore oil and gas-drilling rigs but has recently been testing wave-power plants like the Seadog.
"Building something that will last can drive up the costs," Mercier said. In other words, building a wave power plant that could last 30 years is doable. But whether it's cost-effective is unknown.

In the meantime, government investments are still needed to make renewable energy competitive with oil and gas, said Nekhaev of the World Energy Council.

"There have been no breakthroughs in wave and tidal energy," she said. "Just refinements."

2004, Lycos, Inc.
http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,64695,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_4

Mark said...

New Power Source -Wall Vibrations
By Lori Valigra
The Christian Science Monitor
11-14-2003

Imagine using a computer that runs on energy generated from your building's wall and window vibrations.

Masayuki Miyazaki, a senior researcher at Hitachi Co. Ltd.'s central lab in Tokyo, is trying to do just that.

He recently made a tiny generator that converts building movements into electricity, creating enough energy to run a temperature or light sensor once an hour.

Though the output is small right now, only about 10 microwatts, scientists predict the generator's potential could be huge in coming decades - possibly used in battery-free computing systems.

Dr. Miyazaki's work is part of a growing movement by scientists to find, create, or capture alternative sources of energy - even in small amounts much less than one watt. Researchers hope to harvest power from anything from the vibrations of walls and windows to the movements of air and the human body.

While alternative energy sources alone might not produce much electricity, they could help power small devices such as computer chips, wireless sensor networks, or cellphones. The idea is simple. Just as some wristwatches power themselves from the random movements of a person's arm, these devices would capture energy from random movements of other things.
In another approach, Larry Kostiuk at the University of Alberta in Canada, is working on a water-powered battery. Its special trait: creating electricity directly from water on the tiniest scales.

Most people are familiar with hydroelectricity, which uses water falling from a height to drive turbines and generate electricity. Professor Kostiuk's method differs in that water is put under pressure as it moves through microscopic channels within a glass or ceramic-filter tube, allowing electricity to be converted directly from water. The experimental tube, about 2 centimeters in diameter, has about half a million tiny channels or holes through which the water is inserted by a hand-operated syringe.

As water travels over the surface of the channels, it becomes electrically charged when its ions rub up against the solid surface. Scientists placed electrodes at the ends of each channel and then extracted electrical energy as current flows between the electrodes. Right now currents are very low, around 4 microwatts, but millions of channels could be added together to increase the power output enough to create a water-powered battery.

Drawing on energy around us
Miyazaki's approach generates electricity from the ambient energy all around us. A building's walls and windows vibrate constantly because of wind, air conditioners, or passing trucks. Since the power is still very small, Miyazaki says he aims to use the power source as an "on-chip battery" for circuits such as those used in computers and other electronic products.
"The application is a field called 'ubiquitous computing.' For example, wireless sensor networks of small chips can be distributed everywhere," he says.

Miyazaki says commercial applications will emerge in several years, although the approach requires more research to make it economically feasible.

Eventually, he plans to put a sensor, wireless transceiver, processor, and power source into one small package that can be used in wireless sensor networks. Such networks are expected to become part of our everyday environment and will be placed in buildings, on roads, and on bridges.
Miyazaki isn't the only one tapping vibrations to create electricity. Shad Roundy, professor of engineering at the Australian National University in Canberra, is pursuing techniques to capture energy from low-level vibrations caused by factors such as building movement. One of his methods is similar to Hitachi's, but he now is leaning toward using a piezoelectric approach, electricity caused by mechanical pressure or strain, which he says can work better.

A two-layer diving board
Professor Roundy's piezoelectric generator is similar to a two-layer diving board with a boulder on the end of it. When the device is shaken, the beam resembling the double diving board bends, creating tension in the top layer and compression in the bottom. The opposite happens if the beam is bent the other way, so power can be drawn in either direction. Roundy says he designed several devices that can be placed on vibrating structures to generate power. The best output so far is about 300 microwatts per cubic centimeter.
Power from the factory floor
This method is "attractive in providing power for very low-power wireless sensors and transmitters, but are not useful for large-scale electrical power generation," he says. Roundy says commercial applications could emerge within a year and may include harnessing energy from a manufacturing floor.
Kostiuk remains cautiously optimistic about the future for such new approaches. "I don't know if it will ever work at an efficiency that makes it relevant for widespread use," he says of his water battery. "But it can take multiple decades for something to see commercial applications."

2003 The Christian Science Monitor

http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1113/p14s02-stct.html?sciTechNav

Mark said...

This unfortunately cycles back into a bio-oil use, though I'll post it here anyway. That what else are you gonna do with the 'gunk' that he talks about? An interesting use of current internal combustion engines off sheer waste can thus be accomplished, though still I think for the energy category, there are other more etherially nice options.


QUOTE:

"This is tremendous," Baskis said in the Kansas City Star. "From the tests we've run in our pilot, we know that if we took all the agricultural wastes (in America) and converted them into oil we could make 12 billion barrels per year."

With the U.S. using, on average, 19.4 million barrels a day, such a full-scale conversion could take a big chunk out of the need to import our oil.


[That's a huge understatement to put it mildly! It's actually creating 618 days worth of bio-oil at current use levels of petroleum annually; that would mean the U.S. would start to export its bio-oil because we would have almost twice as much automatically from what is required daily, which is provided from waste generated already. Bam!]


Though for the pragmatic point that simply burying all this biological stuff would go to waste (the toxic computer parts I think we could leave out of their mix!), this is an interesting cycle they are starting to create.


garbage/
lubricants
energy
biomass

newswire article reposts oregon & cascadia 09.Jun.2003 07:00
energy & nuclear | environment | sustainability

Oil from Garbage?
author: DEREK REIBER

A company claims its process can mimic the Earth's geothermal activity and turn any type of waste into oil, with no harmful pollutants

This was reposted from www.tidepool.org, a website that compiles coverage of environmental issues of concern in the Pacific Northwest.

______


Turkey guts, old tires, medical waste, obsolete computers [?! that would be highly toxic!], sewage, plastic bottles, cornstalks, household garbage, paper-pulp effluent, and livestock refuse.

What does all this stuff have in common? Stick any of it into one of Changing World Technologies' machines and -- through a process that the company claims is 85 percent energy efficient and produces zero harmful pollutants -- out comes oil.

"This is a solution to three of the biggest problems facing mankind," said Brian Appel, CEO of Changing World Technologies, to Discover Magazine. "This process can deal with the world's waste. It can supplement our dwindling supplies of oil. And it can slow down global warming."

Through what's known as a "thermal depolymerization process," or TDP for short, Changing World says it can turn just about anything -- even biological weapons waste such as anthrax spores -- into a golden-brown liquid that closely resembles crude oil, which can then be refined into heating oil, diesel fuel or gasoline. And the only byproduct of the entire process is water, which the company says can be discharged to a municipal sewer system in compliance with laws.

Imagine: no more Middle East oil, toxic waste, hog farm manure run-off, or massive piles of used tires. Instead, feed the detritus into one of a number of TDP plants scattered across the country and the results are three commodity-valued materials: oil, clean-burning gas, and purified minerals that can be used as fuels, fertilizers or manufacturing chemicals.

Sound too good to be true? Many doubters thought so, until the company's Philadelphia pilot plant started converting up to seven tons of various waste into oil, the first large-scale demonstration of the technology's potential. That success soon drew the interest of private investors, who have added $40 million to help move the process along. The federal government has also put $12 million into the venture.

"We will be able to make oil for $8 to $12 a barrel," said Paul Baskis, the inventor of Changing World's patented process, in Discover. "We are going to be able to switch to a carbohydrate economy."

The next phase of the company's test of the technology will be in Missouri, a football field away from one of ConAgra Foods' Butterball turkey processing plants, where Changing World is building a larger version of its Philadelphia test plant.

[see, this is just going to institutionalize all that nasty scale issue that has its own externalities in other areas though..., ideally of course the entire CATEGOERY HERE would disppear, similar to William McDonough's design ideas.]

Funded in part by a $5 million grant from the Environmental Protection Agency, the two companies anticipate the $20 million facility will process more than 200 tons of turkey fats, bones, and feathers every day.

"This plant will make 10 tons of gas per day, which will go back into the system to make heat to power the system," said Changing World's Appel in Discover. "It will make 21,000 gallons of water, which will be clean enough to discharge into a municipal sewage system.

Pathological vectors will be completely gone.

It will make 11 tons of minerals and 600 barrels of oil, high-quality stuff, the same specs as a number two heating oil. The Environmental Protection Agency doesn't even consider us waste handlers. We are actually manufacturers -- that's what our permit says. This process changes the whole industrial equation. Waste goes from a cost to a profit."

As Discover Magazine's story notes, the ConAgra facility represents a key opportunity for the livestock industry, which typically sends its waste to rendering plants that make animal feed and fertilizer from the waste -- essentially making food for animals from other animals.

But with the onset of mad cow disease and other livestock pathogens, the practice is coming under heightened scrutiny.

Europe has already completely banned the practice, and the United States may be close behind with its own increased restrictions, which could be a big boon for Changing World's TDP concept.

"This is tremendous," Baskis said in the Kansas City Star. "From the tests we've run in our pilot, we know that if we took all the agricultural wastes (in America) and converted them into oil we could make 12 billion barrels per year."

With the U.S. using, on average, 19.4 million barrels a day, such a full-scale conversion could take a big chunk out of the need to import our oil.


[Bam!]

The thermal depolymerization process essentially mimics and speeds up what the earth already does over millions of years -- convert hydrocarbon-based waste into oil. Fossil fuels as we know them were produced when the long, complex molecular chains of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon found in long-dead animal and plant life was pressure-cooked by the earth's geothermal activity, yielding shorter-chain petroleum hydrocarbons. Changing World's TDP concept does the same thing, but faster. Plus, it claims it has improved on previous efforts by being able to handle wet waste, which is troublesome because producing enough energy to dry out the biological waste that's used often exceeds the energy value of the oil that's produced.

"The chief difference in our process is that we make water a friend rather than an enemy," said CEO Appel in Discover. "The other processes all tried to drive out water. We drive it in, inside this tank, with heat and pressure. We super-hydrate the material."

Robert Brown, an engineering professor at the Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies at Iowa State University, told the Associated Press that he'd be surprised if Changing World Technologies could make their fuel at an affordable price, due to the wet waste problem.

Appel acknowledged his company's process isn't competitive with crude oil just yet, but envisions the price dropping as the TDP technology shows more promise. The ConAgra plant in Missouri will need to spend $15 a barrel turning turkey waste into oil, compared with about $13 a barrel for small exploration and production companies and $5 for a major oil company.

An interesting angle on the new technology, however, is its potential impact on the global warming front.

Detractors of the TDP idea argue that it only furthers our dependence on a hydrocarbon-based economy, rather than helping achieve a shift to a hydrogen economy that leaves carbon entirely out of the picture. But the company argues that with a major move toward adopting TDP technologies, oil that's already underground will be allowed to stay there. Keeping that oil below the earth's surface would help realign a balance in the global carbon cycle, which has been thrown out of whack by our extraction and burning of fossil fuels.

With TDP, all the "accouterments of the civilized world -- domestic animals and plants, buildings, artificial objects of all kinds -- would then be regarded as temporary carbon sinks," reports Discover. We wouldn't be overdrawing our carbon bank account, so to speak. Instead, "the only carbon used would that which already existed above the surface," which would help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that's already accumulated in the atmosphere.

But as with any other new technology, there'll be trade-offs and most likely unforeseen consequences that are tough to ferret out when initially flush with the potential promise of a world-altering idea.

For instance, in one point brought up in an online discussion on FuturePundit.com, if TDP is adopted widely, there'll no doubt be a drop in waste entering the environment. But if waste is no longer considered a "problem" thanks to TDP plants, it could possibly lead to an explosion of "throwaway" consumer items, producing an environmental strain on the production, not disposal, side of the equation.

Regardless of the potential impacts -- beneficial or otherwise -- Changing World's technology, if it proves successful, indeed has the potential to change the world. In conjunction with other advances in alternative energy technologies, the TDP concept will take its place among a new set of ideas that may someday help us get our power from somewhere besides underground.

homepage: homepage: http://www.tidepool.org/

add a comment on this article
If only it were true .... 09.Jun.2003 08:24
skate

No doubt they've also got the patent on the secret 200 MPG carburetor we've all heard about ... unless that's still in GMC's secret vaults.

... 09.Jun.2003 09:00
this thing here

i appreciate the fact that this process turns waste into something useful.

but at the same time, more hydrocarbons creating more little explosions inside 100 year old fuel-air-valve engines, releasing quantites of soot, smog, carbon dioxide and all the rest, doesn't exactly seem like much of major step forward. as long as car and truck engines keep spewing exhaust, there's going to be a negative impact on the environment. regardless of where the hydrocarbon fuels come from.

and i think to say that dwindling supplies of oil is a catastrophe waiting to happen (and therefore we must find more oil) is only true if we think we should keep using oil forever and ever and ever, because we stubbornly believe there is absolutely no other way to make cars move from point a to point b and create energy. i find this desperate clinging to oil to be sad and utterly regressive, and totally contrary to the idea of progress, human ingenuity, and new technology.

there will never be an economy and a society anywhere on the face of the earth that will be totally hydrocarbon free. hydrocarbons will always have their uses. so perhaps this idea of converting waste into oil would best be put to use in creating such a "non-car engine" supply, let's say for plastics, for jet fuel, for industrial uses and the like. RATHER THAN just being another source (and another excuse) for hydrocarbon car engines, because somehow we mistakenly and regressively think there is absolutely no other way to get cars from point a to point b.

As long as we're on the subject 09.Jun.2003 09:47
skate

I tend to agree with what you've said and it brings up a point that's always puzzled me. Forgive me if I don't state this well, but ...

It seems that one of the most often stated arguments here against SUV's is that they are contributing to the depletion of the worlds oil supplies. At the same time, our dependence upon those supplies is decried as a bad thing. So, why be upset with SUV's on the grounds that they consume too much oil ... Isn't that particular argument self-contradictory?

Yes, yes 09.Jun.2003 15:48
James

SUV's consume loads of oil. But remember, in Soviet Russia, SUV's consume you!

Hydrocarbon Economy 29.Jun.2003 16:07
Paul T. Baskis baskispt@earthlink.net

I would like to make this point to those who spout off how wonderful the world would be if we just used hydrogen. If you take a sample of the air outside the building you are in, you will not find even one molecule of hydrogen. The amount of hydrogen is below detection levels. This is due to the fact that the earths gravitational field is not strong enough to hold hydrogen in molecular form. It is boyed up to the top of the atmosphere and blown away by the solar wind. Or, it may possibly find an ozone molecule and combine to form water again. this would cause rapid destruction of the ozone layer. Carbon is the natural energy currency of the earth and it is this way due to the fact that all form carbon can exist in are retained by the earths gravity. Therefore, when energy from the sun is introduced into he earth geological system it drives all elements in a cycle from high density to low density and back again, unless the compound is so light that it is lost due to the lack of gravitational attraction.

There is no hydrogen cycle on the earth and it will be tragic if man tries to start one. Mankind will turn the earth into another Mars due to the lack of hydrogen to form water. Many times people misunderstand that which seems aesthetically pleasing with that that is ecologically pleasing.

Thank you for this oportunity to enlighten you

Paul

2178927880

Don't dis the truth! 02.Aug.2003 16:21
Mr. "Dont' hate the energy solutions, when they come."

The guy who made this process was on Fox News, just the other day, on their financial show, with Neil Cavuto. They have a poultry processing plant that is nearly all hooked up for the first plant- and keep in mind, it is the first plant, so it will get more effecient, and better, over time. Just remember, no human being will ever fly, only birds and insects can fly. If God had wanted man to fly, he would have given man wings, right?

Wrong. We will see the end of oil taken from the ground, and that's the first step to us finding other, more advanced and green-friendly sources of energy. Of course, for many of the supposed environmentalists today, there is nothing to do but complain, all the time. What a sad state we've reached, when someone makes an improvement (turning trash into something that at LEAST is useful- 1)energy source 2) disposes of trash 3) can stop oil exploration) and nobody wants to believe it, or do anything but insult it. It's time for the Greens to learn to be something, anything, besides simply bitter protesters.

Unfortunately, this can't be the whole story 24.Aug.2003 11:37
Ima Sori

Without wishing to distract from all the benefits this technology might have, the authors do not mention what happens to the non-carboniferous waste that's dumped in the process. The author mentions old tires and even computers being turned into oil. I doubt it. There are a lot of metals in our waste, and they can't simply disappear in the process. The chemistry doesn't add up. So there must be side products that still must be disposed of. I don't doubt that turkey wastes can be transformed, but not the steel in steel radial tires, or the cadmium in batteris, or the numerous other metals in old computers.
Still, getting rid of turkey bones is a great step forward :-)

You are sorry Sori 17.Sep.2003 18:49
Dr.C

Dear sori,

You would have failed the Organic I I teach for sure. Plastics, like those in PC's which you think can not be turned into oil, are made out of hydrocarbons (which come from petroleum). Basically the difference between oil and plastics is the length of the hydrocarbon chain. (Note there usually are some things added to the end of the chain in plastics)

You simply need to apply heat and those long chains start breaking into little ones. Refine the process enough and making oil should be easy. The metals will no doubt drop out of the solution and be recycled and sold. Again pulling metals out of solution is easy. (You can even pull gold out of ocean water with the right equipment.)

I hope they succeed for one reason to help reduce the size of landfills, which in turn would also reduce the amount of methane that floats out of every landfill in the world and really hurts the Ozone layer. Additionally did you know the highest point in Florida is a landfill? Please tell me again why we don’t need this technology? Oh and to tell the Saudis to go pack sand would be nice too!

Mark said...

This unfortunately cycles back into a bio-oil use, though I'll post it here anyway. That what else are you gonna do with the 'gunk' that he talks about? An interesting use of current internal combustion engines off sheer waste can thus be accomplished, though still I think for the energy category, there are other more ethereally nice options.


QUOTE:

"This is tremendous," Baskis said in the Kansas City Star. "From the tests we've run in our pilot, we know that if we took all the agricultural wastes (in America) and converted them into oil we could make 12 billion barrels per year."

With the U.S. using, on average, 19.4 million barrels a day, such a full-scale conversion could take a big chunk out of the need to import our oil.


[That's a huge understatement to put it mildly! It's actually creating 618 days worth of bio-oil at current use levels of petroleum annually; that would mean the U.S. would start to export its bio-oil because we would have almost twice as much automatically from what is required daily, which is provided from waste generated already. Bam!]


Though for the pragmatic point that simply burying all this biological stuff would go to waste (the toxic computer parts I think we could leave out of their mix!), this is an interesting cycle they are starting to create.


garbage/
lubricants
energy
biomass

newswire article reposts oregon & cascadia 09.Jun.2003 07:00
energy & nuclear | environment | sustainability

Oil from Garbage?
author: DEREK REIBER

A company claims its process can mimic the Earth's geothermal activity and turn any type of waste into oil, with no harmful pollutants

This was reposted from www.tidepool.org, a website that compiles coverage of environmental issues of concern in the Pacific Northwest.

______


Turkey guts, old tires, medical waste, obsolete computers [?! that would be highly toxic!], sewage, plastic bottles, cornstalks, household garbage, paper-pulp effluent, and livestock refuse.

What does all this stuff have in common? Stick any of it into one of Changing World Technologies' machines and -- through a process that the company claims is 85 percent energy efficient and produces zero harmful pollutants -- out comes oil.

"This is a solution to three of the biggest problems facing mankind," said Brian Appel, CEO of Changing World Technologies, to Discover Magazine. "This process can deal with the world's waste. It can supplement our dwindling supplies of oil. And it can slow down global warming."

Through what's known as a "thermal depolymerization process," or TDP for short, Changing World says it can turn just about anything -- even biological weapons waste such as anthrax spores -- into a golden-brown liquid that closely resembles crude oil, which can then be refined into heating oil, diesel fuel or gasoline. And the only byproduct of the entire process is water, which the company says can be discharged to a municipal sewer system in compliance with laws.

Imagine: no more Middle East oil, toxic waste, hog farm manure run-off, or massive piles of used tires. Instead, feed the detritus into one of a number of TDP plants scattered across the country and the results are three commodity-valued materials: oil, clean-burning gas, and purified minerals that can be used as fuels, fertilizers or manufacturing chemicals.

Sound too good to be true? Many doubters thought so, until the company's Philadelphia pilot plant started converting up to seven tons of various waste into oil, the first large-scale demonstration of the technology's potential. That success soon drew the interest of private investors, who have added $40 million to help move the process along. The federal government has also put $12 million into the venture.

"We will be able to make oil for $8 to $12 a barrel," said Paul Baskis, the inventor of Changing World's patented process, in Discover. "We are going to be able to switch to a carbohydrate economy."

The next phase of the company's test of the technology will be in Missouri, a football field away from one of ConAgra Foods' Butterball turkey processing plants, where Changing World is building a larger version of its Philadelphia test plant.

[see, this is just going to institutionalize all that nasty scale issue that has its own externalities in other areas though..., ideally of course the entire CATEGOERY HERE would disppear, similar to William McDonough's design ideas.]

Funded in part by a $5 million grant from the Environmental Protection Agency, the two companies anticipate the $20 million facility will process more than 200 tons of turkey fats, bones, and feathers every day.

"This plant will make 10 tons of gas per day, which will go back into the system to make heat to power the system," said Changing World's Appel in Discover. "It will make 21,000 gallons of water, which will be clean enough to discharge into a municipal sewage system.

Pathological vectors will be completely gone.

It will make 11 tons of minerals and 600 barrels of oil, high-quality stuff, the same specs as a number two heating oil. The Environmental Protection Agency doesn't even consider us waste handlers. We are actually manufacturers -- that's what our permit says. This process changes the whole industrial equation. Waste goes from a cost to a profit."

As Discover Magazine's story notes, the ConAgra facility represents a key opportunity for the livestock industry, which typically sends its waste to rendering plants that make animal feed and fertilizer from the waste -- essentially making food for animals from other animals.

But with the onset of mad cow disease and other livestock pathogens, the practice is coming under heightened scrutiny.

Europe has already completely banned the practice, and the United States may be close behind with its own increased restrictions, which could be a big boon for Changing World's TDP concept.

"This is tremendous," Baskis said in the Kansas City Star. "From the tests we've run in our pilot, we know that if we took all the agricultural wastes (in America) and converted them into oil we could make 12 billion barrels per year."

With the U.S. using, on average, 19.4 million barrels a day, such a full-scale conversion could take a big chunk out of the need to import our oil.


[Bam!]

The thermal depolymerization process essentially mimics and speeds up what the earth already does over millions of years -- convert hydrocarbon-based waste into oil. [NO NO NO. Petroleum is not from a biogenic pathways, despite the lies of the oil corporations.]

Fossil fuels as we know them were produced when the long, complex molecular chains of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon found in long-dead animal and plant life was pressure-cooked by the earth's geothermal activity, yielding shorter-chain petroleum hydrocarbons. [NO NO NO, lie lie lie of the century keeps going on] Changing World's TDP concept does the same thing [sic], but faster. Plus, it claims it has improved on previous efforts by being able to handle wet waste, which is troublesome because producing enough energy to dry out the biological waste that's used often exceeds the energy value of the oil that's produced.

"The chief difference in our process is that we make water a friend rather than an enemy," said CEO Appel in Discover. "The other processes all tried to drive out water. We drive it in, inside this tank, with heat and pressure. We super-hydrate the material."

Robert Brown, an engineering professor at the Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies at Iowa State University, told the Associated Press that he'd be surprised if Changing World Technologies could make their fuel at an affordable price, due to the wet waste problem.

Appel acknowledged his company's process isn't competitive with crude oil just yet, but envisions the price dropping as the TDP technology shows more promise. The ConAgra plant in Missouri will need to spend $15 a barrel turning turkey waste into oil, compared with about $13 a barrel for small exploration and production companies and $5 for a major oil company.

An interesting angle on the new technology, however, is its potential impact on the global warming front.

Detractors of the TDP idea argue that it only furthers our dependence on a hydrocarbon-based economy, rather than helping achieve a shift to a hydrogen economy that leaves carbon entirely out of the picture. But the company argues that with a major move toward adopting TDP technologies, oil that's already underground will be allowed to stay there. Keeping that oil below the earth's surface would help realign a balance in the global carbon cycle, which has been thrown out of whack by our extraction and burning of fossil fuels.

With TDP, all the "accouterments of the civilized world -- domestic animals and plants, buildings, artificial objects of all kinds -- would then be regarded as temporary carbon sinks," reports Discover. We wouldn't be overdrawing our carbon bank account, so to speak. Instead, "the only carbon used would that which already existed above the surface," which would help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that's already accumulated in the atmosphere.

But as with any other new technology, there'll be trade-offs and most likely unforeseen consequences that are tough to ferret out when initially flush with the potential promise of a world-altering idea.

For instance, in one point brought up in an online discussion on FuturePundit.com, if TDP is adopted widely, there'll no doubt be a drop in waste entering the environment. But if waste is no longer considered a "problem" thanks to TDP plants, it could possibly lead to an explosion of "throwaway" consumer items, producing an environmental strain on the production, not disposal, side of the equation.

Regardless of the potential impacts -- beneficial or otherwise -- Changing World's technology, if it proves successful, indeed has the potential to change the world. In conjunction with other advances in alternative energy technologies, the TDP concept will take its place among a new set of ideas that may someday help us get our power from somewhere besides underground.

homepage: homepage: http://www.tidepool.org/

add a comment on this article
If only it were true .... 09.Jun.2003 08:24
skate

No doubt they've also got the patent on the secret 200 MPG carburetor we've all heard about ... unless that's still in GMC's secret vaults.

... 09.Jun.2003 09:00
this thing here

i appreciate the fact that this process turns waste into something useful.

but at the same time, more hydrocarbons creating more little explosions inside 100 year old fuel-air-valve engines, releasing quantites of soot, smog, carbon dioxide and all the rest, doesn't exactly seem like much of major step forward. as long as car and truck engines keep spewing exhaust, there's going to be a negative impact on the environment. regardless of where the hydrocarbon fuels come from.

and i think to say that dwindling supplies of oil is a catastrophe waiting to happen (and therefore we must find more oil) is only true if we think we should keep using oil forever and ever and ever, because we stubbornly believe there is absolutely no other way to make cars move from point a to point b and create energy. i find this desperate clinging to oil to be sad and utterly regressive, and totally contrary to the idea of progress, human ingenuity, and new technology.

there will never be an economy and a society anywhere on the face of the earth that will be totally hydrocarbon free. hydrocarbons will always have their uses. so perhaps this idea of converting waste into oil would best be put to use in creating such a "non-car engine" supply, let's say for plastics, for jet fuel, for industrial uses and the like. RATHER THAN just being another source (and another excuse) for hydrocarbon car engines, because somehow we mistakenly and regressively think there is absolutely no other way to get cars from point a to point b.

As long as we're on the subject 09.Jun.2003 09:47
skate

I tend to agree with what you've said and it brings up a point that's always puzzled me. Forgive me if I don't state this well, but ...

It seems that one of the most often stated arguments here against SUV's is that they are contributing to the depletion of the worlds oil supplies. At the same time, our dependence upon those supplies is decried as a bad thing. So, why be upset with SUV's on the grounds that they consume too much oil ... Isn't that particular argument self-contradictory?

Yes, yes 09.Jun.2003 15:48
James

SUV's consume loads of oil. But remember, in Soviet Russia, SUV's consume you!

Hydrocarbon Economy 29.Jun.2003 16:07
Paul T. Baskis baskispt@earthlink.net

I would like to make this point to those who spout off how wonderful the world would be if we just used hydrogen. If you take a sample of the air outside the building you are in, you will not find even one molecule of hydrogen. The amount of hydrogen is below detection levels. This is due to the fact that the earths gravitational field is not strong enough to hold hydrogen in molecular form. It is boyed up to the top of the atmosphere and blown away by the solar wind. Or, it may possibly find an ozone molecule and combine to form water again. this would cause rapid destruction of the ozone layer. Carbon is the natural energy currency of the earth and it is this way due to the fact that all form carbon can exist in are retained by the earths gravity. Therefore, when energy from the sun is introduced into he earth geological system it drives all elements in a cycle from high density to low density and back again, unless the compound is so light that it is lost due to the lack of gravitational attraction.

There is no hydrogen cycle on the earth and it will be tragic if man tries to start one. Mankind will turn the earth into another Mars due to the lack of hydrogen to form water. Many times people misunderstand that which seems aesthetically pleasing with that that is ecologically pleasing.

Thank you for this oportunity to enlighten you

Paul

2178927880

Don't dis the truth! 02.Aug.2003 16:21
Mr. "Dont' hate the energy solutions, when they come."

The guy who made this process was on Fox News, just the other day, on their financial show, with Neil Cavuto. They have a poultry processing plant that is nearly all hooked up for the first plant- and keep in mind, it is the first plant, so it will get more effecient, and better, over time. Just remember, no human being will ever fly, only birds and insects can fly. If God had wanted man to fly, he would have given man wings, right?

Wrong. We will see the end of oil taken from the ground, and that's the first step to us finding other, more advanced and green-friendly sources of energy. Of course, for many of the supposed environmentalists today, there is nothing to do but complain, all the time. What a sad state we've reached, when someone makes an improvement (turning trash into something that at LEAST is useful- 1)energy source 2) disposes of trash 3) can stop oil exploration) and nobody wants to believe it, or do anything but insult it. It's time for the Greens to learn to be something, anything, besides simply bitter protesters.

Unfortunately, this can't be the whole story 24.Aug.2003 11:37
Ima Sori

Without wishing to distract from all the benefits this technology might have, the authors do not mention what happens to the non-carboniferous waste that's dumped in the process. The author mentions old tires and even computers being turned into oil. I doubt it. There are a lot of metals in our waste, and they can't simply disappear in the process. The chemistry doesn't add up. So there must be side products that still must be disposed of. I don't doubt that turkey wastes can be transformed, but not the steel in steel radial tires, or the cadmium in batteris, or the numerous other metals in old computers.
Still, getting rid of turkey bones is a great step forward :-)

You are sorry Sori 17.Sep.2003 18:49
Dr.C

Dear sori,

You would have failed the Organic I I teach for sure. Plastics, like those in PC's which you think can not be turned into oil, are made out of hydrocarbons (which come from petroleum). Basically the difference between oil and plastics is the length of the hydrocarbon chain. (Note there usually are some things added to the end of the chain in plastics)

You simply need to apply heat and those long chains start breaking into little ones. Refine the process enough and making oil should be easy. The metals will no doubt drop out of the solution and be recycled and sold. Again pulling metals out of solution is easy. (You can even pull gold out of ocean water with the right equipment.)

I hope they succeed for one reason to help reduce the size of landfills, which in turn would also reduce the amount of methane that floats out of every landfill in the world and really hurts the Ozone layer. Additionally did you know the highest point in Florida is a landfill? Please tell me again why we don’t need this technology? Oh and to tell the Saudis to go pack sand would be nice too!

* on the abiotic pathways to petroleum production, read select comments on this article here (with live links), or placed in the next post without live links.

Mark said...

THE ABIOTIC PATHWAY TO PETROLEUM PRODUCTION IS THE ONLY PATHWAY

Besides noting with a left punch, already above, that there are many other alternative energy sources available in production now, there is the right punch below that even the so called physical premises of peak oil are a lie--and a well kept treasured one at that by the oil industries that know it is a lie--that oil is really abiotic instead and comes from certain VERY COMMON common mineral and compression contexts underground instead of dead dinosaurs and plants. Coal, yes biological origins. Petroleum, no, it has an abiotic origin.

Thus both these two strategies are simple ways to casually demote 'peak oil' puff pieces in the oil corporation dominated press that lie to you every day of your life.

However, I would hardly desire any of this polluting oil's continuity, regardless of its origins:

[1] "Hundreds of years of oil available: abiotic author vs. banker biotic debate on Canadian TV," http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/11/328113.shtml

[2] "Natural Petroleum: NO Connection With Biological Matter; abiotic oil noted by oil industry,: published by peer reviewed Energia, in 2001. Seems oil industry publications up to four years ago got around to exposing the intermixed depopulation/artificial high-price structure of the oil market, as an energy scam on their own! Good for them. However, of course in a society run by spin, that's about the time when people began to trumpet the unscientific peak oil concept... Published in Energia, 2001, 22/3, 26-34. "The claims which have traditionally been put forward to argue a connection between natural petroleum and biological matter have been subjected to scientific scrutiny and have been established to be baseless." http://www.gasresources.net/DisposalBioClaims.htm or commentary here http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/05/317075.shtml .

[3] In September, the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published an interesting study by a distinguished group of academics (as opposed to lie-for-a-living oil industry PR spokesmen that the 'Peakers' routinely cite): "We present in situ observations of ***hydrocarbon formation via carbonate reduction at upper mantle pressures and temperatures***. Methane was formed [ABIOTICALLY] from FeO, CaCO3-calcite, and water at pressures between 5 and 11 GPa and temperatures ranging from 500°C to 1,500°C. The results are shown to be consistent with multiphase thermodynamic calculations based on the statistical mechanics of soft particle mixtures. The study demonstrates THE EXISTENCE OF ABIOGENIC PATHWAYS for the formation of hydrocarbons in the Earth's interior and suggests that the hydrocarbon budget of the bulk Earth may be larger than conventionally assumed." here http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0405930101v1?view=abstract

[4] An experiment creating oil compounds from such abiotic pathways has recently been successful, further verifying this: "NOBEL PRIZE WINNER publishes data on Abiotic Pressured Rocks into Methane Hydrocarbons," published in Harvard Magazine, data from Nobel Prize winning professor of the Harvard Chemistry Department,..."[R]esearch coauthored by Dudley Herschbach, Baird Research Professor of Science and recipient of the 1986 Nobel Prize in chemistry, questions thinking/disinformation on 'biotic oil' theory. Published last fall in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the study describes how investigators combined three abiotic (non-living) materials -- water (H2O), limestone (CaCO3), and iron oxide (FeO) -- and crushed the mixture together with the same intense pressure found deep below the earth's surface. This process created methane (CH4), the major component of natural gas. ...[A]ssertions about methane and oil really caught Herschbach's attention. "He said there wasn't much chance that you could do a laboratory experiment to test this," Herschbach reports. "And I thought, 'Holy smoke! We could do this with the diamond anvil cell.'" And they did. Poof. Methane: http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/10/326943.shtml.

[5] And the precious articles of author and commentator Dave McGowan, summarized here http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/03/313305.shtml and here http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/03/312864.shtml and here http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/03/313421.shtml?discuss : "Stalin & Abiotic Oil versus international corporate oil's PLANNED GLOBAL HOLOCAUST," 'PEAK OIL' THEORY BITES THE DUST: By 1951, what has been called the Modern Russian-Ukrainian Theory of Deep, Abiotic Petroleum Origins was born. A healthy amount of scientific debate followed for the next couple of decades, during which time the theory, initially formulated by geologists, based on observational data, was validated through the rigorous quantitative work of chemists, physicists and thermodynamicists. For the last couple of decades, the theory has been accepted as established fact by virtually the entire scientific community of the (former) Soviet Union. It is backed up by literally thousands of published studies in prestigious, peer-reviewed scientific journals.

----

comment from:
http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/10/326943.shtml

Oil from Graphite 19.Oct.2005 07:19
Old Yooper link

I had the opportunity to tour the now closed White Pine mine in the UP of Michigan. There are hydrocarbons which drip from some fractures within the mine. The interesting part is that the host rocks are no less then 1.2 GA, thats Billion Years Old. The layer containing the petroleum grades to graphite and overall is in a moderate to high grade Metamorphic terrain primarily due to the intrusion of the Keweenawan 1.3-1.1 GA Basalts associated with the Mid-Continent Rift Zone.

There have also been findings of potential non-biogenic petroleum from the much older Michigamme Slate on the order of 2.3-2.4 GA. No true age of the actual petroleum has been established, but it is contained in the Upper Peninsula portion of the Superior Province consisting of early Proterazoic volcanic, slates, dolomites, and BIF (Banded Iron Formation), some of the richest Iron formation in the world. Billions of ton's of it has been mined up there since the 1850's. So we have our three ingredients:

1. Graphite containing slate - or the carbonate rocks
2. Plenty of Iron as Oxides and silicates.
3. Intense heat and pressure due to widespread regional Metamorphism billions of years ago.

----

elaborating one point above:

09.May.2005 13:12
energy & nuclear

Natural Petroleum: NO Connection With Biological Matter; abiotic oil noted by oil industry

author: Gas Resources.net

Seems oil industry publications up to four years ago got around to exposing the intermixed depopulation/artificial high-price structure of the oil market, as an energy scam on their own! Good for them. However, of course in a society run by spin, that's about the time when people began to trumpet the unscientific peak oil concept...

Published in Energia, 2001, 22/3, 26-34.
http://www.gasresources.net/DisposalBioClaims.htm

"The claims which have traditionally been put forward to argue a connection between natural petroleum and biological matter have been subjected to scientific scrutiny and have been established to be baseless."

However, the Rockefeller family and their ilk recommend you continue to be duped because your attempt to believe otherwise endangers their political power and their profit margins.

So if you want to endanger their political power, read on.

Assorted PIMC links from the very hot debate (or rather the angry denial) of this phenomena.

Understanding this really helps you grasp the whole power structure of the world at present: corporate fascist, fake environmentalist, eugenic (ex-)Nazis, unpunished from WWII coming back in an attempt on your life.

"Let's call our energy genocide 'Operation Peak Oil'. Think it will work?"

Natural Petroleum - NO Connection With Biological Matter
Gas Resources.net
May 8, 2005


"The claims which have traditionally been put forward to argue a connection between natural petroleum and biological matter have been subjected to scientific scrutiny and have been established to be baseless. The outcome of such scrutiny comes hardly as a surprise, given recognition of the constraints of thermodynamics upon the genesis of hydrocarbons.

If liquid hydrocarbons might evolve from biological detritus in the thermodynamic regime of the crust of the Earth, we could all expect to go to bed at night in our dotage, with white hair (or, at least, whatever might remain of same), a spreading waistline, and all the undesirable decrepitude of age, and to awake in the morning, clear eyed, with our hair returned of the color of our youth, with a slim waistline, a strong, flexible body, and with our sexual vigor restored. Alas, such is not to be. The merciless laws of thermodynamics do not accommodate folklore fables. Natural petroleum has no connection with biological matter."

_____


Dismissal of the Claims of a Biological Connection for Natural Petroleum

(Scientific Paper Published In 'Energia')

J. F. Kenney
Joint Institute of The Physics of the Earth - Russian Academy of Sciences
Gas Resources Corporation, 11811 North Freeway, Houston, TX 77060, U.S.A.

Ac. Ye. F. Shnyukov
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Vladimirskaya Street 56, 252.601 Kiev, Ukraine

V. A. Krayushkin
Institute of Geological Sciences
O. Gonchara Street 55-B, 01054 Kiev, Ukraine

I. K. Karpov
Institute of Geochemistry - Russian Academy of Sciences
Favorskii Street 1a, 664.033 Irkutsk, RUSSIA

V. G. Kutcherov
Russian State University of Oil and Gas
Leninskii Prospect 65, 117.917 Moscow, Russia

I. N. Plotnikova
National Petroleum Company of Tatarstan (TatNeft S.A.)
Butlerov Street 45-54, 423.020 Kazan, Tatarstan, RUSSIA


1. Introduction.

With recognition that the laws of thermodynamics prohibit spontaneous evolution of liquid hydrocarbons in the regime of temperature and pressure characteristic of the crust of the Earth, one should not expect there to exist legitimate scientific evidence that might suggest that such could occur. Indeed, and correctly, there exists no such evidence.

Nonetheless, and surprisingly, there continue to be often promulgated diverse claims purporting to constitute "evidence" that natural petroleum somehow evolves (miraculously) from biological matter. In this short article, such claims are briefly subjected to scientific scrutiny, demonstrated to be without merit, and dismissed.

...

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2005/05/317075.shtml
Commentary: Energy
Re: Biotic Peak oil lies versus Abiotic Oil Fields Refilling...Naturally...
by me
(No verified email address) 17 Jun 2007
Sloppy thinking and glazed eyed peakers are rapidly becoming the U.S. left's version of a fundamentalist desire of a Christian apocalypse. Word to the wise: the last thing I want would be go get the oil. The point is instead showing that we have enough to slowly--without economic disruptions--to move us to a more sustainable energy grid and technological choices. So, the only blame for failing to do that now clearly and solely lies with corporate, intentional negligence.


[6]

Oil Fields Are Refilling...Naturally... 17.Apr.2005 21:54
"Peak Oil" or "Peak Profits" link

Oil Fields Are Refilling...Naturally... "Peak Oil" or "Peak Profits"
author: Robert Cooke

Deep underwater, and deeper underground, scientists see surprising hints that gas and oil deposits can be replenished, filling up again, sometimes rapidly.
Oil Fields Are Refilling...
Naturally - Sometimes Rapidly

There Are More Oil Seeps Than All The Tankers On Earth
By Robert Cooke
Staff Writer - Newsday.com
4-10-2005


Deep underwater, and deeper underground, scientists see surprising hints that gas and oil deposits can be replenished, filling up again, sometimes rapidly.

Although it sounds too good to be true, increasing evidence from the Gulf of Mexico suggests that some old oil fields are being refilled by petroleum surging up from deep below, scientists report. That may mean that current estimates of oil and gas abundance are far too low.

Recent measurements in a major oil field show "that the fluids were changing over time; that very light oil and gas were being injected from below, even as the producing [oil pumping] was going on," said chemical oceanographer Mahlon "Chuck" Kennicutt. "They are refilling as we speak. But whether this is a worldwide phenomenon, we don't know."

Also not known, Kennicutt said, is whether the injection of new oil from deeper strata is of any economic significance, whether there will be enough to be exploitable. The discovery was unexpected, and it is still "somewhat controversial" within the oil industry.

Kennicutt, a faculty member at Texas A&M University, said it is now clear that gas and oil are coming into the known reservoirs very rapidly in terms of geologic time. The inflow of new gas, and some oil, has been detectable in as little as three to 10 years. In the past, it was not suspected that oil fields can refill because it was assumed the oil formed in place, or nearby, rather than far below.

According to marine geologist Harry Roberts, at Louisiana State University, "petroleum geologists don't accept it as a general phenomenon because it doesn't happen in most reservoirs. But in this case, it does seem to be happening. You have a very leaky fault system that does allow it to migrate in. It's directly connected to an oil and gas generating system at great depth."

What the scientists suspect is that very old petroleum -- formed tens of millions of years ago -- has continued migrating up into reservoirs that oil companies have been exploiting for years. But no one had expected that depleted oil fields might refill themselves.

Now, if it is found that gas and oil are coming up in significant amounts, and if the same is occurring in oil fields around the globe, then a lot more fuel than anyone expected could become available eventually. It hints that the world may not, in fact, be running out of petroleum.

"No one has been more astonished by the potential implications of our work than myself," said analytic chemist Jean Whelan, at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, in Massachusetts. "There already appears to be a large body of evidence consistent with ... oil and gas generation and migration on very short time scales in many areas globally," she wrote in the journal Sea Technology.

"Almost equally surprising," she added, is that "there seem to be no compelling arguments refuting the existence of these rapid, dynamic migration processes."

The first sketchy evidence of this emerged in 1984, when Kennicutt and colleagues from Texas A&M University were in the Gulf of Mexico trying to understand a phenomenon called "seeps," areas on the seafloor where sometimes large amounts of oil and gas escape through natural fissures.

"Our first discovery was with trawls. We knew it was an area of massive seepage, and we expected that the oil seeps would poison everything around" the site. But they found just the opposite.

"On the first trawl, we brought up over two tons of stuff. We had a tough time getting the nets back on board because they were so full" of very odd-looking sea.floor creatures, Kennicutt said. "They were long strawlike things that turned out to be tube worms.

"The clams were the first thing I noticed," he added. "They were pretty big, like the size of your hand, and it was obvious they had red blood inside, which is unusual. And these long tubes -- 3, 4 and 5 feet long -- we didn't know what they were, but they started bleeding red fluid, too. We didn't know what to make of it."

The biologists they consulted did know what to make of it. "The experts immediately recognized them as chemo-synthetic communities," creatures that get their energy from hydrocarbons -- oil and gas -- rather than from ordinary foods. So these animals are very much like, but still different from, recently discovered creatures living near very hot seafloor vent sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and other oceans.

The difference, Kennicutt said, is that the animals living around cold seeps live on methane and oil, while the creatures growing near hot water vents exploit sulfur compounds in the hot water.

The discovery of abundant life where scientists expected a deserted seafloor also suggested that the seeps are a long-duration phenomenon. Indeed, the clams are thought to be about 100 years old, and the tube worms may live as long as 600 years, or more, Kennicutt said.

The surprises kept pouring in as the researchers explored further and in more detail using research submarines. In some areas, the methane-metabolizing organisms even build up structures that resemble coral reefs.

It has long been known by geologists and oil industry workers that seeps exist. In Southern California, for example, there are seeps near Santa Barbara, at a geologic feature called Coal Oil Point. And, Roberts said, it's clear that "the Gulf of Mexico leaks like a sieve. You can't take a submarine dive without running into an oil or gas seep. And on a calm day, you can't take a boat ride without seeing gigantic oil slicks" on the sea surface.

Roberts added that natural seepage in places like the Gulf of Mexico "far exceeds anything that gets spilled" by oil tankers and other sources.

"The results of this have been a big surprise for me," said Whelan. "I never would have expected that the gas is moving up so quickly and what a huge effect it has on the whole system."

Although the oil industry hasn't shown great enthusiasm for the idea -- arguing that the upward migration is too slow and too uncommon to do much good -- the search for new oil and gas supplies already has been affected, Whelan and Kennicutt said. Now, companies scan the sea surface for signs of oil slicks that might point to new deposits.

"People are using airplane surveys for the slicks and are doing water column fluorescence measurements looking for the oil," Whelan said. "They're looking for the sources of the seeps and trying to hook that into the seismic evidence" normally used in searching for buried oil.

Similar research on known oil basins in the North Sea is also under way, and "that oil is very interesting. There are absolutely marvelous pictures of coral reefs which formed from seepage [of gas] from North Sea reservoirs," Whelan said.

Analysis of the ancient oil that seems to be coming up from deep below in the Gulf of Mexico suggests that the flow of new oil "is coming from deeper, hotter formations" and is not simply a lateral inflow from the old deposits that surround existing oil fields, she said. The chemical composition of the migrating oil also indicates it is being driven upward and is being altered by highly pressurized gases squeezing up from below.

This upwelling phenomenon, Whelan noted, fits into a classic analysis of the world's oil and gas done years ago by geochemist-geologist John Hunt. He suggested that less than 1 percent of the oil that is generated at depth ever makes it into exploitable reservoirs. About 40 percent of the oil and gas remains hidden, spread out in the tiny pores and fissures of deep sedimentary rock formations.

And "the remaining 60 percent," Whelan said, "leaks upward and out of the sediment" via the numerous seeps that occur globally.

Also, the idea that dynamic migration of oil and gas is occurring implies that new supplies "are not only charging some reservoirs at the present time, but that a huge fraction of total oil and gas must be episodically or continuously bypassing reservoirs completely and seeping from surface sediments on a relatively large scale," Whelan explained.

So far, measurements involving biological and geological analysis, plus satellite images, "show widespread and pervasive leakage over the entire northern slope of the Gulf of Mexico," she added.

"For example, Ian MacDonald at Texas A&M has published some remarkable satellite photographs of oil slicks which go for miles in the Gulf of Mexico in areas where no oil production is occurring." Before this research in oil basins began, she added, "changes in reservoired oils were not suspected, so no reliable data exists on how widespread the phenomenon might be in the Gulf Coast or elsewhere."

The researchers, especially the Texas team, have been working on this subject for almost 15 years in collaboration with oil industry experts and various university scientists. Their first focus was on the zone called South Eugene Island block 330, which is 150 miles south of New Orleans. It is known as one of the most productive oil and gas fields in the world. The block lies in water more than 300 feet deep.

As a test, the researchers attempted to drill down into a known fault zone that was thought to be a natural conduit for new petroleum. The drilling was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Whelan recalled that as the drill dug deeper and deeper, the project seemed to be succeeding, but then it abruptly ended in failure. "We were able to produce only a small amount of oil before the fault closed, like a giant straw," probably because reducing the pressure there allowed the fissure to collapse.

In addition to the drilling effort and the inspection of seeps, Whelan and her colleagues reported that three-dimensional seismic profiles of the underground reservoirs commonly show giant gas plumes coming from depth and disrupting sediments all the way to the surface.

This also shows that in an area west of the South Eugene Island area, a giant gas plume originates from beneath salt about 15,000 feet down and then disrupts the sediment layers all the way to the surface. The surface expression of this plume is very large -- about 1,500 feet in diameter. One surprise, Whelan said, was that the gas plume seems to exist outside of faults, the ground fractures, which at present are the main targets of oil exploration.

It is suspected that the process of upward migration of petroleum is driven by natural gas that is being continually produced both by deeply buried bacteria and from oil being broken down in the deeper, hotter layers of sediment. The pressures and heat at great depth are thought to be increasing because the ground is sinking -- subsiding -- as a result of new sediments piling up on top. The site is part of the huge delta formed over thousands of years by the southward flow of the massive Mississippi River. Like other major deltas, the Mississippi's outflow structure is continually being built from sands, muds and silts washed off the continent.

Analysis of the oil being driven into the reservoirs suggests they were created during the so-called Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods (100 million to 150 million years ago), even before the existing basin itself was formed. This means the source rock is buried and remains invisible to seismic imaging beneath layers of salt.

In studying so-called biomarkers in the oil, Whelan said, it was concluded that the oil is closely related to other very old oils, implying that it "was probably generated very early and then remained trapped at depth until recently." And, she added, other analyses "show that this oil must have remained trapped at depths and temperatures much greater than those of the present-day producing reservoirs."

At great depth, where the heat and pressure are high enough, she explained, methane is produced by oil being "cracked," and production of gas "is able to cause sufficient pressure to periodically open the fracture system and allow upward fluid flow of methane, with entrapment of oil in its path."

Copyright © 2002, Newsday, Inc.
http://www.newsday.com/features/ny-feat-hcov0416.story

[7]

Oil Reserves Are Increasing!!!!! 17.Apr.2005 21:57
Is Anyone Listening? link

[ABIOTIC] Oil Reserves Are Increasing
by George Crispin

Eugene Island is an underwater mountain located about 80 miles off the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. In 1973 oil was struck and off-shore platform Eugene 330 erected. The field began production at 15,000 barrels a day, then gradually fell off, as is normal, to 4,000 barrels a day in 1989, Then came the surprise; it reversed itself and increased production to 13,000 barrels a day. Probable reserves have been increased to 400 million barrels from 60 million. The field appears to be filling from below and the crude coming up today is from a geological age different from the original crude, which leads to the speculation that the world has limitless supplies of [ABIOTIC] petroleum.

This really interested some scientists.

Thomas Gold, astronomer and professor emeritus of Cornell held for years that oil is actually renewable primordial syrup continually manufactured by the earth under ultra hot conditions and tremendous pressures.

This substance migrates upward picking up bacteria that attack it making it appear to have an organic origin, i.e., come from dinosaurs and vegetation. As best I have found so far Russian scientists support his position, at least that petroleum is of primordial origin. There is now plenty of evidence around proving the presence of methane in our universe. It is easy to see it as a part of the formation of the earth. Under the right conditions of temperature and pressure, it converts to more complex hydrocarbons.

Roger Andersen, an oceanographer and executive director of Columbia's Energy Research Center proposed studying the behavior of this reservoir.

The underwater landscape around Eugene Island is weird, cut with faults and fissures that belch gas and oil. The field is operated by PennzEnergy Co. Andersen proposed to study the action of the sea bottom around the mountain and the field at its top and persuaded the U S Dept of Energy to ante up ten million which was matched by a consortium of oil giants including Chevron, Exxon, and Tex Corp.

This work began about the time 3-D seismic technology was introduced to oil exploration. Anderson was able to stack 3D images resulting in a 4D image that showed the reservoir in 3 spatial dimensions and enabled researchers to track the movement of oil. Their most stunning find was a deep fault at a bottom corner of the computer scan that showed [abiotic] oil literally gushing in [from further below]. "We could see the stream," says Andersen. "It wasn't even debated that it was happening."

Work continued for five years until funds ran out and they were unable to continue. With the world having 40 years of proven reserves in hand it is difficult to interest the major oil producers in much exploration, let alone something done merely for research, and so far from the current accepted theory of a fossil origin for oil.

Similar occurrences have been seen at other Gulf Of Mexico fields, at the Cook Inlet oil field, at oil fields in Uzbekistan, and it is possible this accounts for the longevity of the Saudi Arabian fields where few new finds have been made, yet reserves have doubled while the fields have been exploited mercilessly for 50 years.

Not only can the doom and gloomers not show us running out of the natural resources we recycle, but now there appears to be good odds of a limitless supply of [horrible polluting] petroleum working its way up to where we can capture it.

A caveat: Gold's theory is not yet accepted by all scientists, probably all the more reason to trust it.

April 6, 2005

George Crispin [send him mail] is a retired businessman who heads a Catholic homeschooling cooperative in Auburn, Alabama.

Copyright © 2005 LewRockwell.com

[8]

Greg Palast reporting on the scam of high priced oil, which he calls 'blood for NO oil", read the comments as well:

Keeping Iraq's Oil in the Ground, Since 1927: Did U.S. invade to tap oil or to sit on it?
author: Palast's extra $89 billion a year question
http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/06/341096.shtml

[9]

If you don't want to read the Palast article above, you can watch Palast talk out his data in the talk "blood for NO oil", a segment of this talk (and of course in his book):
GREG PALAST: IS THE FIX IN FOR '08? / BLOOD FOR NO OIL Armed Madhouse Book Tour
59 min 9 sec - Sep 2, 2006
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6802228062297352475

Mark said...

Report To DoD - We Can Be Off Oil In 15 Years [i.e,. by 2020]
From Jim P
3-19-2004

Dear Jeff,

Another study done for the Dept of Defense. The full PDF report is available at the following link. Seems we can set policies now that would have us off oil in 15 years.

Nahh! Let's have endless wars in the Middle East and Central Asia instead!

http://www.arlingtoninstitute.org/energy_movingamerica.htm

Executive Summary

Recent terrorist events have again raised new questions about the security of U.S. energy. In the light of Middle East regional instability, it is fair to ask: Are there any alternatives to the status quo? How might the U.S. hurry the inevitable shift in primary energy supply, which has happened many times before in history, to a more stable, clean alternative to oil?

This study looks at historical global energy transitions, catalogues the present situation, looks into potential new technologies, envisions a new, all-electric world, and then posits a strategy that could dramatically and fundamentally change the shape of energy usage in the U.S. and the planet in the next fifteen years.

About 26% of the total energy consumption in the United States is used for transportation. Oil, 60% of which is imported, provides nearly all that energy. To solve the problem of dependency on imported oil, changes must occur in the transportation sector.

In sum, it looks like the world - led by the U.S. - is moving toward the day when hydrogen will replace oil as the major source of energy for transportation. The only question is how we get there. There are three major scenarios that describe possible energy environments of the next few decades: Awash in Oil and Gas, Technology Triumphs, and Turbulent World. Within the alternative vagaries of unlimited fossil fuels, new hydrogen-based technologies, or broad-based chaos that begs for change, a path must be planned that is based upon evolutionary change but will respond to revolutionary influences.

Where is this all going in the end?

What does the world of transportation look like in, say, 2050? It's our guess that it's an all-electric world. Almost all vehicles (and most of the rest of our tools) will be electrically powered - the question is where and how the electricity is generated. Breakthroughs in generation, distribution and storage are almost inevitable and will eliminate all of the major problems associated with electricity today.
Keeping in mind possible technological breakthroughs that could leap over hydrogen fuel cells and produce electricity directly on a vehicle, we nevertheless jumped into the present methanol-ethanol-natural gas argument as a source for H2 and then assessed all of the major alternative vehicles that are presently under development.

There are a number of fundamental considerations that will always be major factors in any changes to a new energy source: political and economic feasibility, environmental impact, utilization of existing infrastructure, potential geopolitical disruption, et al. Using Think Toolsä technology, we arrayed all of these against all combinations of energy source/vehicle to isolate which options presented the best near-term, mid-term and long-term benefits. Always preserving the capability of rapidly accelerating the pace because of some major event or science breakthrough, a solid 15-year development path was designed.

The beginning of the strategy is already being played out: all manufacturers can now produce E85 engines (that can run on any combination of gasoline and ethanol up to 85% ethanol), with no changes in engineering and manufacturing cost. They should do so immediately. That would open up many hundreds of thousands of new vehicles to using ethanol, a domestically produced alternative fuel that can be distributed through the existing infrastructure with essentially no change at all.

An increasing number of manufacturers are producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).

Electricity is produced in an HEV from an internal combustion engine/generator set and stored in batteries. Either the engine or the batteries is then used for powering electric drive motors under the most efficient conditions. HEVs are the first step toward an all-electric vehicle, and if the engine were an E85/HEV engine it would at the same time be much more fuel-efficient while a larger portion of the fuel would come from North America.

Efficiency could be significantly increased above that gained from powertrain upgrades by integrating full-system design measures that take into consideration elements like aerodynamic drag, rolling friction, heating and cooling efficiencies, etc. The best example of this is the Hypercar® that has been developed in Colorado. Hypercar® design ideas combined with the HEV drivetrain could theoretically produce average fuel consumptions around 90 mpg.

The HEV/Hypercar® could easily be upgraded with fuel cells when they become commercially available. That would be a natural evolution along the developmental path to national independence, vehicle efficiency, and environmental friendliness.
All of these initiatives must be implemented while keeping in mind the larger objective of maintaining geopolitical stability. It would make no sense to solve our domestic energy problem by causing a number of equally significant, enduring crises in other parts of the world . . . that we then have to deal with for decades to come. We must take a holistic approach to dealing with this system.

Mark said...

interrelates

13. transport and
34. energy
36. energy storage

without burning or pollution products: the air engines, perhaps the simplest solution ever: pistons fail to require thermodynamics [tiny explosions or burning things (incredibly inefficient anyway as an energy source!)] to move them. Air can move them. Here are some links to working air engines, and compressed air storage mechanisms then attached to engines.

excerpt from:
http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/05/360137.shtml

II. AIR CAR, GOING INTO MASS PRODUCTION FROM FEBRUARY 2007

Here's an Air Car arrangement.

VIDEO: Frenchman Guy Negre's Air Car (additionally features an Australian rotary Wankel AIR engine, though only Negre's is going into mass production right now, 2007)
http://youtube.com/watch?v=QmqpGZv0YT4 (8:52)
Beyond Tomorrow 2005 more info: http://www.theaircar.com/
MDI (Motor Development International, Inc., located in Nice, France),
on the show Beyond Tomorrow (2005). Supposedly, this program
indicates they are starting to sell these commercially in 2006--in
2, 4, or 6 cylinder versions starting around $15,000.

Ideally, one tweak would be to put some solar power panels on the
roof and an air compressor onboard, and the whole infrastructure of
even having to stop to "refuel" (put in more compressed air) is
unrequired.

Negre just signed mass production of the air car!

MDI signed an agreement with Tata Motors - NEW

An engine which uses air as fuel
Tata Motors and technology inventor, MDI of France, sign agreement

MUMBAI, 5th of February 2007

Tata Motors, in keeping with its role as the leading company in India for automotive R&D, has signed an agreement, in yet another exciting engineering and development effort, with MDI of France for application in India of MDI's path-breaking technology for engines powered by air.

The MDI Group is headed by Mr. Guy Negre, who founded the company in the 1990s in pursuit of his dream to pioneer an engine using just compressed air as fuel - which may be the ultimate environment-friendly engine yet. Besides, the engine is efficient, cost-effective, scalable, and capable of other applications like power generation.

The agreement between Tata Motors and MDI envisages Tata's supporting further development and refinement of the technology, and its application and licensing for India.

Commenting on the agreement, Mr. Guy Negre has said, "MDI has for many years been engaged in developing environment-friendly engines. MDI is happy to conclude this agreement with Tata Motors and work together with this important and experienced industrial group to develop a new and cost-saving technology for various applications for the Indian market that meets with severe regulations for environmental protection. We are continuing the development with our own business concept of licensing car manufacturers in other parts of the world where the production is located close to the markets. We have also developed this new technology for other applications where cost competitiveness combined with respect for environmental questions has our priority."

- About MDI
MDI is a small, family-controlled company located at Carros, near Nice (Southern France) where Mr. Guy Negre and Mr. Cyril Nègre, together with their technical team, have developed a new engine technology with the purpose of economising energy and respect severe ecological requirements - at competitive costs.

- About Tata Motors
Tata Motors is India's largest automobile company, with revenues of US$ 5.5 billion in 2005-06. With over 4 million Tata vehicles plying in India, it is the leader in commercial vehicles and the second largest in passenger vehicles. It is also the world's fifth largest medium and heavy truck manufacturer and the second largest heavy bus manufacturer. Tata cars, buses and trucks are being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and South East Asia and in Australia. Tata Motors and Fiat Auto have announced the formation of an industrial joint venture in India to manufacture passenger cars, engines and transmissions for the Indian and overseas markets. Tata Motors already distributes Fiat-branded cars in India. The company's international footprint include Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Co. Ltd. in South Korea; Hispano Carrocera, a bus and coach manufacturer of Spain in which the company has a 21% stake; a joint venture with Marcopolo, the Brazil-based body-builder of buses and coaches; and a joint venture with Thonburi Automotive Assembly Plant Company of Thailand to manufacture and market pickup vehicles in Thailand. Tata Motors has research centres in India, the UK, and in its subsidiary and associate companies in South Korea and Spain.

http://www.theaircar.com/tata_agreement.html

YOU CAN CONTACT THEM AT THE WEBSITE TO LET THEM KNOW TO CONTACT YOU ABOUT MAKING YOU ONE, SO THEY CAN GAUGE THE MARKET.

VIDEO: CNN-India: Car that runs on air in India soon
http://youtube.com/watch?v=J_i3aMz7q1w (01:11)
http://www.ibnlive.com/news/car-that-runs- on-air-in-india-soon/36806-11.html


from:
http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/05/360137.shtml

Anonymous said...

"Oil Industry Suppressed Plans for 200-mpg Car"

By

Simon de Bruxelles


"I don't think it is mere coincidence that the oil companies began adding lead to their gas in the 1930's after the emergence of the Pogue carburetor." Lead inhibits the catalytic property of the Pogue, rendering it nearly useless after just a short while of running."--Inventor J. Bruce McBurney

[That would make sense, since it has been found that supposedly 'old lead required' cars actually run fine on unleaded without knocks... [cite: Kidman, "The Secret History of Lead," article in The Nation, several years back]]


( March 31, 2003 )

THE original blueprints for a device that could have revolutionised the motor car have been discovered in the secret compartment of a tool box.
A carburettor that would allow a car to travel 200 miles on a gallon of fuel caused oil stocks to crash when it was announced by its Canadian inventor Charles Nelson Pogue in the 1930s.

But the carburettor was never produced and, mysteriously, Pogue went overnight from impoverished inventor to the manager of a successful factory making oil filters for the motor industry.

Ever since, suspicion has lingered that oil companies and car manufacturers colluded to bury Pogue’s invention.

Now a retired Cornish mechanic has enlisted the help of the University of Plymouth to rebuild Pogue’s revolutionary carburetor, known as the Winnipeg, from blueprints he found hidden beneath a sheet of plywood in the box.

The controversial plans once caused panic among oil companies and rocked the Toronto Stock Exchange when tests carried out on the carburettor in the 1930s proved that it worked.

Patrick Davies, 72, from St Austell, had owned the tool box for 40 years but only recently decided to clean it out. As well as drawings of the carburettor, the envelope contained two pages of plans, three test reports and six pages of notes written by Pogue.

They included a report of a test that Pogue had done on his lawnmower, which showed that he had managed to make the engine run for seven days on a quart (just under a litre) of petrol.

The documents also described how the machine worked by turning petrol into a vapour before it entered the cylinder chamber, reducing the amount of fuel needed for combustion. [there are other inventions that will do this that you can purchase to add to your fuel line...]

Mr Davies has had the patent number on the plans authenticated, proving that they are genuine documents.

He said: "I couldn’t believe what I saw. I used to be a motor mechanic and I knew this was something else altogether. I was given the tool box by a friend after I helped to paint her house in 1964. Her husband had spent a lot of time in Canada."

The announcement of Pogue’s invention caused enormous excitement in the American motor industry in 1933, when he drove 200 miles on one gallon of fuel in a Ford V8.

However, the Winnipeg was never manufactured commercially and after 1936 it disappeared altogether amid allegations of a political cover-up.


Dr Murray Bell, of the University of Plymouth’s department of mechanical and marine engineering, said he would consider trying to build a model of the Pogue carburetor.

Engineers who have tried in the past to build a carburetor using Pogue’s theories have found the results less than satisfactory. Charles Friend, of Canada’s National Research Council, told Marketplace, a consumer affairs programme: "You can get fantastic mileage if you’re prepared to de-rate the vehicle to a point where, for example, it might take you ten minutes to accelerate from 0 to 30 miles an hour."

article and patent images:
http://www.rexresearch.com/pogue/1pogue.htm#article

Anonymous said...

And speaking of oil, *Mark* is right to question [here] why Black doesn't expand his focus to include all the alternatives which provide pathways away from the oil game. The Honda FCX is okay (especially the 2.0 version which uses solar power for the hydrogen conversion process), but it's a relatively expensive package, /since you have to buy the car in order to get the home power plant/ (which is itself actually only the size and price of an air conditioner)...and, it still leaves energy in the control of some corporation, so that it's not truly decentralized.

Regardless of which technology we choose, decentralization of energy production is the ultimate goal, because this is where we find autonomy--this is where the old "market" shell game falls down. No more wars for oil; no more hoarding resources and pursuing hegemony as the empire's prime policy goal.

Solutions & alternatives are many, but even without them, the game can be exposed and defanged. The US congress just passed another status quo affirming energy bill whose only progressive element was a /request/ for a modest increase in fuel efficiency--an average of 35 mpg. The Democratic congresswhores owned by the automakers (sorry, "representing the districts of the automakers") responded to this mild attempt to loosen the stranglehold by saying it wasn't "technically feasible". Where were the independent scientists & engineers when this defense was trotted out? Why, silent on the sidelines, of course.

You don't have to get into *Pogue carburetors* http://www.rexresearch.com/pogue/1pogue.htm#article and radical* **fuel* *efficiency advances* http://freeenergynews.com/Directory/Carburetors/McBurney/cracking/index.html or the *whole catalogue* http://www.rexresearch.com/1index.htm#scitech of suppressed technologies and *applications* http://www.rexresearch.com/1index.htm to see how shallow this defense is. (Although some of that research is certainly very interesting, as seen in the *New Energy Congress' **/Top 100 Technologies:/ June 19, 2007* http://peswiki.com/index.php/Congress:Top_100_Technologies_--_RD.) Here are a few quotes that tell us what we already know in this area:

/"I don't think it is mere coincidence that the oil companies began adding lead to their gas in the 1930's after the emergence of the Pogue carburetor." Lead inhibits the catalytic property of the Pogue, rendering it nearly useless after just a short while of running.--*Inventor *//*J. Bruce McBurney*/ http://www.himacresearch.com/

/"One has to wonder why such a solution would not be implemented immediately into the mainstream market, if was so simple

'It's not chemistry, it's politics,' is what E.A. Cherniak, late Head of the Chemistry Department at Brock University in Ontario of told McBurney after receiving a phone call that turned him pale and scared him away from helping McBurney in 1987. Two years later he agreed to at least pen some kind of *statement* http://freeenergynews.com/Directory/Transportation/McBurney/PDF/Brock_U_Cherniak.pdf of endorsement, "but it is nothing compared to what he knew" laments McBurney. Professor Cherniak only went so far as to say, 'The concepts of Mr. McBurney are scientifically and technologically sound.'"
/

The game is so obvious, so hotly defended with the usual tinfoil aspersions that it makes you wonder who all is actually in on the current swindle:

/He (McBurney) also has approached *Green Peace* and other environmentalist groups, because of the great boon this technology would be to the environment. He offered to turn all the rights to the technology over to them so that their bylaws would not have conflict in endorsing a particular company. They likewise turned him down, saying, "We get one call a week from someone claiming they have a super-efficient carburetor," *as if that was evidence that none exist*./

The reason why the establishment has to fight so hard to preserve its monopoly is because even a modest increase in efficiency would cause the market forces they love to sing about to bring the cost of oil down, which would in turn cause their whole house of geo-political cards to tumble. That's why no one is installing *whisper wheels™* http://www.e-traction.com/whisper_2.htm on their cars & buses--a technology that goes back 70 years!!


Under the “We don’t need no stinkin’ oil” banner, we have this post by Cory Doctorow over at the inimitable */BoingBoing:/* http://boingboing.net/ Tuesday, January 31, 2006--*Flying windmills -- power from the sky* http://www.boingboing.net/2006/01/31/flying_windmills_pow.html*:
*
/A Worldchanging post rounds up three different airborne power-generation systems -- a flying windmill, a windmill-equipped zeppelin, and a kite-based windmill.

According to their figures, one flying windmill rated at 240kW with rotor diameters of 35 feet could generate power for less than two cents per kilowatt hour--that would make them the cheapest power source in the world. For greater power needs, several units would be operated in the same location--Sky Windpower says that an installation "rated at 2.81 megawatts flying at a typical U.S. site with an eighty percent capacity factor projects a life cycle cost per kilowatt hour at 1.4 cents." And they would have far better uptime than most windmills--since the jetstream never quits, they should operate at peak capacity 70-90% of the time. Output would also be less dependent on location than it is on the ground, simply because terrain doesn't matter much when you're at 35,000ft; however, since the jetstream and other "geostrophic" winds don't blow much at latitudes near the equator, it would be useful primarily for middle- and higher-latitudes./

Then Cory gives us that link: *It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's Airborne Wind Power* http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/004052.html, by Jeremy Faludi, where we find this sobering fact:

/*1% of the jetstream's wind power could supply all US electrical demand.*/

It's a great article with some amazing ideas. Floating wind power plants. Bucky Fuller told us that if we built a sphere big enough--say a half-mile diameter--it would float. A Swiss outfit is making */bioblimps/* http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=979, based on Schaubergerian principles, which could be fitted to sequester carbon in the upper atmosphere...literally shitting bricks of the stuff from up there where we don't want it to down here where we can build stuff with it. (Okay, not on our heads--parachutes can be attached.)

http://rigint.blogspot.com/2007/06/born-yesterday-part-one.html#comments

Mark said...

[I have a copy of this book. This is a good review.]

Book Review of
“The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity”

Presented by
Patrick G. Bailey
Golden State College S.R.I.C.F.
Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatis Foederatibus
Los Altos, CA

August 28, 2005


The book being reported on is:

The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity
By Peter Lindemann, D.Sc.
C 2001, 2004

Published by *
Clear Tech, Inc.
PO Box 713
Liberty Lake, WA 99019
509-921-6960

This is a very hard-to-find book, as only 1500 copies were published in 2001, and only 1000 copies were published in the second edition, c 2004, which is being reviewed.

The subject of this book is the work that a very few researchers have done in the area of high-voltage spark-gap electronics. When done correctly, these experiments result in a huge net power gain in the electrical system. As no know potential energy source has yet been identified in the mainstream physics community for this effect, it is generally identified as a “Free Energy” or “Over-Unity” device. The excess energy is thought by these researchers to “come from the components of the aether.”

The “aether” (or “ether”) is usually defined (as in dictionary.com) by serious scientists as: “a medium that was once supposed to fill all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic waves” - i.e. the fabric or building blocks of all space itself.

The author believes that most accurate model of the aether that he has found is that set of ideas put forward by Dr. Rudolf Steiner. (Masons, wake up!) He also says, on page 60:

“The best source book to study Steiner’s Ether model is “Etheric Formative Forces in Cosmos, Earth, and Man” by Dr. Guenther Wachsmuth.”

I am actively looking for a copy of this particular very hard-to-find-book!
If you know where I can obtain this book, or borrow a copy, please let me know!
The Table of Contents of “The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity” is given at the end of this paper.

The principle of the operation of this type of device was first reported by Nikola Tesla in his later research in the late 1800’s, after he had already completed his work with alternating current (AC) generators and generators. His key patent, “Electrical Transformer,” number 593,138, was filed in March 1897, and was issued on Nov. 2, 1897. Tesla followed this with two other important patents within a few years: “Method of Utilizing Radiant Energy,” number 685,958, dated November 5, 1901; and “Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through The Natural Mediums,” number 787,412, dated April 18, 1905. These patents form the basis for this repeatable and observable effect.

Lines 122 to 130 on page 2 in this later patent by Tesla state:

“I have found it practicable to produce in this manner electrical movement thousands of times greater than the initial – that is, the one impressed on upon the secondary by the primary A – and I have this reached activities or rates of flow of electrical energy in the system E’ C E measured by many tens of thousands of horsepower.”

All three of these patents by Tesla are reproduced in the Appendix of this book.

In this book, on page 26, we find:

[Pages 15 through 29 are actually excerpted from Chapter 1 of “Secrets of Cold War Technologies: Project HAARP and Beyond,” by Gerry Vassilatos, Adventures Unlimited Press.]

“Tesla viewed voltage as streams of aether under various states of pressure. Raising these stresses could produce enormous aether streams, where the observed voltage would then be extremely high and luminous. This was the very condition which Tesla had come to believe had been established in his Transformers.”

It should be firmly noted that all references to Tesla’s “Transformers” near the turn of the century refer to this direct-current, impulse aether technology, and not his AC Tesla coils.

From page 42:

“So, now we have what I believe are ample and sufficient references in Tesla’s own words supportive of Vassilatos’ main thesis that, indeed Tesla was actively engaged in charging capacitors with high voltage DC sources; he was discharging them through magnetically quenched spark-gaps; he was doing this at extremely high rates of vibration, even up to many millions of times per second, and finally, that this was the method of operating his “magnifying transmitter,” the device that produced and captured what Tesla called “Radiant Energy.”
From pages 28-29:

“Here was a distinct phenomenon, one that did not in fact manifest with other than impulse applications. Tesla alternately called these pure aetheric expulsions “radiant matter” and “radiant energy.” Neutral in charge and infinitesimal in both mass and cross-section, Radiant Energy was unlike any light seen since his work was concluded. If asked whether Radiant Energy can be compared to any existing physical item today, one would have to decline. We cannot draw parallels between Radiant Energy and the light energies with which science has long been preoccupied. [-] Radiant Energy is possessed of qualities unlike any light [-]. And this is precisely the problem. Tesla Technology is Impulse Technology. Without the disruptive, unidirectional IMPULSE, there are no Radiant Energy effects.”

From page 44, there is this:

“Summary of The Electro-Radiant Event

1. The Electro-Radiant Event is produced when a high-voltage, direct current is discharged across a spark-gap and interrupted abruptly before any reversals of current can occur.

2. This effect is greatly increased when the source of direct current is a charged capacitor.

3. The Electro-Radiant Event leaves wires and other circuit components perpendicular to the flow of current.

4. The Electro-Radiant Event produces a spatially distributed voltage that can be thousands of times higher than the initial spark discharge voltage.

5. It propagates instantaneously as a longitudinal, electrostatic “light-like ray” that behaves similarly to an incompressible gas under pressure.

6. Electro-Radiant effects are solely characterized by impulse duration and voltage drop in the spark-gap.

7. Electro-Radiant effects penetrate all materials and create “electronic responses” in metals like copper and silver. In this case, “electronic responses” means that an electrical charge will build up on copper surfaces exposed to Electro-Radiant emissions.

8. Electro-Radiant impulses shorter than 100 microseconds are completely safe to handle and will not shock or cause harm.

9. Electro-Radiant impulses shorter than 100 nanoseconds are cold and easily cause lighting effects in vacuum globes.”
From page 33:

“Obviously, Tesla did not agree with the work of Helmholtz, Hertz, and Maxwell! For those readers who do not know who these gentlemen are, Hermann von Helmholz laid the foundation for what is now known as the “First Law of Thermodynamics,” which states that “Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it is neither created nor destroyed.” James Clerk-Maxwell’s equations are the backbone of modern electromagnetic theory, and Heinrich Hertz’ supposed verification of Maxwell’s work was deemed so important that they named the measurement of frequency after him. These esteemed gentlemen are pivotal personalities in the way electrical science is taught today. But, as we can see, Tesla dismissed them all as not being relevant to his experimental findings. In other words, if we follow the path back to the aethers, we must be willing to leave behind the ideas and limitations defined by the “First Law of Thermodynamics” and Maxwell’s equations. We now will peer beyond the boundaries of these roots, and move into a completely different realm of study.”

The author also presents quite a lot of material on the following devices, showing them to all be related to Tesla’s Radiant Energy work:

1. Edwin Gray’s Motor

US Patent 3,890,548 June 17, 1975
“Pulsed Capacitor Discharge Electric Engine”

“EMS – Electric Power That Could Change The World’s Economic Power Picture,”
NewsReal magazine article by Tom Valone, 1977

2. Paul Baumann’s Testatika Machine (The Swiss M-L Converter)

"Status of the Methernitha Free Energy Machine,"
Paper presented at the 1991 IECEC by Dr. Patrick G. Bailey -
A Wimshurst electro-static device that sits on a table and generates 1kW to 5 kW of power out of the air.

3. T. Henry Moray’s 1930’s Radiant Energy Device

“The Energy Machine of T. Henry Moray,”
Book by Moray B. King
Adventures Unlimited Press, C 2005

Three of Edwin Gray’s complete US Patents - the one above 3,890,548 (1975), 4,595,975 (1986), and 4,661,747 (1987); several sensational newspaper and magazine articles with on Gray with pictures of his motor/engine apparatus; and some of his motor schematics hand-drawn by an actual witness, John Bedini, are also included in this book.
My conclusions are after reading this book are:

1. This book could change the energy network of this world as we know it.

2. Only a few daring researchers will take this book seriously.

3. The Masonic network needs to know of the existence and value of this book.

4. Independent verification of these effects and these motors is absolutely required.

5. Any negative impacts of using these aether streams needs to be fully understood. Any new technologies must be carefully proven to not cause greater harm than the benefits that they create – such as the out-of-control carbon cycle in current Global-Warming.

6. The US Patent Office - today - will absolutely and immediately classify (under military law, National Emergency War Powers Act) any Patent Applications containing any of these types of ideas or technologies.

7. This work can be labeled as a “Trade Secret,” just like the formula for Coca Cola, and can today be inserted into the now-private US electrical utility network, on a one-by-one utility basis, by leasing closed and locked containers containing these technologies to a utility, under security guard, within exiting nuclear reactor or similarly secure sites.

8. You may contact the author at the address below to become involved in the development and insertion of these new technologies, to assist and support the human race on this planet in moving toward a meaningful future.

/s/

Dr. Patrick G. Bailey
President, Institute for New Energy
P.O. Box 201
Los Altos, CA 94023-0201

Permission is hereby given by the author for you to be able to distribute UNALTERED copies of this paper, in either paper copy or electronic copy form, widely through all SRICF Bodies, Masonic Bodies, the internet, and the general world public.

Golden State College S.R.I.C.F.
Societas Rosicruciana in Civitatis Foederatibus
August 28, 2005

* Further Information and an Order Form is available at the author’s website, at:
http://www.free-energy.ws/products.html/


The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity
By Peter Lindemann, D.Sc.
C 2001, 2004

Published by
Clear Tech, Inc.
PO Box 713
Liberty Lake, WA 99019
509-921-6960

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
The Edwin Gray Mystery 1
Edwin Vincent Gray (1923-1989) 13

Chapter 2
The Rosetta Stone 15

Chapter 3
Verifying Tesla’s Secret 31

Chapter 4
Decoding Gray’s Pictures 47

Appendix I
Three U.S. Patents by Edwin V. Gray 65

Appendix II
Three U.S. Patents by Dr. Nikola Tesla 101

Appendix III
Three Articles by Dr. Peter Lindemann 117

Appendix IV
Gray’s Motor Schematic 139

References 147

Mark said...

More from Dr. Peter Lindemann, on Bob Teal. Teal's Magnipulsion Engine--on a similar pulsed electrical issue-- produced COPs between 8 and 10.

"Laying dormant within the modern electric motor is a deep, dark secret. For the last 176 years, that secret has held the electric motor to its present level of performance. But in 1975, a quantum leap in electric motor design was made by an American inventor named Bob Teal. Teal's Magnipulsion Engine produced COPs between 8 and 10."

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qU5LkEXkFjU
(10:05 min)

Mark said...

Nice simple visual demonstration of more DC inputs getting 'overunity' in engines, and a nice object science lesson about how you calculate watts.

Lutec Overunity Motor 362%
(1:39 min)

Lutec concept motor video, claiming 362 % overunity. their web page has a few more videos and details
Un motor de Australia que funciona a 362% !!Mas infomacion en ingles en su pagina.

Mark said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Mark said...

More
Lutec - OVERUNITY
corporate media discussion from 2001
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=my9FO69Vs74&mode=related&search=

Magnetic generator, off the grid; this is pulsed DC into the engine as well, similar to the issues above.

Mark said...

Free Energy

By Ken Adachi Editor@educate-yourself.org
http://educate-yourself.org/fe/

Energy is technically FREE if you have a sustainable source of it that you don't have to pay for. On these pages, we will explore the many theories, ideas, and devices that can help you produce your own Free Energy and liberate yourself from the Energy Barons

Recent Articles

Perpetual Motion (Sep. 6, 2006)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/perpetualmotion06sep06.shtml

Aussie Joe Cell Experimeter Runs 1983 Car on Water (Oct. 28, 2005)
http://educate-yourself.org/fe/joecellanecdote17aug05.shtml

The Joe Cell and Hydrogen Gas (Sep. 13, 2004)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/joecellhydrogengas12sep04.shtml

Commentary on The Dingle Car and The Joe Cell (June 12, 2004)
http://educate-yourself.org/fe/dinglescar11jun04.shtml

Dr. Eugene Mallove Radio Interview From Feb. 3, 2004 (May 22, 2004)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/eugenemalloveinterview22may04.shtml

Joe Cell Skeptic Encounters Donkey-in Mirror!(Mar. 18, 2004)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/joecelldebunker18mar04.shtml

The Car That Runs on Compressed Air (Oct. 27, 2002)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/988265.stm

Important Synopsis Posted on Tom Bearden's Scalar Technology (Mar. 29, 2002)
http://educate-yourself.org/fe/megscalardevice29mar02.shtml

Free Energy Articles

1. The Joe Energy Cell (http://educate-yourself.org/fe/fejoewatercell.shtml)
This simple water cell is a powerful orgone accumulator invented by an Australian man only identified by the name Joe "X". His intention was to run a car without using gasoline and that is precisely what he accomplished.

2. The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity ( http://educate-yourself.org/fe/coldelectricityvideo.shtml)
Peter Lindemann is one of the sharpest alternative energy researchers I know. After 27 years, he finally figured out how Edwin Grey made his magnificient Grey motor worked: Grey was captuing Radiant Energy (discovered by Tesla in 1893) and applied it to his motor to obtain a free energy motor of very high power and output. This video tells you precisely how Grey adapted and utilized Tesla's greatest free energy secret.

3. Radiant Energy: Unraveling Tesla's Greatest Secret Part 1 (June 1, 2001) ( http://educate-yourself.org/fe/radiantenergystory.shtml )
The story you are about to read is derived from a carefully researched paper presented by Dr. Peter Lindemann before a private audience in Irvine, California on September 12, 2000. The lecture was titled “The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity” . It detailed the story of Radiant Energy and its successful application by Edwin Gray in an over unity motor design which Gray debuted in 1973. The real detective work ( & credit) in uncovering Tesla’s discovery of Radiant energy came from author Gerry Vassilatos in his recent book, “Secrets of Cold War Technology” without which Lindemann could not have solved the enigma of Gray’s Radiant circuit design. This lecture delivered the goods

4. WaterFuel (Jan. 28, 2002)
Water can replace gasoline as a fuel for your car, boat, etc. Stephen Chambers, Stanley Meyers and other inventors had worked out relatively simple systems to convert ordinary tap water into their constituent gases of hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen (and some oxygen) is burned in the cylinder's combustion chamber, while the "exhaust" is composed of unburnt oxygen and water vapor, which replensihes the atmosphere. The construction plans given here were anonymously faxed to Geoff Engle of Energy 2000 and later forwarded to Keeley Net (and probably other energy web sites as well).

Patents Online

* Free Patents Online (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/)
o FreePatentsOnline.com provides fast, easy-to-use access to millions of patents. Attorneys use this data for patent searching. Inventors too. Researchers use it to keep up on the latest developments in their field. And everyone can use it just to browse all the interesting (and sometimes crazy!) ideas that are out there. FreePatentsOnline.com now provides free PDF downloads. Many sites charge $2 - $5 each to compile individual image files into a PDF and let you download it. We do it for free!

* Swiss Patent Documents (http://www.espacenet.ch/intro/introen.htm)
o Technology and patent information is one of the most important assessment instruments used by research and development departments in innovative companies. To increase the general awareness of the wealth of information contained in patent documents, Switzerland and other members of the European Patent Organisation have set up a patent database known as esp@cenet.
* US Government Patent & Trademark Office (http://www.uspto.gov/)

Mark said...

energy

a 310-square mile area of the Sahara could, with today's technology (and this tech mentioned is already outdated), generate enough electricity for the whole world


Desert cities are living on borrowed time, UN warns

· Climate change threatens conditions for 500 million
· But report points to huge solar energy potential

John Vidal, environment editor
Monday June 5, 2006
The Guardian

The 500 million people who live in the world's desert regions can expect to find life increasingly unbearable as already high temperatures soar and the available water is used up or turns salty, according to the United Nations.

Desert cities in the US and Middle East, such as Phoenix and Riyadh, may be living on borrowed time as water tables drop and supplies become undrinkable, says a report coinciding with today's world environment day.

Article continues
Twentieth-century modernist dreams of greening deserts by diverting rivers and mining underground water are wholly unrealistic, it warns.

But the report also proposes that deserts become the powerhouses of the next century, capturing the world's solar energy and potentially exporting electricity across continents. For instance, a 310-square mile area of the Sahara could, with today's technology, generate enough electricity for the whole world.

The problem now facing many communities on the fringes of deserts, says the UN environment programme report, is not the physical growth of deserts but that rising water tables beneath irrigated soils are leading to more salinisation - a phenomenon already taking place across large tracts of China, India, Pakistan and Australia. The Tarm river basin in China, it says, has lost more than 5,000 square miles of farmland to salinisation in a period of 30 years.

The report suggests that Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia have used water from the desert very unwisely. Rather than growing staple crops such as wheat or tomatoes, it suggests that precious water should be used only for high value crops such as dates and fish farming.

The mining "fossil" water, laid down many millions of years ago, was once believed to have the potential to green deserts, but is now not thought to be a solution - except in Libya, where opinion is divided as to whether supplies may last 100 or 500 years.

But the greatest threat to people and wildlife living anywhere near deserts is climate change, which is already having a greater impact on desert regions than elsewhere. The Dashti Kbir desert in Iran has seen a 16% drop in rainfall in the past 25 years, the Kalahari a 12% decline and Chile's Atacama desert an 8% drop.

Most deserts, says the report, will see temperatures rise by 5-7C by the end of the century and rainfall drop 10-20%. This will greatly increase evaporation and dust storms, and will move deserts closer to communities living on their edges.

The problems of more heat and lower rainfall are being compounded by the melting of glaciers in mountainous regions. These waters sustain life in deserts but would be perilously close to drying up if global warming continued as expected.

The glaciers in the mountains of south Asia are expected to decline by 40% to 80% in the next century with profound effects on large populations in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India and China.

Much of the water used for farming the south-west US, central Asia and around the Andes is drawn from rivers that originate in snow-covered mountains, says the report.

Development in the next 100 years is largely contingent on what happens to the climate. However, the report envisages that deserts will become more popular tourist destinations and that some of the plants that grow there could be "crops of the future".

"Deserts are threatened as never before by climate change, overexploitation of water and salinisation," said Professor Andrew Warren of University College London, one of the report's authors.

"We risk losing not only astounding landscapes and ancient cultures but also wild species that may hold keys to our survival."

Mark said...

A car that could save the planet—fast

Silicon Valley's big brains think they can beat Detroit and Tokyo and save the planet - all while doing 0 to 60 faster than almost anything on the road.

Business 2.0 Magazine
By Michael V. Copeland, Business 2.0 Magazine senior writer
May 5, 2006: 7:25 PM EDT

SAN FRANCISCO (Business 2.0 Magazine) - Ian Wright has a car that blows away a Ferrari 360 Spider and a Porsche Carrera GT in drag races, and whose 0-to-60 acceleration time ranks it among the fastest production autos in the world. In fact, it's second only to the French-made Bugatti Veyron, a 1,000-horsepower, 16-cylinder beast that hits 60 mph half a second faster and goes for $1.25 million.

The key difference? The Bugatti gets eight miles per gallon. Wright's car? It runs off an electric battery.

Before creating the X1, Ian Wright designed routers and switches for Digital Equipment and Cisco.

The X1 recently challenged -- and beat -- the Ferrari 360 Spyder (in red) at the Infineon Raceway in northern California.
Play video

Wright, a 50-year-old entrepreneur from New Zealand, thinks his electric car, the X1, can soon be made into a small-production roadster that car fanatics and weekend warriors will happily take home for about $100,000 - a quarter ton of batteries included. He has even launched a startup, called Wrightspeed, to custom-make and sell the cars.

(For a photo gallery of what's under the X1's hood, click here.)

But Wright isn't some quixotic loner. He's part of a growing cluster of engineers, startups, and investors, most of them based in Silicon Valley, that believe they can do what major automakers have failed at for decades: Think beyond the golf cart and deliver an electric vehicle (EV) to the mass market.

Indeed, the race for the new consumer EV has already begun: Just a year ago, Wright was working for his Woodside neighbor Martin Eberhard, co-founder of Tesla Motors, a startup that has 70 employees and a major investment from PayPal founder Elon Musk, which is building a mass-market rival to the X1. Wright left, believing he had an even better idea.

Beyond that, startups are forming to equip new "plug-in" hybrids that run almost entirely on their electric motors. And around the country, a handful of other exotic EVs are showing up on the road -- including George Clooney's new ride, a $108,000 commuter coupe that's just 3 feet wide.

The more that cars become technology platforms, the more the future plays into the hands of people like Wright and Eberhard. "Automakers can't do this," Eberhard says. "If you drill into the complexity of an electric car, it's not the motor, it's the electronics and battery system, which car companies aren't good at."

Adds Musk, "The time is right for a new American car company, and the time is right for electric vehicles, because of advances in batteries and electronics. Where's the skill set for that? In the Valley, not Detroit."

Wright's garage-born heroics are, in many respects, long overdue.

After all, electric cars predated the gasoline combustion engine.

But they soon headed for museums, [due to high corruption mentioned in Edwin Black's recent book Internal Combustion (2006)] replaced by gas engines.

A mid-1990s wave of all-electric cars was short-lived -- GM (Research) spent more than $1 billion to introduce a short-lived electric vehicle -- and were soon replaced by Toyota's hot-selling [entirely pointless extension of oil technology, the] hybrid gas-electric Prius.

So how do you build the EV of the future on a six-figure budget when GM couldn't do it with more than $1 billion? For starters, you get all the basic parts off the shelf, starting with a chassis. Wright found one he liked in the Ariel Atom, a blazing-fast custom British roadster. By itself, all the hardware in the X1 is nothing new. The X1's real secret is how Wright engineers it all to keep the car in optimum race mode whenever you hit the accelerator.
Proving grounds

Last November, Wright towed the X1 to a racetrack near Sacramento to see how his prototype would do against a Ferrari and a Porsche. On paper, a win seemed guaranteed. But he hadn't yet run the car full out.

In the first matchup, the X1 crushed the Ferrari in an eighth-mile sprint and then in the quarter-mile, winning by two car lengths. In the second race, against the $440,000 Porsche, the two cars were even after an eighth of a mile. But as the Porsche driver let out the clutch in a final upshift, his tires briefly lost traction. The X1, blazing along in its software-controlled performance mode, beat the Porsche by half a car length.

It never occurred to me that I would lose," says Kim Stuart, the Porsche's driver. "It was like a light switch. He hit the pedal and was gone."

So what now? Wright isn't sure himself. Only 50 or so people have driven the car, and Wright has just begun to hold his hat out for potential investors. With $8 million in funding, he says, he is convinced he can put a consumer version of the X1 into production that meets federal safety standards, has a 100-mile range, and recharges in 4.5 hours.

To bring any EV to the masses, of course, will require much improved battery technology. But a handful of startups backed by Valley VCs are claiming that big advances are just around the corner. Menlo Park-based Li-on Cells claims that its technology will double the performance of lithium-ion batteries for about half the cost.

Thus, the X1 and the Tesla could be just the things to throw the EV race into high gear. As battery prices drop and performance improves, the cars could come within reach of a wider audience. And if oil prices keep climbing, more and more consumers will demand alternatives that are punchier than a Prius.

__________________________________________________________________________

This is an excerpt from an article in the May issue of Business 2.0. Click here to read the full story. Top of page
To send a letter to the

mcopeland@business2.com;talkback@business2.com

http://money.cnn.com/2006/05/04/technology/business2_wrightspeed/index.htm

Mark said...

energy a similar concept using the naturally occurring radio waves of our sun

Regarding running a car on water:

A Florida man has invented a device which uses radio waves to cause saltwater to burn at high temperatures. Though his process requires that he put the saltwater into a device which requires power to create the radio waves, and is therefore using more energy than it is producing, a similar concept using the naturally occurring radio waves of our sun might be harnessed and produce similar combustion.

http://www.wpbf.com/news/13383827/detail.html

Mark said...

The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air.

The engines are similar to steam engines as they use the expansion of externally supplied pressurized gas to perform work against a piston.

The most recent development uses pressurized air as fuel in an engine invented by Guy Negre, a French engineer. A similar concept is currently being developed by the Uruguayan engineer Armando Regusci, an Australian Angelo Di Pietro and a South Korea Chul-Seung Cho.

Despite interest in the technology, no company has yet put a vehicle using this technology into mass production. [Untrue, It's currently being made by India's Tata Motors, mass produced air cars]

A successful vehicle would offer many of the advantages of a battery electric vehicle with the additional ability to quickly restore the stored energy - in a few minutes rather than the hours required to recharge batteries.

History

The air engine, and its concept to use air as an energy carrier is not new. Historically it has been used since the 19th century to power mine locomotives, and has been the basis for the propulsion of naval torpedos since 1866. After this, it was used (and is still being used) in car racing to give the first power to start the car's main power plant, the internal combustion engine (ICE).

In 1991 the inventor Guy Nègre started up MDI and invented a dual-energy engine running on both compressed air as on regular fuel. From this moment on he managed to create a compressed air only-engine, and improved his design to make it more powerful. In the 15 years he's been working on this engine, considerable progress has been made: the engine is now claimed to be competitive with modern ICEs. It is probably still not as powerful as an ICE (although depending on which model of air engine vs model ICE). Proponents claim that this is of little importance since the car can simply be made lighter, or the tanks be put on a higher pressure, pushing the engine to above a comparable ICE-engine.

Other people that have been working on the idea, among them Armando Regusci, Angelo Di Pietro and Chul-Seung Cho. They too have companies, Rugusci's RegusciAir, Di Pietro's EngineAir and Chul-Seung Cho's Energine, selling their engines.

Engine design

It uses the expansion of compressed air to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank. This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine. The only exhaust gas is cold air (−15 °C), which may also be used for air conditioning in a car. The source for air is a pressurized carbon-fiber tank holding air at around 20 MPa (3,000 psi, 200 bar). Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two stage process allows improved heat transfer rates.

Armando Regusci's version of the air engine has several advantages over the original Nègre design. In the original Nègre air engine, one piston compresses air from the atmosphere, holding it on a small container that feeds the high pressure air tanks with a small amount of air. Then that portion of the air is sent to the second piston where it works. During compression for heating it up, there is a loss of energy due to the fact that it cannot receive energy from the atmosphere as the atmosphere is less warm than it. Also, it has to expand as it has the crank. Nègre's engine works with constant torque, and the only way to change the torque to the wheels is to use a pulley transmission of constant variation, losing some efficiency. In Regusci's version, the transmission system is direct to the wheel, and has variable torque from zero to the maximum, enhancing efficiency. When vehicle is stopped, Guy Nègre's engine has to be on and working, losing energy, while the Regusci's version need not.

In July 2004, Guy Nègre abandoned his original design, and showed later a new design that he stated to have invented in year 2001, but his new design is identical to the Armando Regusci's air engine which was patented back in 1989 (Uruguay) with the patent number 22976, and back in 1990 (Argentina). In those same patents, it is mentioned the use of electrical motors to compress air in the tanks.

Besides the compressed air engine designs by Regusci, Nègre, and EngineAir, the Quasiturbine is also capable of running on compressed air, and is thus also a compressed air engine.

Advantages

The principle advantages for an air powered vehicle are:

* Fast recharge time
* Very low self-discharge (most batteries will deplete their charge without external load at a rate determined by the chemistry, design, and size, while compressed gas storage will have an extremely low leakage rate)
* Long storage lifetime device (electric vehicle batteries have a limited useful number of cycles, and sometimes a limited calendar lifetime, irrespective of use).
* Potentially lower initial cost than battery electric vehicles when mass produced.
* Expansion of the compressed air reduces its temperature and heat from the passenger compartment may be cooled using a heat exchanger, providing both hot weather air conditioning and increased efficiency.

Disadvantages

Having solved most of the high pressure storage and handling problems, the main remaining disadvantages are related to the thermodynamics of air compression and expansion, the consequent temperature changes, and the resultant heat transfers.

* At the supply station, compressing the air heats it, and if then directly transferred in a heated state to the vehicle storage tanks will then cool and reduce the pressure. If cooled before transfer, the energy in this heat will be lost unless sophisticated low grade heat utilization is employed (see cogeneration).
* Within the vehicle, expansion and consequent pressure reduction in the throttle or engine chills the air, reducing its effective pressure. Addition of ambient heat will increase this pressure and this addition leads to a more complex propulsion system. While an attempt was made in the Nègre system to warm the air in a long portion of the stroke at top dead center, it appears that this scheme has been abandoned due to inherent imbalances causing unacceptable levels of vibration.
* Passenger compartment heating is more difficult since the propulsion system does not provide a source of waste heat. Some form of heat pump device would probably be required.

Uses of air engine

The Nègre engine is used to power an urban car with room for five passengers and a projected range of about 160 to 320 km (100 to 200 miles)[citation needed], depending on traffic conditions. The main advantages are: no roadside emissions, low cost technology, engine uses food oil for lubrication (just about 1 liter, changes only every 50,000 km (30,000 miles) ) and integrated air conditioning. Range could be quickly tripled[citation needed], since there are already carbon fiber tanks which have passed safety standards holding gas at 70 MPa (10,000 lbf/in²) .

The tanks may be refilled in about three minutes at a service station[citation needed], or in a few hours at home plugging the car into the electric grid via an on-board compressor. The cost of driving such car is projected around 0.75€ per 100 km, with a complete refill at the "tank-station" at about US$3.

Small single cylinder engines are also incorporated into small toy flying airplane models.

answers.com

Mark said...

energy aurora tapping


energy aurora gigawatts of power that Dr Wong wants to harness to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases

"The "Authority" in the dimension of Lyra's world believe that Dust or "High Energy Protons entering the atmosphere at earth's weakest link, her magnetic poles" represents Original Sin and is the ancient war for our souls."

This instantly caused me to think of this Economist article I read last week.

http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9253976

"And the idea proposed by Alfred Wong of the University of California, Los Angeles, at last week's meeting of the American Geophysical Union, in Acapulco, is about as lateral as they come. Dr Wong reckons the problem is not so much that CO2 is being thrown away, but that it is not being thrown far enough. According to his calculations, a little helping hand would turn the Earth's magnetic field into a conveyor belt that would vent the gas into outer space, whence it would never return.

The site of the conveyor Dr Wong is proposing to build is the Arctic.

More specifically, he is suggesting it be over one of his workplaces, the High Power Auroral Stimulation facility near Fairbanks in Alaska that he set up 20 years ago to stimulate and study artificial auroras.

The Arctic sky is special because it is one of the two places (the other being the Antarctic) where the magnetic shield of the Earth opens up to outer space. Auroras, such as the one pictured above, pleasingly testify to a stream of particles from the sun that gets through and hits the atmosphere.

These particles bring with them many gigawatts of power that Dr Wong wants to harness to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Going up in the world

His idea starts with the fact that CO2 molecules like to team up with loose electrons, to form CO2 ions.

A few percent of the CO2 molecules in the air manage to find such electrons. As a result they become negatively charged.

The second piece of luck is that all over the Earth there is a constant vertical electrical field.

The surface and the atmosphere form a giant battery, as the lightning discharges of thunderstorms demonstrate.

This field tends to make negatively charged ions, such as those of CO2, drift upward.

At first this happens slowly, because collisions with other molecules keep throwing the drifting ions off course. But after a few days they arrive at an altitude, about 125km up, which is so rarefied that an ion can move freely about.

This is when the last stage of their one-way trip into space begins: sailing along the magnetic field of the Earth.

High in the polar regions, the lines of magnetic force point almost straight upwards. When a charged particle is in a magnetic field, it tends to travel along that field's lines of force, spiralling as it goes. In the case of a CO2 ion at an altitude of 125km, it spirals round 17 times a second.

However, as it travels upwards, it experiences a weakening field. It must then make fewer turns per second, in obedience to a law of physics called the conservation of magnetic moment (this is similar to the law of conservation of angular momentum that slows a spinning ice dancer down as he spreads his arms). And because it cannot just shed its energy of movement, it is forced to travel faster and faster in the direction of the field. The eventual result is that it is ejected into space."

Sounds like a nice inventive band-aid for a wound that really needs sewn up & allowed time to heal.

If this is what The Economist considers "lateral thinking" then they're only concerned with solutions that continue to allow us our "lifestyles."

Maybe they should be looking at articles like this one detailing the effects of the exportation of our "lifestyle."

[Perhaps this IS ALREADY one of the purposes of HAARP...]

Mark said...

energy Bacteria Discovered That Turns Water Into Hydrogen

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 24.05.2006
Sweet success for pioneering hydrogen energy project


Bacteria that can munch through confectionery could be a valuable source of non-polluting energy in the years ahead, new research has shown.

In a feasibility study funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, bioscientists at the University of Birmingham have demonstrated that these bacteria give off hydrogen gas as they consume high-sugar waste produced by the confectionery industry.

The hydrogen has been used to generate clean electricity via a fuel cell (1). Looking to the future, it could also be used to power the hydrogen-fuelled road vehicles of tomorrow. There is increasing recognition that, over the coming decades, hydrogen could provide a mainstream source of energy that is a safe, environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels.

This was a highly successful laboratory demonstration of bacterial hydrogen production using confectionery waste as a feedstock. The waste was supplied by Birmingham-based international confectionery and beverage company Cadbury Schweppes plc, a partner in the initiative. An economic assessment undertaken by another partner, C-Tech Innovation Ltd, showed that it should be practical to repeat the process on a larger scale.

As well as energy and environmental benefits, the technique could provide the confectionery industry (and potentially other foodstuff manufacturers) with a useful outlet for waste generated by their manufacturing processes. Much of this waste is currently disposed of in landfill sites.

In this project, diluted nougat and caramel waste was introduced into a 5 litre demonstration reactor (although other similar wastes could be used). The bacteria, which the researchers had identified as potentially having the right sugar-consuming, hydrogen-generating properties, were then added.

The bacteria consumed the sugar, producing hydrogen and organic acids; a second type of bacteria was introduced into a second reactor to convert the organic acids into more hydrogen. The hydrogen produced was fed to a fuel cell, in which it was allowed to react with oxygen in the air to generate electricity. Carbon dioxide produced in the first reactor was captured and disposed of safely, preventing its release into the atmosphere.

Waste biomass left behind by the process was removed, coated with palladium (2) and used as a catalyst in another project, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), aimed at identifying ways of removing pollutants such as chromium (VI) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the environment. The reactors used by this parallel initiative also required hydrogen and this was supplied by the confectionery waste initiative too, further underlining the ‘green’ benefits offered by the new hydrogen production technique.

Professor Lynne Macaskie of the University of Birmingham’s School of Biosciences led the research team. “Hydrogen offers huge potential as a carbon-free energy carrier,” she comments. “Although only at its initial stages, we’ve demonstrated a hydrogen-producing, waste-reducing technology that, for example, might be scaled-up in 5-10 years’ time for industrial electricity generation and waste treatment processes.”

The team is now engaged in follow-up work which will produce a clearer picture of the overall potential for turning a wider range of high-sugar wastes into clean energy using the same basic technique.

See the new technology in action at http://bst.portlandpress.com/bst/033/bst0330076add.htm. This video clip shows gas from the reactor being fed to a fuel cell, producing electricity that enables the electric fan to turn.

http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/
http://www.innovations-report.com/home.php

Mark said...

More on the reality of the mass produced air car.


Car that runs on air in India soon
Swati Khandelwal
CNN-IBN
Posted Saturday , March 24, 2007 at 08:41
Updated Saturday , March 24, 2007 at 08:46
Email Email Print Print

CAR-EFULLY MADE: The car is made of foam and fibreglass but has survived official crash tests.

Other stories in the section

* Work on Tata Motors plant in full swing
* Tata begins land survey at Singur
* BMW plans to drive India crazy
* Markets slip on Asian cues
* Coming together of low cost airlines

New Delhi: Here's a car to die for.

The fuel bills are minimal and all at a price tag of just Rs 3,50,000.

Tata Motors and France's MDI have tied up to develop a car that runs on compressed air.

After 14 years of research and development, MDI's Chief Guy Negre has developed an engine that could become one of the century's biggest technological advances.

It lets a car run on compressed air and Tata Motors is getting this technology home.

The car is expected to have a range of about 300 km between refuelling with each refill costing Rs 90.

The MDI Air Car can be powered by an external compressed air pump or an internal compressor running on petrol.

It would have a top speed of around 60 kmh using air alone and 200 kmh using an air and petrol combination engine.

The beauty of the car, which is made of foam and fibreglass but has survived official crash tests, is that it switches engines as you increase speed.

So it will move to the air engine at about 60 km/hr and will automatically switch to combination engine at higher speeds.

http://www.ibnlive.com/printpage.php?id=36806§ion_id=7

Mark said...

newswire article reporting global 27.Feb.2007 10:00
environment

Cost of Solar Power Equal to Coal Now

The development at a South African University of a process to manufacture panels made with a much better material (CIGS) that generates electricity from sunlight at a lower cost than the silicone photo voltaic panels is what has been hoped for for decades. Solar power is no longer too expensive compared to coal plant generation.

"The most promising PV material identified to date is Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide (CIGS)." 1

"Less than one micron of CIGS absorbs more than 99% of available incident solar energy, compared to 350 microns of silicon to do the same job." 1

"International experts have admitted that nothing else comes close to the effectiveness of the South African invention." 2

"...the cost of the South African technology is a fraction of the less effective silicone solar panels." 2

"A typical middle-class suburban family needs only about 30 square metres (about the size of a living room) of solar panels to supply all of its electricity needs." 1

The German company IFE started production a year ago, and other companies are negotiating to produce the panels. A recent email requesting purchasing information got this response from IFE:

"Currently, we are in the process of constructing our production facility in Brandenburg an der Havel. In all probability, production of our thin film solar modules is going to start by mid 2007."

Leaders around the world are vowing to fight against global warming, and they are forming committees everywhere to find solutions. But this new substance has not been reported on in this country (except on the IMCs) to the extent it should be and our leaders are scratching their heads about what to do.

The solutions to global warming are at hand RIGHT NOW! They are this type of electricity generation, and hydrogen and electric cars.

Please make your leaders and electric companies aware of this new photo voltaic panel. We should be producing them by the millions as soon as possible!

1 - Novel invention could mean cheaper source of energy from solar power
http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2004/november/energy.htm

2 - South African solar research eclipses rest of the world
link to www.int.iol.co.za
http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=116&art_id=vn20060211110132138C184427

IFE website - http://www.ife-net.de/en/solar.php

---
http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/02/354789.shtml

Mark said...

"WIND: ONLY 5% OF KNOWN WIND SITES required to DOUBLE global energy capacity above current usage, and without pollution. Wind power could generate enough electricity to support the world's energy needs several times over, according to map of global wind speeds--first of its kind.

The map, compiled by researchers at Stanford University, shows wind speeds at more than 8,000 sites around the world. They found that at least 13% of those sites experience winds fast enough to power current wind turbines. If turbines were set up in all these regions, they would generate 72 terawatts. That's more than five times world's current energy needs...if only potentially doubled energy use is projected, then that means ... it takes ONLY 5.2% OF THOSE SITES being used to double world energy capacities. That's only about 400 wind farms and you DOUBLE global energy capacity."

It's clearly doable. We (planetarily speaking) simply have to avoid being done in.

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2006/11/350013.shtml

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/02/354789.shtml

Mark said...

newswire article reporting global 28.May.2007 05:22
environment | sustainability
VIDEOS: Reality of Cheap Clean Cold Fusion; Cheap Clean Hydrogen on Demand; & Air Car, NOW
author: tech watch update

OIL SLAVES OF THE WORLD, REVOLT. Forget Peak Oil and Forget Veg Oil. Forget "Hybrids", that last overpriced clientelistic gasp of the dying oil industry. Go Water Engine. Go Air Car Engine. A dozen videos for you to break through the corporate media Berlin Wall technological denial about it. The rest of the world moves on, in technological innovation, as the U.S. oil majors keep you trapped in their technology. --- Tremendous power, clean and without emissions except water vapor (for water engine, hundreds of time more kick than petrol) and zero emissions at all without even water vapor for the air car (easily rechargeable, with compressed air--instead of with oil's wasteful low efficiency explosions moving pistons; explosions and thermodynamics are unrequired to move pistons) --- New clean energy sources are here. Many say that all the peoples of the world, particularly in the industrialized nations, need to scale back their energy consumption, ending their hopes for a brighter future. However, the limitations are entirely a false social control trap, a sign of being brainwashed by media lies. What if there were an ultimate solution of infinitely clean source that almost no one had previously expected, water? Or just using compressed air? Information on patents and reality of such technologies--and how one non-oil car is about to explode out of repression: the AIR CAR GOES INTO MASS PRODUCTION (via a Guy Negre's French corporation MDI (Motor Development International) allied with the Indian car manufacturer, Tata Motors. Air Car mass production started up February 2007.)

http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2007/05/360137.shtml

Mark said...

reposts united states 23.Jun.2006 21:29
corporate dominance | energy & nuclear

Corn for heat
author: chilly grandma

Anyone know where to get a corn burning stove/insert around here?

Using corn to heat home saves bushels of bucks
Burner system cuts farmer's electric bills to about $40 a month

By Rob Cooper
Vincennes Sun-Commercial
BICKNELL, Ind. -- There's more to corn than just eating it. How about heating with it?


Nice and warm: Chuck Borgmeier, shown in the front room of his farmhouse in late November, has reduced his winter electric bills for his 1,500-square-foot house near Bicknell by more than 35 percent. He said a 90-pound bushel of corn, which costs around $2, can last all day. - KEVIN J. KILMER / Associated Press

Although the idea sounds far-fetched, the concept of heating a home by using one of Indiana's most abundant crops has become more popular, especially with the expected rises in heating and electric bills.

Chuck Borgmeier, who lives just north of Bicknell, has been heating his home and water with corn for two years.

Borgmeier has cut his winter electric bills by more than 35 percent. Gas bills are a thing of the past.

The price to heat his 1,500-square-foot home and water throughout the home: around $40 per month.
"I'm in love with it," he said.
Borgmeier bought the burner two years ago after reading about it in a farming magazine.
"I figured that since I've got the stuff to burn with since I farm, why not give it a try?" he said.
Jay Howder, who installed the burner for about $4,000.
Using a grain bin to hold cob-free seed corn, the burner operates by auguring the corn from the bin into a forge inside the burner, which is constantly burning. Even when not heating the home, the fire remains lit.
"It's like a natural pilot light," Howder said.
Borgmeier's corn burner is outside in an old smoke house that provides shelter for the grain bin and 850-pound burner, which resembles a large water heater. This allows the home to be heated without having a live fire burning inside, Borgmeier said.
"I feel a lot safer with the corn burner," he said. "There are many safety features on it, including an automatic shut-off fail-safe if the forge heats above a certain temperature."
Borgmeier says a 90-pound bushel of corn, which costs around $2, can last all day. It costs about $500 to heat a home and water for an entire winter season using the burner, he said.
To heat the home and water, water is pumped from a closed system through aluminum and plastic pipes into the burner, heating it to 180 degrees. The water is then pumped back to the water heater at a rate of 100,000 British thermal units through a heating exchange, thus heating the home's supply of water. After flowing through the exchange, the hot water is fed into a radiator at the top of the home's main air vent. The pipes running from the exchange to the air vent in turn heat the basement without any extra energy.
The process runs on the same amount of electricity as a 100-watt light bulb, Howder said.
Sam Borgmeier, Chuck Borgmeier's wife, said she was skeptical at first about the corn burner, "but once we had it installed, I was amazed at how well it heated our home."

add a comment on this article
IMHO burning anything for space heating is Stone Age technology... 23.Jun.2006 23:24
Pravda or Consequences link

make whiskey instead.

Seriously, we need to better integrate solar, wind, conservation, and geothermal into the grid.

Mark said...

take ocean water and turn it into energy with a little frequency addition, splitting it into hydrogen immediately at 3000F


Fla. Man Invents Machine To Turn Water Into Fire

POSTED: 1:22 pm EDT May 24, 2007
UPDATED: 2:53 pm EDT May 24, 2007
Email This Story | Print This Story

SANIBEL ISLAND, Fla. -- A Florida man may have accidentally invented a machine that could solve the gasoline and energy crisis plaguing the U.S., WPBF News 25 reported.

· Video | Photos | More

Sanibel Island resident John Kanzius is a former broadcast executive from Pennsylvania who wondered if his background in physics and radio could come in handy in treating the disease from which he suffers: cancer.

Kanzius, 63, invented a machine that emits radio waves in an attempt to kill cancerous cells while leaving normal cells intact.

While testing his machine, he noticed that his invention had other unexpected abilities.

Filling a test tube with salt water from a canal in his back yard, Kanzius placed the tube and a paper towel in the machine and turned it on. Suddenly, the paper towel ignited, lighting up the tube like it was a wax candle.

"Pretty neat, huh?" Kanzius asked WPBF's Jon Shainman.

Kanzius performed the experiment without the paper towel and got the same result -- the saltwater was actually burning.

The former broadcasting executive said he showed the experiment to a handful of scientists across the country who claim they are baffled at watching salt water ignite.

Kanzius said the flame created from his machine reaches a temperature of around 3,000 degrees Farenheit.

He said a chemist told him that the immense heat created from the machine breaks down the hydrogen-oxygen bond in the water, igniting the hydrogen.

"You could take plain salt water out of the sea, put it in containers and produce a violent flame that could heat generators that make electricity, or provide other forms of energy," Kanzius said.


He said engineers are currently experimenting with him in Erie, Pa. in an attempt to harness the energy. They've built an engine that, when placed on top of the flame, chugged along for two minutes, Kanzius told WPBF.

Kanzius admits all the excitement surrounding a new possible energy source was a stroke of luck. Someone who witnessed his work on the cancer front asked him if perhaps the machine could be used for desalinization.

"This was an experiment to see if I could heat salt water, and instead of heat, I got fire," Kanzius said.

Kanzius said he hoped that his invention could one day solve a lot of the world's energy problems.

"If I were to be bold enough, I think one day you could power an automobile with this, eventually," Kanzius told WPBF.

Previous Stories:

* February 28, 2007: Florida Man Invents Machine To Cure Cancer

Mark said...

condensing/etc/
energy

Source: Michigan Technological University
Date: January 26, 2004

More on:
Petroleum, Energy Technology, Engineering, Civil Engineering, Thermodynamics, Fossil Fuels
Microwave Steel: Faster, Cleaner, Cheaper

Microwave Steel: Faster, Cleaner, Cheaper

Science Daily — The same couch-potato technology that pops your popcorn during a TV commercial can now be used to make steel.
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Microwave Technology
Shop Fast. Buy Smart. Save on Microwave Ovens!
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Compare And Save On Brand Name Microwaves. Search - Microwave
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You shouldn't try it at home, however, since it involves heating the raw materials up to 1,000 degrees Celsius, about the same temperature as molten lava.

The feat was accomplished by Michigan Tech researcher Jiann-Yang (Jim) Hwang, who wired together the magnetrons from six garden-variety microwaves into one super-heavy-duty oven and added an electric arc furnace. He then put iron oxide and coal inside. In a matter of minutes, the microwave energy reduced the iron ore to iron, and the electric arc furnace smelted the iron and coal into steel.

The process could give the steel industry the same benefits that a microwave gives the typical family, says Hwang, an associate professor of materials science and engineering and director of Michigan Tech's Institute of Materials Processing.

It's really cheap, and it's really fast.

"With a blast furnace, most of the heat escapes," Hwang says. "It's like the stove in your home, where most of the heat warms your kitchen. It's inefficient. In our microwave, iron oxides can be heated to 1,000 degrees Celsius in one minute, compared to hours for conventional heating."

Microwave technology could cut production costs by as much as 50 percent, Hwang says. In addition to energy savings, it uses coal, eliminating the need for high-cost coke. And the manufacturing process is simple, cutting the number of steelmaking steps in half.

It's also friendlier to the environment, with significant reductions in greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide emissions.

Industry officials aren't ready to throw their existing technology out the window just yet, but they are taking a close look at the Hwang's invention.

"This could be a promising technology, particularly for helping us reuse byproducts that are currently being discarded," said Mark Conedera, a senior environmental engineer with US Steel Corporation. "We've been supportive of the concept for these value-added uses, and it has significant environmental benefits."

Hwang believes his new technology has the potential to benefit U.S. heavy industry, particularly in the Great Lakes region, where the steel and auto industries are centered.

"A low-cost steelmaking technology would take advantage of U.S. iron and coal resources and could help keep manufacturing jobs in Michigan and throughout the Great Lakes," he said.

Hwang's microwave steelmaking research was supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Michigan Technological University.

Mark said...

energy Russian Scientists Harness Star Power in New Battery

Russian Scientists Harness Star Power in New Battery

Created: 29.05.2006 11:46 MSK (GMT +3), Updated: 11:52 MSK, 19 hours 3 minutes ago, 19 hours 3 minutes ago

MosNews

Russian scientists have invented a battery that can capture energy not only from the sun, but also from the stars, the head of a research center at the Dubna Nuclear Institute near Moscow, said.

“Scientists have successfully created a new substance,” Valentin Samoilov announced, “thanks to which this battery can work on earth, independently of meteorological conditions, using solar and stellar energy.

”This is a battery like no other,“ Samoilov, who heads the Institute’s center for applied research, told the ITAR-TASS news agency, explaining that it could function 24 hours a day and was twice as effective as an ordinary solar panel at converting light into electricity.

Moreover, Samoilov declared, the new battery was cheaper than a solar panel.

mosnews.com

Mark said...

and let's remember Hutchinson's strange 'crystal matrix' endless batteries, work forever

Mark said...

energy Taking Nature's Cue For Cheaper Solar Power in synthetic dyes for building materials and glass; nice overlap example in two different categories


Source: Massey University
Date: April 6, 2007
More on:
Solar Energy, Electricity, Electronics, Batteries, Optics, Energy Technology
Taking Nature's Cue For Cheaper Solar Power

Science Daily — Solar cell technology developed by Massey University’s Nanomaterials Research Centre will enable New Zealanders to generate electricity from sunlight at a 10th of the cost of current silicon-based photo-electric solar cells.

Dr. Wayne Campbell. (Credit: Image courtesy of Massey University)


Dr Wayne Campbell and researchers in the centre have developed a range of coloured dyes for use in dye-sensitised solar cells.

The synthetic dyes are made from simple organic compounds closely related to those found in nature. The green dye Dr Campbell (pictured) is synthetic chlorophyll derived from the light-harvesting pigment plants use for photosynthesis.

Other dyes being tested in the cells are based on haemoglobin, the compound that give blood its colour.

Dr Campbell says that unlike the silicon-based solar cells currently on the market, the 10x10cm green demonstration cells generate enough electricity to run a small fan in low-light conditions – making them ideal for cloudy climates. The dyes can also be incorporated into tinted windows that trap to generate electricity.

He says the green solar cells are more environmentally friendly than silicon-based cells as they are made from titanium dioxide – a plentiful, renewable and non-toxic white mineral obtained from New Zealand’s black sand. Titanium dioxide is already used in consumer products such as toothpaste, white paints and cosmetics.

“The refining of pure silicon, although a very abundant mineral, is energy-hungry and very expensive. And whereas silicon cells need direct sunlight to operate efficiently, these cells will work efficiently in low diffuse light conditions,” Dr Campbell says.

“The expected cost is one 10th of the price of a silicon-based solar panel, making them more attractive and accessible to home-owners.”

The Centre’s new director, Professor Ashton Partridge, says they now have the most efficient porphyrin dye in the world and aim to optimise and improve the cell construction and performance before developing the cells commercially.

“The next step is to take these dyes and incorporate them into roofing materials or wall panels. We have had many expressions of interest from New Zealand companies,” Professor Partridge says.

He says the ultimate aim of using nanotechnology to develop a better solar cell is to convert as much sunlight to electricity as possible.

“The energy that reaches earth from sunlight in one hour is more than that used by all human activities in one year”.

The solar cells are the product of more than 10 years research funded by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology.

Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Massey University.

Mark said...

[story goes into a bit about permanent magnetic engines; likely Tesla car was the same principle of pulsed DC in, mentioned in the videos above from Australia or the 'radiant energy' from his patents turned into a motor contraption.]


Tesla's Electric Car #1 - 01/09/98
This file was originally posted on the KeelyNet BBS on January 30, 1993 as TESLAFE1.ASC.

This file was inspired by a newspaper article in the local Dallas Morning News. It was in a column called "Texas Sketches" written by A.C. Greene. I called Mr. Green and Mr. Langkop who both courteously sent the additional source material. Both also expressed an interest in more Tesla information as well as Texas experimenters, we are sending them material in return. There is also a second file with my thoughts on the Tesla power box, that file is listed on KeelyNet as TESLAFE2.ASC.
from January 24th, Sunday - Dallas Morning News
Texas Sketches column

The Electric Auto that almost triumphed
Power Source of '31 car still a mystery
by A.C. Greene

Not long ago, Texas Sketches told the story of Henry "Dad" Garrett and his son C.H.'s water-fueled automobile, which was successfully demonstrated in 1935 at White Rock Lake in Dallas.

Eugene Langkop of Dallas (a Packard lover, like so many of us) notes that the "wonder car" of the future may be a resurrection of the electric car. It uses no gasoline, no oil - just some grease fittings - has no radiator to fill or freeze, no carburetor problems, no muffler to replace and gives off no pollutants.

Famous former electrics include Columbia, Rauch & Lang and Detroit Electric.

Dallas had electric delivery trucks in the 1920s and 30s. Many electric delivery vehicles were used in big cities into the 1960s.

The problem with electrics was slow speed and short range.

Within the past decade two Richardson men, George Thiess and Jack Hooker, claimed to have used batteries operating on magnesium from seawater to increase the range of their electric automobile from 100 miles to 400 or 500 miles.

But it is a mystery car once demonstrated by Nikola Tesla, developer of alternating current, that might have made electrics triumphant.

Supported by the Pierce-Arrow Co. and General Electric in 1931, he took the gasoline engine from a new Pierce-Arrow and replaced it with an 80-horsepower alternating-current electric motor with no external power source.

At a local radio shop he bought 12 vacuum tubes, some wires and assorted resistors, and assembled them in a circuit box 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high, with a pair of 3-inch rods sticking out. Getting into the car with the circuit box in the front seat beside him, he pushed the rods in, announced, "We now have power," and proceeded to test drive the car for a week, often at speeds of up to 90 mph.

As it was an alternating-current motor and there were no batteries involved, where did the power come from?

Popular responses included charges of "black magic," and the sensitive genius didn't like the skeptical comments of the press. He removed his mysterious box, returned to his laboratory in New York - and the secret of his power source died with him.

A.C. Greene is an author and Texas historian who lives in Salado. The original article from which Mr. Greene gleaned the above info was from a Packard Newsletter. Mr. Gene Langkopf kindly sent us a copy of that article which now follows.
The Forgotten Art of Electric - Powered Automobiles
by Arthur Abrom
Electric powered automobiles were one of the earliest considerations and this mode of propulsion enjoyed a brief but short reign. The development of electricity as a workable source of power for mankind has been studded with great controversy.

Thomas A. Edison was the first to start to market systems (i.e. electric generators) of any commercial value. His research and developmental skills were utilized to market a "direct current" system of electricity. Ships were equipped with D.C. systems and municipalities began lighting their streets with this revolutionary D.C. electric system. (At that time) Edison was the sole source of electricity!

While in the process of commercializing electricity, Thomas Edison hired men who knew of the new scientific gift to the world and were capable of new applications for electricity. One such man was a foreigner named Nikola Tesla. This man, although not known to many of us today, was without a doubt the greatest scientific mind that has ever lived. His accomplishments dwarfed even Thomas Edison's! Whereas Mr. Edison was a great experimenter, Mr. Tesla was a great theoretician. Nikola Tesla became frustrated and very much annoyed at the procedures Edison followed.

Tesla would rather calculate the possibility of something working (i.e. mathematical investigation) than the hit and miss technique of constant experimentation. So in the heat of an argument, he quit one day and stormed out of Edison's laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey.

Working on his own, Tesla conceived and built the first working alternating current generator. He, and he alone, is responsible for all of the advantages we enjoy today because of A.C. electric power.

Angered by Edison, Tesla sold his new patents to George Westinghouse for 15 million dollars in the very early 1900's. Tesla became totally independent and proceeded to carry on his investigative research in his laboratory on 5th Avenue in New York City.

George Westinghouse began to market this new system of electric generators and was in competition with Edison. Westinghouse prevailed because of the greater superiority of the A.C. generators over the less efficient D.C. power supplies of Thomas Edison. Today, A.C. power is the only source of electricity the world uses. And, please remember, Nikola Tesla is the man who developed it.

Now specifically dealing with automobiles in the infant days of their development, electric propulsion was considered and used. An electric powered automobile possessed many advantages that the noisy, cantankerous, smoke-belching gasoline cars could not offer.

First and foremost is the absolute silence one experiences when riding in an electrically powered vehicle. There is not even a hint of noise. One simply turns a key and steps on the accelerator - the vehicle moves instantly! No cranking from the start, no crank to turn (this was before electric starters), no pumping of the accelerator, no spark control to advance and no throttle linkage to pre-set before starting. One simply turned the ignition switch to on!

Second, is a sense of power. If one wants to increase speed, you simply depress the accelerator further - there is never any hesitation. Releasing the accelerator causes the vehicle to slow down immediately - you are always in complete control. It is not difficult to understand why these vehicles were so very popular around the turn of the century and until 1912 or so.

The big disadvantage to these cars was their range and need for re-charging every single night. All of these electric vehicles used a series of batteries and a D.C. motor to move itself about. The batteries require recharging every night and the range of travel was restricted to about 100 miles. Understand that this restriction was not a serious one in the early part of this century. Doctors began making house calls with electric cars (do you remember doctors making house calls?) because he no longer needed to tend to the horse at night time - just plug the car into an electric socket! No feeding, no rub-down and no mess to clean up!

Many of the large department stores in metropolitan areas began purchasing delivery trucks that were electrically powered. They were silent and emitted no pollutants. And, maintenance was a minimum on electrically powered vehicles. There were few mechanics and garages in operation in the early 1900's. So city life and travel appeared to be willing to embrace the electric automobile. Remember, these masterfully built vehicles all ran on D.C. current.

Two things happened to dampen the popularity of the electric automobile. One was the subconscious craving for speed that gripped all auto enthusisasts of this era. Each manufacturer was eager to show how far his car could travel (i.e. the transcontinental races) and what was its top speed!

Col. Vanderbilt constructed the first all concrete race track in Long Island and racing became the passion for the well-to-do. Newspapers constantly record new records of speed achieved by so-in-so. And, of course, the automobile manufacturers were quick to capitalize on the advertising effect of these new peaks of speed. Both of these events made the electrically powered vehicles appear to only belong to the "little old lady" down the street or the old retired gentleman who talked about the "good old days".

Electric vehicles could not reach speeds of 45 or 50 m.p.h. for this would have destroyed the batteries in moments. Bursts of speeds of 25 to 35 m.p.h. could be maintained for a moment or so. Normal driving speed-depending upon traffic conditions, was 15 to 20 m.p.h. by 1900 to 1910 standards, this was an acceptable speed limit to obtain from your electric vehicle.

Please note that none of the manufacturers of electric cars ever installed a D.C. generator. This would have put a small charge back into the batteries as the car moved about and would have thereby increased its operating range. This was considered by some to be approaching perpetual motion - and that, of course, was utterly impossible! Actually, D.C. generators would have worked and helped the electric car cause.

As mentioned earlier, Mr. Westinghouse's A.C. current generating equipment was being sold and installed about the country. The earlier D.C. equipment was being retired and disregarded. As a side note, Consolidated Edison Power Company of New York City still has one of Thomas Edison's D.C. generators installed in its 14th St. powerhouse - it still works! About this time, another giant corporation was formed and entered the A.C. generating equipment field - General Electric. This spelled the absolute end for Edison's D.C. power supply systems as a commercial means of generating and distributing electric power.

The electric automobile could not be adapted to accomodate and utilize a polyphase motor (i.e. A.C. power). Since they used batteries as a source of power, their extinction was sealed. No battery can put out an A.C. signal. True, a converter could be utilized (i.e. convert the D.C. signal from the battery to an A.C. signal), but the size of the equipment at this time was too large to fit in an automobile - even one with the generous dimensions of this era.

So, somewhere around 1915 or so, the electric automobile became a memory. True, United Parcel Service still utilizes several electric trucks in New York City today but the bulk of their fleet of vehicles utilizes gasoline or diesel fuel. For all intensive purposes, the electrically powered automobile is dead - they are considered dinosaurs of the past.

But, let us stop a moment and consider the advantages of utilizing electric power as a means of propelling vehicles. Maintenance is absolutely minimal for the only oil required is for the two bearings in the motor and the necessary grease fittings. There is no oil to change, no radiator to clean and fill, no transmission to foul up, no fuel pump, no water pump, no carburetion problems, no muffler to rot out or replace and no pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. It appears as though it might be the answer we have been searching for!

Therefore, the two problems facing us become top speed and range of driving - providing, of course, the A.C. and D.C. problems could be worked out. With today's technology this does not seem to be insurmountable. In fact, the entire problem has already been solved - in the past, the distant past and the not so distant! Stop! Re-read the last sentence again. Ponder it for a few moments before going on.

Several times earlier in this article, I mentioned the man, Nikola Tesla and stated that he was the greatest mind that ever lived. The U.S. Patent Office has 1,200 patents registered in the name of Nikola Tesla and it is estimated that he could have patented an additional 1,000 or so from memory!

But, back to our electric automobiles - in 1931, under the financing of Pierce-Arrow and George Westinghouse, a 1931 Pierce-Arrow was selected to be tested at the factory grounds in Buffalo, N.Y. The standard internal combustion engine was removed and an 80-H.P. 1800 r.p.m electric motor installed to the clutch and transmission. The A.C. motor measured 40 inches long and 30 inches in diameter and the power leads were left standing in the air - no external power source!

At the appointed time, Nikola Tesla arrived from New York City and inspected the Pierce-Arrow automobile. He then went to a local radio store and purchased a handful of tubes (12), wires and assorted resistors. A box measuring 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high was assembled housing the circuit. The box was placed on the front seat and had its wires connected to the air-cooled, brushless motor. Two rods 1/4" in diameter stuck out of the box about 3" in length.

Mr. Tesla got into the driver's seat, pushed the two rods in and stated, "We now have power". He put the car into gear and it moved forward! This vehicle, powered by an A.C. motor, was driven to speeds of 90 m.p.h. and performed better than any internal combustion engine of its day! One week was spent testing the vehicle. Several newspapers in Buffalo reported this test. When asked where the power came from, Tesla replied, "From the ethers all around us". Several people suggested that Tesla was mad and somehow in league with sinister forces of the universe. He became incensed, removed his mysterious box from the vehicle and returned to his laboratory in New York City. His secret died with him!

It is speculated that Nikola Tesla was able to somehow harness the earth's magnetic field that encompasses our planet. And, he somehow was able to draw tremendous amounts of power by cutting these lines of force or causing them to be multiplied together. The exact nature of his device remains a mystery but it did actually function by powering the 80 h.p. A.C. motor in the Pierce-Arrow at speeds up to 90 m.p.h. and no recharging was ever necessary!

In 1969, Joseph R. Zubris took his 1961 Mercury and pulled out the Detroit internal combustion engine. He then installed an electric motor as a source of power. His unique wiring system cuts the energy drain at starting to 75% of normal and doubles the electrical efficiency of the electric motor when it is operating! The U.S. Patent Office issued him a patent No. 3,809,978. Although he approached many concerns for marketing, no one really seemed to be interested. And, his unique system is still not on the market.

In the 1970's, an inventor used an Ev-Gray generator, which intensified battery current, the voltage being induced to the field coils by a simple programmer (sequencer). By allowing the motor to charge separate batteries as the device ran, phenomenally tiny currents were needed. The device was tested at the Crosby Research Institute of Beverly Hills, Ca., a 10-horepower EMA motor ran for over a week (9 days) on four standard automobile batteries.

The inventors estimated that a 50-horsepower electric motor could traverse 300 miles at 50 m.p.h. before needing a re-charge. Dr. Keith E. Kenyon, the inventor of Van Nuys, California discovered a discrepancy in the normal and long accepted laws relating to electric motor magnets. Dr. Kenyon demonstrated his invention for many scientists and engineers in 1976 but their reaction was astounding. Although admitting Dr. Kenyon's device worked, they saw little or no practical application for it!

So the ultimate source for our electrically powered automobile would be to have an electric motor that required no outside source of power. Sounds impossible because it violates all scientific thought! But it has been invented and H.R. Johnson has been issued a patent No. 4,151,431 on April 24, 1979 on such a device!

This new design although originally suggested by Nikola Tesla in 1905, is a permanent magnet motor. Mr. Johnson has arranged a series of permanent magnets on the rotor and a corresponding series - with different spacing - on the stator. One simply has to move the stator into position and rotation of the rotor begins immediately.

Howard Johnson Permanent Magnet Motor

His patent states,

"The invention is directed to the method of utilizing the unpaired electron spins in ferro magnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors and to permanent magnet motors for utilization of this method to produce a power source.

In the practice of this invention, the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilized to produce a motive power source solely through the super-conducting characteristics of a permanent magnet and the magnetic flux created by the magnets are controlled and concentrated to orient the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to do useful continuous work such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator.

The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by permanent magnets to produce a motor is accomplished with the proper geometrical relationship of these components".

Now before you dismiss the idea of a magnetically run motor - a free energy source, consider the following :

Engineers of Hitachi Magnetics Corp. of California have stated that a motor run solely by magnets is feasible and logical but the politics of the matter make it impossible for them to pursue developing a magnet motor or any device that would compete with the energy cartels.

In a book entitled, "Keely and His Discoveries" by Clara B. Moore published in 1893, we find the following statemtents,

"The magnet that lifts a pound today if the load is gradually increased day by day will lift double that amount in time. Whence comes this energy? Keely teaches that it comes from sympathetic association with one of the currents of the polar stream and that its energy increases as long as the sympathetic flow lasts, which is through eternity".

Now consider some basic observations concerning magnets:

* 1) Two permanent magnets can either attract or repel depending on the arrangement of the magnetic poles.
* 2) Two magnets repel further than they attract because of friction and inertia forces.
* 3) Most of our energy comes directly or indirectly from electromagnetic energy of the sun, e.g. photosynthesis and watercycle of ocean to water vapor to rain or snow to ocean.
* 4) Magnetic energy "travels" between poles at the speed of light.
* 5) Permanent magnets on both sides of an iron shield are attracted to the shield and only weakly to each other at close proximity to the shield.
* 6) Permanent magnets are ferrous metals and are attractive only. Attraction is an inverse square force.
* 7) Magnetic energy can be shielded.
* 8) The sliding or perpendicular force of a keeper is much less than the force in the direction of the field to remove the keeper.
* 9) Most of the magnetic energy is concentrated at the poles of the magnet.
* 10) A permanent magnet loses little strength unless dropped or heated. Heating misaligns the magnetic elements within the magnet.
* 11) If a weight lifted by a permanet magnet is slowly increased, the lifting power of the magnet can be increased until all the magnetic domains in the magnet are aligned in the same direction. This becomes the limit.
* 12) Using magnets to repel tends to weaken them as it causes more misalignment of the domains.
* 13) A magnetic material placed between two magnets will always be attracted to the stronger magnet.

So, our ultimate motor becomes a permanent magnet motor of proper size with speed being controlled through the automobiles transmission. And, here is the biggest plus, permanent magnets keep their strength for a minimum of 95 years! So here we have a fuel-less automobile that would last us our lifetime.

There is only one drawback to an automobile powered by a permanent magnet motor - if the vehicle gets involved in an accident, the shock of the crash could jar the magnets and cause them to lose power! But this seems to be a small price to pay for an automobile that could run all day at 60 m.p.h. - use no fuel - and never need a recharge!

Now the only question left to be answered is, "Where do you buy one?" or perhaps, "When will we be able to buy one?" At present there are several companies offering interim solutions. Some offer electric powered designs - but this is strictly batteries, while others offer a hybrid combination of batteries and small gasoline engines. All of these so-called "modern alternatives" suffer from the same lack of accessories we've become accustomed to.

They do not, or cannot offer power steering, brakes or windows or air- conditioning, etc. Since they are small aerodynamically shaped packages holding only two people, their appeal is distinctly limited.

When someone constructs an automobile run by a permanent magnet motor attached to the differential thus eliminating the transmission, the world will beat a path to his door - providing the energy cartel doesn't find him first!

In Richardson, Texas last year, two men - George Thiess and Jack Hooker have advanced the storage battery to a new level. Their new batteries will operate on magnesium made from seawater.

Thiess/Hooker Advanced Storage Battery

The magnesium is used to charge the battery while in an electrolene solution and the range of their auto is increased by replacing the magnesium rods every 400 to 500 miles. Their studies are being officially watched by the Department of Energy. Perhaps an all new era of electrically powered automobiles may be on its way to reality. This subject is intensely interesting to many researchers so if you have any suggestions or comments, we here at KeelyNet would greatly appreciate your sharing with us.

TESLAFE2.HTM - commentary
http://keelynet.com/energy/teslafe2.htm
TESLCAR.HTM - another viewpoint
http://keelynet.com/energy/teslcar.htm

Mark said...

The World of Free Energy
By Peter Lindemann, D.Sc.

In the late 1880's, trade journals in the electrical sciences were predicting free electricity and free energy in the near future.

Incredible discoveries about the nature of electricity were becoming common place. Nikola Tesla was demonstrating "wireless lighting" and other wonders associated with high frequency currents. There was an excitement about the future like never before.

Within 20 years, there would be automobiles, airplanes, movies, recorded music, telephones, radio, and practical cameras. The Victorian Age was giving way to something totally new. For the first time in history, common people were encouraged to envision a utopian future filled with abundant modern transportation and communication, as well as jobs, housing and food for everyone. Disease would be conquered, and so would poverty. Life was getting better, and this time, everyone was going to get a piece of the pie. So, what happened? In the midst of this technological explosion, where did the energy breakthroughs go? Was all of this excitement about free energy, which happened just before the beginning of the last century, just wishful thinking that "real science" eventually disproved?

Current State of Technology

Actually, the answer to that question is NO. In fact, the opposite is true. Spectacular energy technologies were developed right along with the other breakthroughs. Since that time, multiple methods for producing vast amounts of energy at extremely low cost have been developed. None of these technologies have made it to the consumer market as an article of commerce, however. Exactly why this is true will be discussed shortly.

But first, I would like to describe to you a short list of free energy technologies that I am currently aware of, and that are proven beyond all reasonable doubt. The common feature connecting all of these discoveries, is that they use a small amount of one form of energy to control or release a large amount of a different kind of energy.

Many of them tap the underlying Æther field in some way; a source of energy conveniently ignored by modern science.

1)


Radiant Energy. Nikola Tesla's magnifying transmitter, T. Henry Moray's radiant energy device, Edwin Gray's EMA motor, and Paul Baumann's Testatika machine all run on radiant energy. This natural energy form can be gathered directly from the environment (mistakenly called "static" electricity) or extracted from ordinary electricity by the method called fractionation. Radiant energy can perform the same wonders as ordinary electricity, at less than 1% of the cost. It does not behave exactly like electricity, however, which has contributed to the scientific community's misunderstanding of it. The Methernitha Community in Switzerland currently has 5 or 6 working models of fuelless, self-running devices that tap this energy.

2)


Permanent Magnets. Dr. Robert Adams (NZ) has developed astounding designs of electric motors, generators and heaters that run on permanent magnets. One such device draws 100 watts of electricity from the source, generates 100 watts to recharge the source, and produces over 140 BTU's of heat in two minutes! Dr. Tom Bearden (USA) has two working models of a permanent magnet powered electrical transformer. It uses a 6-watt electrical input to control the path of a magnetic field coming out of a permanent magnet. By channeling the magnetic field, first to one output coil and then a second output coil, and by doing this repeatedly and rapidly in a "ping-pong" fashion, the device can produce a 96-watt electrical output with no moving parts. Bearden calls his device a Motionless Electromagnetic Generator, or MEG. Jean-Louis Naudin has duplicated Bearden's device in France. The principles for this type of device were first disclosed by Frank Richardson (USA) in 1978. Troy Reed (USA) has working models of a special magnetized fan that heats up as it spins. It takes exactly the same amount of energy to spin the fan whether it is generating heat or not. Beyond these developments, multiple inventors have identified working mechanisms that produce motor torque from permanent magnets alone.

3)


Mechanical Heaters. There are two classes of machines that transform a small amount of mechanical energy into a large amount of heat. The best of these purely mechanical designs are the rotating cylinder systems designed by Frenette (USA) and Perkins (USA). In these machines, one cylinder is rotated within another cylinder with about an eighth of an inch of clearance between them. The space between the cylinders is filled with a liquid such as water or oil, and it is this "working fluid" that heats up as the inner cylinder spins. Another method uses magnets mounted on a wheel to produce large eddy currents in a plate of aluminum, causing the aluminum to heat up rapidly. These magnetic heaters have been demonstrated by Muller (Canada), Adams (NZ) and Reed (USA). All of these systems can produce ten times more heat than standard methods using the same energy input.

4)


Super-Efficient Electrolysis. Water can be broken into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity. Standard chemistry books claim that this process requires more energy than can be recovered when the gases are recombined. This is true only under the worst case scenario. When water is hit with its own molecular resonant frequency, using a system developed by Stan Meyers (USA) and again recently by Xogen Power, Inc., it collapses into hydrogen and oxygen gas with very little electrical input. Also, using different electrolytes (additives that make the water conduct electricity better) changes the efficiency of the process dramatically. It is also known that certain geometric structures and surface textures work better than others do. The implication is that unlimited amounts of hydrogen fuel can be made to drive engines (like in your car) for the cost of water. Even more amazing is the fact that a special metal alloy was patented by Freedman (USA) in 1957 that spontaneously breaks water into hydrogen and oxygen with no outside electrical input and without causing any chemical changes in the metal itself. This means that this special metal alloy can make hydrogen from water for free, forever.

5)


Implosion/Vortex. All major industrial engines use the release of heat to cause expansion and pressure to produce work, like in your car engine. Nature uses the opposite process of cooling to cause suction and vacuum to produce work, like in a tornado. Viktor Schauberger (Austria) was the first to build working models of implosion engines in the 1930's and 1940's. Since that time, Callum Coats has published extensively on Schauberger's work in his book Living Energies and subsequently, a number of researchers have built working models of implosion turbine engines. These are fuelless engines that produce mechanical work from energy accessed from a vacuum. There are also much simpler designs that use vortex motions to tap a combination of gravity and centrifugal force to produce a continuous motion in fluids.

6)


Cold Fusion. In March 1989, two chemists from the University of Utah (USA) announced that they had produced atomic fusion reactions in a simple tabletop device. The claims were "debunked" within six months and the public lost interest. Nevertheless, cold fusion is very real. Not only has excess heat production been repeatedly documented, but also low energy atomic element transmutation has been catalogued, involving dozens of different reactions! This technology definitely can produce low cost energy and scores of other important industrial processes.

7)


Solar Assisted Heat Pumps. The refrigerator in your kitchen is the only free energy machine you currently own. It's an electrically operated heat pump. It uses one amount of energy (electricity) to move three amounts of energy (heat). This gives it a co-efficient of performance (COP) of about 3. Your refrigerator uses one amount of electricity to pump three amounts of heat from the inside of the refrigerator to the outside of the refrigerator. This is its typical use, but it is the worst possible way to use the technology. Here's why. A heat pump pumps heat from the source of heat to the "sink" or place that absorbs the heat. The source of heat should obviously be hot and the sink for heat should obviously be cold for this process to work the best. In your refrigerator, it's exactly the opposite. The source of heat is inside the box, which is cold, and the sink for heat is the room temperature air of your kitchen, which is warmer than the source. This is why the COP remains low for your kitchen refrigerator. But this is not true for all heat pumps. COP's of 8 to 10 are easily attained with solar assisted heat pumps. In such a device, a heat pump draws heat from a solar collector and dumps the heat into a large underground absorber, which remains at 55° F, and mechanical energy is extracted in the transfer. This process is equivalent to a steam engine that extracts mechanical energy between the boiler and the condenser, except that it uses a fluid that boils at a much lower temperature than water. One such system that was tested in the 1970's produced 350 hp, measured on a Dynamometer, in a specially designed engine from just 100-sq. ft. of solar collector. (This is not the system promoted by Dennis Lee.) The amount of energy it took to run the compressor (input) was less than 20 hp, so this system produced more than 17 times more energy than it took to keep it going! It could power a small neighborhood from the roof of a hot tub gazebo, using exactly the same technology that keeps the food cold in your kitchen. Currently, there is an industrial scale heat pump system just north of Kona, Hawaii that generates electricity from temperature differences in ocean water.

There are dozens of other systems that I have not mentioned, many of them are as viable and well tested as the ones I have just recounted. But this short list is sufficient to make my point: free energy technology is here, now. It offers the world pollution-free, energy abundance for everyone, everywhere.

It is now possible to stop the production of greenhouse gases and shut down all of the nuclear power plants. We can now desalinate unlimited amounts of seawater at an affordable price, and bring adequate fresh water to even the most remote habitats. Transportation costs and the production costs for just about everything can drop dramatically. Food can even be grown in heated greenhouses in the winter, anywhere. All of these wonderful benefits that can make life on this planet so much easier and better for everyone have been postponed for decades. Why? Whose purposes are served by this postponement?

The Invisible Enemy

There are four gigantic forces that have worked together to create this situation. To say that there is and has been a conspiracy to suppress this technology only leads to a superficial understanding of the world, and it places the blame for this completely outside of ourselves. Our willingness to remain ignorant and actionless in the face of this situation has always been interpreted by two of these forces as implied consent. So, besides a non-demanding public, what are the other forces that are impeding the availability of free energy technology?

In the United States, and in most other countries around the world, there is a money monopoly in place. I am free to earn as much money as I want, but I will only be paid in Federal Reserve Notes. There is nothing I can do to be paid in Gold Certificates, or some other form of money. This money monopoly is solely in the hands of a small number of private stock banks, and these banks are owned by the wealthiest families in the world. Their plan is to eventually control 100% of all of the capital resources of the world, and thereby control everyone's life through the availability (or non-availability) of all goods and services.

An independent source of wealth (free energy device) in the hands of each and every person in the world, ruins the plans of the wealthiest families for world domination, permanently. Why this is true is easy to see. Currently, a nation's economy can be either slowed down or sped up by the raising or lowering of interest rates. But if an independent source of capital (energy) were present in the economy, and any business or person could raise more capital without borrowing it from a bank, this centralized throttling action on interest rates would simply not have the same effect.

Free energy technology changes the value of money. The wealthiest families and the issuers of credit do not want any competition. It's that simple. They want to maintain their current monopoly control of the money supply. For them, free energy technology is not just something to suppress, it must be permanently forbidden!

So, the wealthiest families and their central banking institutions are the first force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology. Their motivations are the imagined divine right to rule, greed, and their insatiable need to control everything except themselves. The weapons they have used to enforce this postponement include intimidation, "expert" debunkers, buying and shelving of technology, murder and attempted murder of the inventors, character assassination, arson, and a wide variety of financial incentives and disincentives to manipulate possible supporters. They have also promoted the general acceptance of a scientific theory that states that free energy is impossible (laws of thermodynamics).

The second force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology is national governments. The problem here is not so much related to competition in the printing of currency, but in the maintenance of national security. The fact is, the world out there is a jungle, and humans can be counted upon to be very cruel, dishonest, and sneaky. It is government's job to provide for the common defense. For this, police powers are delegated by the executive branch of government to enforce "the rule of law." Most of us who consent to the rule of law do so because we believe it is the right thing to do, for our own benefit. There are always a few individuals, however, that believe that their own benefit is best served by behavior that does not voluntarily conform to the generally agreed upon social order. These people choose to operate outside of the rule of law and are considered outlaws, criminals, subversives, traitors, revolutionaries, or terrorists.

Most national governments have discovered, by trial and error, that the only foreign policy that really works, over time, is a policy called "tit for tat." What this means to you and me is, that governments treat each other the way they are being treated. There is a constant jockeying for position and influence in world affairs, and the strongest party wins! In economics, it's the Golden Rule, which states: "The one with the gold makes the rules."

So it is with politics also, but its appearance is more Darwinian. It's simply survival of the fittest. In politics, however, the fittest has come to mean the strongest party who is also willing to fight the dirtiest. Absolutely every means available is used to maintain an advantage over the adversary, and everyone else is the adversary regardless of whether they are considered friend or foe. This includes outrageous psychological posturing, lying, cheating, spying, stealing, assassination of world leaders, proxy wars, alliances and shifting alliances, treaties, foreign aid, and the presence of military forces wherever possible.

Like it or not, this is the psychological and actual arena national governments operate in. No national government will do anything that simply gives an adversary an advantage for free. It's national suicide. An activity by any individual, inside or outside the country, that is interpreted as giving an adversary an edge or advantage will be deemed a threat to "national security."

Free energy technology is a national government's worst nightmare! Openly acknowledged, free energy technology sparks an unlimited arms race by all governments in a final attempt to gain absolute advantage and domination. Think about it. Do you think Japan will not feel intimidated if China gets free energy? Do you think Israel will sit by quietly as Iraq acquires free energy? Do you think India will allow Pakistan to develop free energy? Do you think the USA would not try to stop Osama bin Laden from getting free energy?

Unlimited energy available to the current state of affairs on this planet leads to an inevitable reshuffling of the balance of power. This could become an all-out war to prevent "the other" from having the advantage of unlimited wealth and power. Everybody will want it, and at the same time, want to prevent everyone else from getting it.

So, national governments are the second force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology. Their motivations are "self-preservation." This self-preservation operates on three levels. First, by not giving undue advantage to an external enemy. Second, by preventing individualized action capable of effectively challenging official police powers (anarchy) within the country. And third, by preserving income streams derived from taxing energy sources currently in use. Their weapons include the preventing of the issuance of patents based on national security grounds, the legal and illegal harassment of inventors with criminal charges, tax audits, threats, phone taps, arrest, arson, theft of property during shipment, and a host of other intimidations which make the business of building and marketing a free energy machine impossible.

The third force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology consists of the group of deluded inventors and out right charlatans and con men. On the periphery of the extraordinary scientific breakthroughs that constitute the real free energy technologies, lies a shadow world of unexplained anomalies, marginal inventions and unscrupulous promoters. The first two forces have constantly used the media to promote the worst examples of this group, to distract the public's attention and to discredit the real breakthroughs by associating them with the obvious frauds.

Over the last hundred years, dozens of stories have surfaced about unusual inventions. Some of these ideas have so captivated the public's imagination that a mythology about these systems continues to this day. Names like Keely, Hubbard, Coler, and Henderschott immediately come to mind. There may be real technologies behind these names, but there simply isn't enough technical data available in the public domain to make a determination. These names remain associated with a free energy mythology, however, and are sited by debunkers as examples of fraud.

The idea of free energy taps very deeply into the human subconscious mind. A few inventors with marginal technologies that demonstrate useful anomalies have mistakenly exaggerated the importance of their inventions. Some of these inventors also have mistakenly exaggerated the importance of themselves for having invented it. A combination of "gold fever" and/or a messiah complex appears, wholly distorting any future contribution they may make.

While the research thread they are following may hold great promise, these deluded inventors begin to trade enthusiasm for facts, and the value of the scientific work from that point on suffers greatly. There is a powerful, yet subtle seduction that can warp a personality if they believe that the world rests on their shoulders or that they are the world's savior. Strange things also happen to people when they think they are about to become extremely rich. It takes a tremendous spiritual discipline to remain objective and humble in the presence of a working free energy machine.

Many inventors' psyches become unstable just believing they have a free energy machine. As the quality of the science deteriorates, some inventors also develop a persecution complex that makes them very defensive and unapproachable. This process precludes them from ever really developing a free energy machine, and fuels the fraud mythologies tremendously.

Then there are the out right con men. In the last 15 years, there is one person in the USA who has raised the free energy con to a professional art. He has raised more than $100,000,000, has been barred from doing business in the state of Washington, has been jailed in California, and he's still at it. He always talks about a variation of one of the real free energy systems, sells people on the idea that they will get one of these systems soon, but ultimately sells them only promotional information which gives no real data about the energy system itself. He has mercilessly preyed upon the Christian community and the patriot community in the USA, and is still going strong.

This man's current scam involves signing up hundreds of thousands of people as locations where he will install a free energy machine. In exchange for letting him put the free energy generator in their home, they will get free electricity for life, and his company will sell the excess energy back to the local utility company. After becoming convinced that they will receive free electricity for life, with no out-front expenses, they gladly buy a video that helps draw their friends into the scam as well. Once you understand the power and motivations of the first two forces I have discussed, its obvious that this person's current business plan cannot be implemented. This one person has probably done more harm to the free energy movement in the USA than any other force, by destroying people's trust in the technology.

So, the third force postponing the public availability of free energy technology is delusion and dishonesty within the movement itself. The motivations are self-aggrandizement, greed, want of power over others, and a false sense of self-importance. The weapons used are lying, cheating, the "bait and switch" con, self-delusion and arrogance combined with lousy science.

The fourth force operating to postpone the public availability of free energy technology is all of the rest of us. It may be easy to see how narrow and despicable the motivations of the other forces are, but actually, these motivations are still very much alive in each of us as well. Like the Wealthiest Families, don't we each secretly harbor illusions of false superiority, and the want to control others instead of ourselves? Also, wouldn't you "sell out" if the price were high enough, say, take a million dollars, cash, today? Or like the governments, don't we each want to ensure our own survival? If caught in the middle of a full, burning theater, do you panic and push all of the weaker people out of the way in a mad, scramble for the door? Or like the deluded inventor, don't we trade a comfortable illusion once in a while for an uncomfortable fact? And don't we like to think more of ourselves than others give us credit for? Or don't we still fear the unknown, even if it promises a great reward?

You see, really, all four forces are just different aspects of the same process, operating at different levels in the society. There is really only one force preventing the public availability of free energy technology, and that is the unspiritually motivated behavior of the humans. In the last analysis, free energy technology is an outward manifestation of divine abundance. It is the engine of the economy of an enlightened society, where people voluntarily behave in a respectful and civil manner toward each other, where each member of the society has everything they need, and does not covet what their neighbor has, where war and physical violence has become socially unacceptable behavior and people's differences are at least tolerated, if not enjoyed.

The appearance of free energy technology in the public domain is the dawning of a truly civilized age. It is an epochal event in human history. Nobody can take credit for it. Nobody can get rich on it. Nobody can rule the world with it. It is simply, a gift from God. It forces us all to take responsibility for our own actions and for our own self-disciplined self-restraint when needed. The world as it is currently ordered, cannot have free energy technology without being totally transformed by it into something else. This civilization has reached the pinnacle of its development, because it has birthed the seeds of its own transformation. Unspiritualized humans cannot be trusted with free energy. They will only do what they have always done, which is take merciless advantage of each other, or kill each other and themselves in the process.

If you go back and read Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged or the Club of Rome Report, it becomes obvious that the wealthiest families have understood this for decades. Their plan is to live in the world of free energy, but permanently freeze the rest of us out. But this is not new. Royalty has always considered the general population (us) to be their subjects. What is new, is that you and I can communicate with each other now better than at anytime in the past. The Internet offers us, the fourth force, an opportunity to overcome the combined efforts of the other forces preventing free energy technology from spreading.

The Opportunity

What is starting to happen is that inventors are publishing their work, instead of patenting it and keeping it secret. More and more, people are giving away information on these technologies in books, videos and websites. While there is still a great deal of useless information about free energy on the Internet, the availability of good information is rising rapidly. Check out the list of websites and other resources at the end of this article.

It is imperative that you begin to gather all of the information you can on real free energy systems. The reason for this is simple. The first two forces will never allow an inventor or a company to build and sell a free energy machine to you! The only way you will ever get one is if you, or a friend, build it yourself. This is exactly what thousands of people are already quietly starting to do. You may feel wholly inadequate to the task, but start gathering information now. You may be just a link in the chain of events for the benefit of others. Focus on what you can do now, not on how much there still is to be done. Small, private research groups are working out the details as you read this. Many are committed to publishing their results on the Internet.

All of us constitute the fourth force. If we stand up and refuse to remain ignorant and actionless, we can change the course of history. It is the aggregate of our combined action that can make a difference. Only the mass action that represents our consensus can create the world we want. The other three forces will not help us put a fuelless power plant in our basements. They will not help us be free from their manipulations. Nevertheless, free energy technology is here. It is real, and it will change everything about the way we live, work and relate to each other. In the last analysis, free energy technology obsoletes greed and the fear for survival. But like all exercises of spiritual faith, we must first manifest the generosity and trust in our own lives.

The source of free energy is inside of us. It is that excitement of expressing ourselves freely. It is our spiritually guided intuition expressing itself without distraction, intimidation or manipulation. It is our open-heartedness. Ideally, the free energy technologies underpin a just society where everyone has enough food, clothing, shelter, self-worth, and the leisure time to contemplate the higher spiritual meanings of life. Do we not owe it to each other to face down our fears and take action to create this future for our children's children?

Free energy technology is here. It has been here for decades. Communications technology and the Internet have torn the veil of secrecy off of this remarkable fact. People all over the world are starting to build free energy devices for their own use. The bankers and the governments do not want this to happen, but cannot stop it. There will be essentially no major media coverage of what is going on. Tremendous economic instabilities and wars will be used in the near future to distract people from joining the free energy movement.

Western society is spiraling down toward self-destruction due to the accumulated effects of long-term greed and corruption. The general availability of free energy technology cannot stop this trend. It can only reinforce it. If, however, you have a free energy device, you may be better positioned to survive the political/social/economic transition that is underway. The question is, who will ultimately control the emerging world government—the first force or the fourth force?

The last great war is almost upon us. The seeds are planted. After this will come the beginning of a real civilization. Some of us who refuse to fight will survive to see the dawn of the world of free energy. I challenge you to be among the ones who try.


LIST OF RESOURCES:

Books:

Living Energies by Callum Coats
The Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity by Peter Lindemann, D.Sc.
Applied Modern 20th Century Aether Science by Dr. Robert Adams
Physics Without Einstein by Dr. Harold Aspden
Secrets of Cold War Technology by Gerry Vassilatos
The Coming Energy Revolution by Jeane Manning

Websites:

http://www.free-energy.cc/ developed by Clear Tech, Inc. and Dr. Peter Lindemann
http://jnaudin.free.fr/ developed by JLN Labs in France
http://www.keelynet.com/ developed by Jerry Decker in the USA
http://www.xogen.ca/ site for super electrolysis technology
http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/bp/16/content1.htm excellent site by Geoff Egel, Australia

For links to other recommended sites, see the "Links Page" at http://www.free-energy.cc/

Mark said...

[Gee, next is to make something really useful instead of pollutive out of gasoline...; may be more useful in waste reduction/remediation]

fuel Japanese Make Gasoline From Cattle Dung


Japanese Make Gasoline From Cattle Dung

By KOZO MIZOGUCHI, Associated Press Writer Fri Mar 3, 8:37 PM ET

TOKYO - Scientists in energy-poor Japan said Friday they have found a new source of gasoline — cattle dung.

Sakae Shibusawa, an agriculture engineering professor at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, said his team has successfully extracted .042 ounces of gasoline from every 3.5 ounces of cow dung by applying high pressure and heat.

"The new technology will be a boon for livestock breeders" to reduce the burden of disposing of large amounts of waste, Shibusawa said.

About 551,155 tons of cattle dung are produced each year in Japan, he said.

Gasoline extracted from cow dung is unheard of, said Tomiaki Tamura, an official of the Natural Resources and Energy Agency. Japan relies almost totally on imports for its oil and gasoline needs.

The team, helped by staff from the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology near Tokyo, produced gasoline by adding several unspecified metal catalysts to the dung inside a container and applying a 30-atmosphere pressure and heat of up to 300 degrees Celsius (572 Fahrenheit), Shibusawa said. Details of the catalysts could not be disclosed, he added.

The team hopes to improve the technology so that it can be used commercially within five years, Shibusawa said.

In a separate experiment revealing another unusual business potential for cow dung, another group of researchers has successfully extracted an aromatic ingredient of vanilla from cattle dung, said Miki Tsuruta, a Sekisui Chemical Co. spokeswoman. The extracted ingredient, vanillin, can be used as fragrance in shampoo and candles, she said.

Tsuruta said the vanillin was extracted from a dung solution in a pressurized cooker in a project co-organized by a Japanese medical research institute.

http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060304/ap_on_sc/cow_dung_gasoline&printer=1;_ylt=A9FJqaeYog5E1u0A8gxxieAA;_ylu=X3oDMTA3MXN1bHE0BHNlYwN0bWE-

Mark said...

fuel kids build soy car

Car Engine Design Breakthrough
Reported on CBS News

"A car that can go from zero to 60 in four seconds and get more than 50 miles to the gallon would be enough to pique any driver's interest. So who do we have to thank for it. Ford? GM? Toyota? No — just Victor, David, Cheeseborough, Bruce, and Kosi, five kids from the auto shop program at West Philadelphia High School."
-- CBS News, 2/17/06
March 3, 2006
Dear friends,

The CBS news article below reveals a major breakthrough in car engine design. This car engine gets over 50 mpg, goes from zero to 60 in four seconds, and runs on soybean oil!

So why isn't this remarkable breakthrough making front page headlines in all major media? For the same reason that many other major energy breakthroughs have been reported but never given the headlines they deserve. Those who are reaping huge profits from oil sales have much more political and media influence than you might imagine.

Under the short, but revealing CBS article below, I've included links to several other major energy breakthroughs reported in the mainstream media which should be getting major attention. I invite you to explore these fascinating articles to see if these aren't legitimate inventions that should transform car engines and energy production. You can make a difference now by playing the role at which the media is so sadly failing. Spread the news on these amazing breakthroughs far and wide. Together, we can and will build a brighter future.

With best wishes,
Fred Burks for the WantToKnow.info Team
Former language interpreter for Presidents Bush and Clinton


http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/02/17/eveningnews/main1329941.shtml

Kids Build Soybean-Fueled Car

The star at last week's Philadelphia Auto Show wasn't a sports car or an economy car. It was a sports-economy car — one that combines performance and practicality under one hood.

But as CBS News correspondent Steve Hartman reports in this week's Assignment America, the car that buyers have been waiting decades [for] comes from an unexpected source and runs on soybean bio-diesel fuel to boot.

A car that can go from zero to 60 in four seconds and get more than 50 miles to the gallon would be enough to pique any driver's interest. So who do we have to thank for it. Ford? GM? Toyota? No — just Victor, David, Cheeseborough, Bruce, and Kosi, five kids from the auto shop program at West Philadelphia High School.

The five kids, along with a handful of schoolmates, built the soybean-fueled car as an after-school project. It took them more than a year — rummaging for parts, configuring wires and learning as they went. As teacher Simon Hauger notes, these kids weren't exactly the cream of the academic crop.

"We have a number of high school dropouts," he says. "We have a number that have been removed for disciplinary reasons and they end up with us."

One of the Fab Five, Kosi Harmon, was in a gang at his old school — and he was a terrible student. The car project has changed all that.

"I was just getting by with the skin of my teeth, C's and D's," he says. "I came here, and now I'm a straight-A student."

To Hauger, the soybean-powered car shows what kids — any kids — can do when they get the chance.

"If you give kids that have been stereotyped as not being able to do anything an opportunity to do something great, they'll step up," he says.

Stepping up is something the big automakers have yet to do. They're still in the early stages of marketing hybrid cars while playing catch-up to the Bad News Bears of auto shop.

"We made this work," says Hauger. "We're not geniuses. So why aren't they doing it?"

Kosi thinks he knows why. The answer, he says, is the big oil companies.


"They're making billions upon billions of dollars," he says. "And when this car sells, that'll go down — to low billions upon billions."

Mark said...

More energy breakthroughs in the major media
that should have been headline news (verbatim quotes from articles)

Iceland the First Country to Try Abandoning Gasoline
January 18, 2006, ABC News
http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=1518556

Iceland has already started...turning water into fuel — hydrogen fuel.

Here's how it works: Electrodes split the water into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. Hydrogen electrons pass through a conductor that creates the current to power an electric engine.

Hydrogen fuel now costs two to three times as much as gasoline, but gets up to three times the mileage of gas, making the overall cost about the same. As an added benefit, there are no carbon emissions — only water vapor.

Mark said...

Fuel's paradise? Power source that turns physics on its head
November 4, 2005, The Guardian (one of the UK's leading newspapers)
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/story/0,3605,1627424,00.html

It seems too good to be true: a new source of near-limitless power that costs virtually nothing, uses tiny amounts of water as its fuel and produces next to no waste. Randell Mills, a Harvard University medic who also studied electrical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, claims to have built a prototype power source that generates up to 1,000 times more heat than conventional fuel. "We've got 50 independent validation reports, we've got 65 peer-reviewed journal articles," he said. "We ran into this theoretical resistance and there are some vested interests here..."


Magnetic energy? Perhaps
September 7, 2005, San Francisco Chronicle
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/09/07/BUG9NEJD3L1.DTL

"All we know is that we're seeing more energy output than input. Does Goldes realize what's he's saying -- that he's perhaps discovered a clean, inexhaustible energy source?

"That's exactly what it appears to be," he answered. A handful of other companies worldwide are believed also to be pursuing zero-point energy via magnetic systems. One of them...is run by a former scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena.

According to Aviation Week & Space Technology magazine, the Pentagon and at least two large aerospace companies are actively researching zero-point energy as a means of propulsion.




Solar Challenge Finishes in Calgary
July 28, 2005, Open Source Energy Network/Detroit News
http://pesn.com/2005/07/28/9600141_Solar_Challenge_results
http://www.detnews.com/2005/schools/0507/28/01-262474.htm - Detroit News
http://wwmt.com/engine.pl?station=wwmt&id=18269&template=breakout_local.html - CBS affiliate

The ten-day solar car race from Austin to Calgary came to a successful finish yesterday. U of Michigan takes prize, finishing the 2500-mile course in 54 hours.

They also set a record by averaging 46.2 mph in this, the world's longest solar car race.




Eco-car more efficient than light bulb
July 5, 2005, CNN
http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/07/04/eco.car

The hydrogen-powered Ech2o needs just 25 Watts -- the equivalent of less than two gallons of petrol -- to complete the 25,000-mile global trip, while emitting nothing more hazardous than water. But with a top speed of 30mph, the journey would take more than a month to complete. Ech2o, built by British gas firm BOC, will bid to smash the world fuel efficiency record of over 10,000 miles per gallon at the Shell Eco Marathon. The record is currently....5,385 km/per liter [over 12,000 mpg!].




Advanced vehicles demonstrate zero oil-consumption, reduced emissions
May 18, 2005, Boston Globe
http://www.boston.com/cars/news/2005/may/0518_tourdesol.html
http://www.evworld.com/view.cfm?section=communique&newsid=8474 (includes copy of above article)

Top prize for the Monte-Carlo Rally went to a modified Honda Insight [which] broke the 100-mile-per-gallon barrier over a 150-mile range. The car actually got 107 miles-per gallon. St. Mark's High School in Southboro, and North Haven Community School, North Haven, ME, demonstrated true zero-oil consumption and true zero climate-change emissions with their modified electric Ford pick-up and Volkswagen bus.

[when high schools outperform billion dollar industries, you are simply looking at high corruption in these companies keeping clean alternatives from occurring.]



Fans of GM Electric Car Fight the Crusher
Washington Post, March 10, 2005
http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A21991-2005Mar9

GM agrees that the car in question, called the EV1, was a rousing feat of engineering that could go from zero to 60 miles per hour in under eight seconds with no harmful emissions. The market just wasn't big enough, the company says, for a car that traveled 140 miles or less on a charge before you had to plug it in like a toaster. Ted Flittner, a...Costa Mesa industrial engineer...said, "they have such a brilliant solution they've developed. They've put it on the market and proved it works. People still want it and they're taking it away and destroying it."



100 MPG Car Heralded by London Times in 2002 - Where is it now?
December 2 , 2004, WantToKnow.info/London Times
http://www.WantToKnow.info/carmileage - WantToKnow.info (includes text of London Times article)
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,588-451038,00.html - London Times

The Toyota Eco Spirit was the talk of the fuel economy car industry in 2002. At over 100 MPG and with the lowest exhaust emissions and a very reasonable sticker price, the Eco Spirit's debut was widely anticipated. (see London Times article). What happened to it?


1908 Ford Model T: 25 MPG, 2004 EPA Average All Cars: 21 MPG
Detroit News/WantToKnow.info, June 4, 2004
http://www.WantToKnow.info/050711carmileageaveragempg

Ford's Model T, which went 25 miles on a gallon of gasoline, was more fuel efficient than the current Ford Explorer sport-utility vehicle -- which manages just 16 miles per gallon.

Note: The last article above is an excellent summary of eye-opening contradictions which have received very little media coverage, including links to major media articles to back up the facts presented. And for an excellent, two-page summary of the entire energy cover-up:

http://www.WantToKnow.info/newenergysources

Final Note: Remember that with your help, we can and will build a brighter future for us all. And for some deeply inspiring stories to provide balance to all of this: http://www.WantToKnow.info/coverupnews#inspiration


See our archive of cover-up news articles at http://www.WantToKnow.info/coverupnews


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Mark said...

[flex technology in anything would be useful to empower the consumer to choose between different energy sources, instead of be unfairly forced to lock themselves in, by technological purchases, to a certain raw material regime.]


Brazil's alcohol [flex] cars hit 2m mark
August 18, 2006, BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/5263384.stm

Brazil's new generation of cars and trucks adapted to run on alcohol has just hit the two-million mark. "Flex-fuel" vehicles, which run on any combination of ethanol and petrol, now make up 77% of the Brazilian market.

Brazil has pioneered the use of ethanol derived from sugar-cane as motor fuel. [which has far more 'kick' than corn based ethanol--though the U.S. puts a 50 cent tariff on its import as a subsidy to the U.S. corn raw material regime.]

Ethanol-driven cars have been on sale there for 25 years, but they have been enjoying a revival since flex-fuel models first appeared in March 2003.

Just 48,200 flex-fuel cars were sold in Brazil in 2003, but the total had reached 1.2 million by the end of last year and had since topped two million, the Brazilian motor manufacturers' association Anfavea said.


-----------

Brazil's alcohol cars hit 2m mark
Brazil's new generation of cars and trucks adapted to run on alcohol has just hit the two-million mark, motor industry figures show.

"Flex-fuel" vehicles, which run on any combination of ethanol and petrol, now make up 77% of the Brazilian market.

Brazil has pioneered the use of ethanol derived from sugar-cane as motor fuel.

Ethanol-driven cars have been on sale there for 25 years, but they have been enjoying a revival since flex-fuel models first appeared in March 2003.

Just 48,200 flex-fuel cars were sold in Brazil in 2003, but the total had reached 1.2 million by the end of last year and had since topped two million, the Brazilian motor manufacturers' association Anfavea said.

Return of ethanol

Brazil began its Pro-Alcohol programme more than 20 years ago to promote the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel for cars.

At the time, Brazil had a military government, which wanted to reduce the country's dependence on imported Middle Eastern petroleum after the 1970s oil shocks.

The idea fell out of favour in the 1990s after sugar prices rose and the price of oil fell, while Brazil's state oil company Petrobras discovered new offshore oilfields which reduced the need for imports.

But in 2003, a new generation of cars capable of running on alcohol entered production, thanks to a combination of new technology and tax breaks.

"Flex-fuel" cars attract a purchase tax of 14%, while buyers of their exclusively petrol-powered counterparts are charged 16%.

Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/business/5263384.stm

Mark said...

The rise, fall and rise of Brazil's biofuel

By Robert Plummer
BBC News business reporter

As oil prices continue to hover near the $70-a-barrel mark, amid fears that the world may soon run out of fossil fuels, carmakers and politicians alike are desperate to come up with alternative ways to power the world's motor vehicles.

Even a man as closely linked with the oil industry as President George W Bush is now spreading the message that one day we may be growing our fuel instead of digging it out of the ground.

"An interesting opportunity, not only for here but for the rest of the world, is biodiesel, a fuel developed from soybeans," he said in June last year.

For the owners of today's polluting gas-guzzlers, it is easy to see this as something for the far-distant future, an irrelevance that will not affect their lives for many years to come.

But in Brazil, it is already a reality.

In the mid-1980s - before any other country even thought of the idea - Brazil succeeded in mass-producing biofuel for motor vehicles: alcohol, derived from its plentiful supplies of sugar-cane.

Differently-powered cars were actually in the majority on Brazil's roads at the time, marking a major technological feat.

But the programme that had put the country so far ahead was very nearly consigned to history when oil prices slid back from the high levels seen in the 1970s.

Alcohol-powered cars fell out of favour and languished in obscurity until two years ago, when production picked up again in a big way.

Now Brazilians are flocking to buy cars that give them the chance to mix and match alcohol with regular fuel - and conventional motor vehicles that run purely on petrol are looking old-fashioned once again.

Military-inspired

Brazil's state-run alcohol fuel programme was set up for patriotic, not financial or environmental reasons.

The military government that ran the country from 1964 to 1985 wanted to reduce its dependence on Middle Eastern petroleum during the 1970s oil crisis.

The technology was far from new, having been around since the 1920s, but no country had employed it on such a scale.

Under the Pro-Alcohol programme, farmers were paid generous subsidies to grow sugar-cane, from which ethanol was produced.

The price at the pump was also subsidised to make the new fuel cheaper than petrol, while the motor industry turned out increasing numbers of vehicles adapted to burn pure ethanol.

As a result, in 1985 and 1986, more than 75% of all motor vehicles produced in Brazil - and more than 90% of cars - were designed for alcohol consumption.

But then it all went wrong.

Backlash hits

A combination of factors turned the tide against ethanol:

* Under newly-restored civilian rule, governments were less concerned about promoting the fuel for national security reasons

* Sugar prices rose, making the ethanol subsidy too costly for the state

* Oil prices had fallen from their 1970s highs

* State oil company Petrobras had discovered new offshore oilfields, making Brazil more self-sufficient in oil.

There remained the environmental argument in favour of ethanol: unlike petrol, it is free of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, while the carbon dioxide emissions it produces can be cancelled out by growing another sugar-cane plant.

And in one lasting benefit, ethanol had already replaced lead in conventional Brazilian petrol, putting paid to the worst kind of airborne pollution.

But despite ethanol's green credentials, Brazilian enthusiasm for the fuel reached its lowest ebb in 1997, just as the world was marking five years since Rio de Janeiro hosted the United Nations Earth Summit.

That year, just 1,075 motor vehicles built to run on alcohol rolled off the country's production lines - a mere 0.06% of the total output.

Competition

It was at that very point that the US started to show interest in biofuels, as the authorities in California and other states passed laws forcing car manufacturers to reduce pollution levels.

The US now produces nearly as much ethanol as the Brazilians do, although the raw material it uses is maize rather than sugar-cane, while President Bush's biodiesel made from soybeans offers another alternative to petroleum.

But Brazilian producers maintain their ethanol is still cheaper to produce - and their market has now received fresh impetus from a combination of tax breaks and technological advancement.

A new generation of alcohol-powered cars entered production in Brazil in 2003, after the government decided that cars capable of burning ethanol should be taxed at 14%, instead of 16% for their exclusively petrol-powered counterparts.

Unlike earlier models, these are "flex-fuel" cars - equally happy with pure alcohol, pure petrol, or any blend of the two.

When the fuel tank is filled, a special computer chip analyses the mixture and adjusts the motor according to how much ethanol and how much petrol it contains.

In 2004, the first full year that "flex-fuel" cars were on sale, they accounted for more than 17% of the Brazilian market.

Last year, they scored an even bigger success, overtaking petrol-driven models for the first time since the 1980s and taking 53.6% of the market for new cars.

But in the wake of the US, other countries are beginning to discover the wonders of crop-based motor fuel - and Brazil has a fight on its hands if it wants to remain the world leader in the field.

Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/business/4581955.stm

Mark said...

Wastewater Energy Of The Future

ENERGY TECH
Wastewater: Energy Of The Future?

Professor Keller and Mr Freguia turn water into watts. Photo credit: University of Queensland.
Brisbane, Australia (UPI) Nov 14, 2005

Professor Jurg Keller at Australia's University of Queensland said he and his colleagues have discovered how to turn wastewater into electricity.

"We're very excited about it," he told the Sydney Morning Herald. "It has never been achieved before and there is really massive potential in this application."

Keller said the complex process involves extracting the chemical energy from pollutants in wastewater and converting it to electricity using microbial fuel cells.

"It's all happening in a thin biofilm, a sort of slime layer on the electrode where bacteria are growing and directly producing an electrical current," Keller told the newspaper, saying electricity was generated from the slime in much the same way energy is released when wood is burned.

Keller said it is unlikely wastewater will provide power on a large scale. He said the most obvious application is powering wastewater treatment plants, particularly in developing countries or areas with an unreliable power supply.

"This is not a solution to any energy crisis," he added. "It is primarily a wastewater treatment operation, but we're doing it in a way that generates energy, as opposed to using a lot of energy."

All rights reserved. © 2005 United Press International. Sections of the information displayed on this page (dispatches, photographs, logos) are protected by intellectual property rights owned by United Press International.. As a consequence, you may not copy, reproduce, modify, transmit, publish, display or in any way commercially exploit any of the content of this section without the prior written consent of United Press International.

Related Links
University of Queensland

Mark said...

Spray-On nano solar cells

Breakthrough - Spray-On
Nanotech Solar Power Cells
By Stefan Lovgren
National Geographic News
1-17-2005

Scientists have invented a plastic solar cell that can turn the sun's power into electrical energy, even on a cloudy day.

The plastic material uses nanotechnology and contains the first solar cells able to harness the sun's invisible, infrared rays. The breakthrough has led theorists to predict that plastic solar cells could one day become five times more efficient than current solar cell technology.

Like paint, the composite can be sprayed onto other materials and used as portable electricity. A sweater coated in the material could power a cell phone or other wireless devices. A hydrogen-powered car painted with the film could potentially convert enough energy into electricity to continually recharge the car's battery.

The researchers envision that one day "solar farms" consisting of the plastic material could be rolled across deserts to generate enough clean energy to supply the entire planet's power needs.

"The sun that reaches the Earth's surface delivers 10,000 times more energy than we consume," said Ted Sargent, an electrical and computer engineering professor at the University of Toronto. Sargent is one of the inventors of the new plastic material.

"If we could cover 0.1 percent of the Earth's surface with [very efficient] large-area solar cells," he said, "we could in principle replace all of our energy habits with a source of power which is clean and renewable."

Infrared Power

Plastic solar cells are not new. But existing materials are only able to harness the sun's visible light. While half of the sun's power lies in the visible spectrum, the other half lies in the infrared spectrum.

The new material is the first plastic composite that is able to harness the infrared portion.

"Everything that's warm gives off some heat. Even people and animals give off heat," Sargent said. "So there actually is some power remaining in the infrared [spectrum], even when it appears to us to be dark outside."

The researchers combined specially designed nano particles called quantum dots with a polymer to make the plastic that can detect energy in the infrared.

With further advances, the new plastic "could allow up to 30 percent of the sun's radiant energy to be harnessed, compared to 6 percent in today's best plastic solar cells," said Peter Peumans, a Stanford University electrical engineering professor, who studied the work.

Electrical Sweaters

The new material could make technology truly wireless.

"We have this expectation that we don't have to plug into a phone jack anymore to talk on the phone, but we're resigned to the fact that we have to plug into an electrical outlet to recharge the batteries," Sargent said. "That's only communications wireless, not power wireless."

He said the plastic coating could be woven into a shirt or sweater and used to charge an item like a cell phone.

"A sweater is already absorbing all sorts of light both in the infrared and the visible," said Sargent. "Instead of just turning that into heat, as it currently does, imagine if it were to turn that into electricity."

Other possibilities include energy-saving plastic sheeting that could be unfurled onto a rooftop to supply heating needs, or solar cell window coating that could let in enough infrared light to power home appliances.

Cost-Effectiveness

Ultimately, a large amount of the sun's energy could be harnessed through "solar farms" and used to power all our energy needs, the researchers predict.

"This could potentially displace other sources of electrical production that produce greenhouse gases, such as coal," Sargent said.

In Japan, the world's largest solar-power market, the government expects that 50 percent of residential power supply will come from solar power by 2030, up from a fraction of a percent today.

The biggest hurdle facing solar power is cost-effectiveness.

At a current cost of 25 to 50 cents per kilowatt-hour, solar power is significantly more expensive than conventional electrical power for residences. Average U.S. residential power prices are less than ten cents per kilowatt-hour, according to experts.

But that could change with the new material.

"Flexible, roller-processed solar cells have the potential to turn the sun's power into a clean, green, convenient source of energy," said John Wolfe, a nanotechnology venture capital investor at Lux Capital in New York City."

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/

Mark said...

Spray-On nano solar cells

Breakthrough - Spray-On
Nanotech Solar Power Cells
By Stefan Lovgren
National Geographic News
1-17-2005

Scientists have invented a plastic solar cell that can turn the sun's power into electrical energy, even on a cloudy day.

The plastic material uses nanotechnology and contains the first solar cells able to harness the sun's invisible, infrared rays.

The breakthrough has led theorists to predict that plastic solar cells could one day become five times more efficient than current solar cell technology.

Like paint, the composite can be sprayed onto other materials and used as portable electricity.

A sweater coated in the material could power a cell phone or other wireless devices.

A hydrogen-powered car painted with the film could potentially convert enough energy into electricity to continually recharge the car's battery.

The researchers envision that one day "solar farms" consisting of the plastic material could be rolled across deserts to generate enough clean energy to supply the entire planet's power needs.

"The sun that reaches the Earth's surface delivers 10,000 times more energy than we consume," said Ted Sargent, an electrical and computer engineering professor at the University of Toronto. Sargent is one of the inventors of the new plastic material.

"If we could cover 0.1 percent of the Earth's surface with [very efficient] large-area solar cells," he said, "we could in principle replace all of our energy habits with a source of power which is clean and renewable."

Infrared Power

Plastic solar cells are not new. But existing materials are only able to harness the sun's visible light. While half of the sun's power lies in the visible spectrum, the other half lies in the infrared spectrum.

The new material is the first plastic composite that is able to harness the infrared portion.

"Everything that's warm gives off some heat. Even people and animals give off heat," Sargent said. "So there actually is some power remaining in the infrared [spectrum], even when it appears to us to be dark outside."

The researchers combined specially designed nano particles called quantum dots with a polymer to make the plastic that can detect energy in the infrared.


With further advances, the new plastic "could allow up to 30 percent of the sun's radiant energy to be harnessed, compared to 6 percent in today's best plastic solar cells," said Peter Peumans, a Stanford University electrical engineering professor, who studied the work.

Electrical Sweaters

The new material could make technology truly wireless.

"We have this expectation that we don't have to plug into a phone jack anymore to talk on the phone, but we're resigned to the fact that we have to plug into an electrical outlet to recharge the batteries," Sargent said. "That's only communications wireless, not power wireless."

He said the plastic coating could be woven into a shirt or sweater and used to charge an item like a cell phone. [from your body heat]

"A sweater is already absorbing all sorts of light both in the infrared and the visible," said Sargent. "Instead of just turning that into heat, as it currently does, imagine if it were to turn that into electricity."

Other possibilities include energy-saving plastic sheeting that could be unfurled onto a rooftop to supply heating needs, or solar cell window coating that could let in enough infrared light to power home appliances.

Cost-Effectiveness

Ultimately, a large amount of the sun's energy could be harnessed through "solar farms" and used to power all our energy needs, the researchers predict.

"This could potentially displace other sources of electrical production that produce greenhouse gases, such as coal," Sargent said.

In Japan, the world's largest solar-power market, the government expects that 50 percent of residential power supply will come from solar power by 2030, up from a fraction of a percent today.

The biggest hurdle facing solar power is cost-effectiveness.

At a current cost of 25 to 50 cents per kilowatt-hour, solar power is significantly more expensive than conventional electrical power for residences. Average U.S. residential power prices are less than ten cents per kilowatt-hour, according to experts.

But that could change with the new material.

"Flexible, roller-processed solar cells have the potential to turn the sun's power into a clean, green, convenient source of energy," said John Wolfe, a nanotechnology venture capital investor at Lux Capital in New York City."

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/

Mark said...

Energy Information

The Washington Post, Washington Times, Richmond Times Dispatch, Potomac News, Manassas Journal Messenger and other print radio/TV media outlets will not inform you of this information. The post did respond to another letter. After you read the following information, do you wonder why they won't inform you? To further illustrate how information is suppressed, during September 2004, email was sent to 119 Talk show host. Neglecting automatic responses, one host responded. When I responded to that host, no response. During 2004-2005 I sent more than 600 email and letters concerning Energy Information. Most people did not respond including my Members of Congress. Several email/letters were to local Washington, D.C. Radio/TV stations; WTOP, WMAL, WJLA NBC and WTTG .

Need further proof that information is suppressed? See this web site document. You might find the 1980 letter, near the bottom, to an inventor from the (U.S). Commissioner of Patents interesting. The letter prevents the inventor from proceeding with his invention on security grounds. Mr. Authur Stopes III does not agree with the letter at the bottom of the page, his comments are here.

In the late 50’s, I met a retired Florida college physics professor, he had a patent for a device to run an engine on water, The government had classified his patent and this prevented him from developing his device.

If you can, please help to distribute this information.

Please send suggestions and comments to:byronw1@msn.com

(This article was on the Internet for several years until I changed Internet provider. The article was modified to link some documentation and add additional material.)

So you think we have an energy problem? No, we have a political problem.

I want to relate to you some facts concerning various suppressed energy devices and the difficulty in informing the public of these devices. I hope that you can add some additional information. Here are some additional web sites addressing these issues.

On October 1, 1990, I began to keep a list of people contacted concerning energy devices. The list is now 51 pages long. The list includes President Clinton and vice-president. 121 Members of Congress and other politicians. 21 government and state agencies. 215 members of the print and electronic media. 62 environmental groups. The President of United Auto Workers and 14 other UAW officials. The President of the American Automobile Association. A recent correspondence exchange with AAA is here.). Many members of the clergy, including Mr. Pat Robertson and Christian Science Monitor. Numerous other "public interest" groups. Most of the people contacted do not respond to communications.

My then Congressman, Representative Frank Wolf, will not respond to a letter and 182 pages of documentation that I put in his hand on August 25, 1993. I wonder just who he does respond to? Could it be that money talks? My current congressman, Tom Davis, also will not respond to my last letter. Donna Wade has written a letter that should be sent to all "representatives".

If you want to know the affect oil has on the world, I suggest you read "The Prize" (ISBN 0-671-79932-0)

Note: In several of the following references information is followed by a (?) symbol, or a statement that the original material was stolen from me in 1986. This is because in those cases I am working from very poor copies of the original material. In 1986, I was visited by an intern reporter for the Washington Times who wanted to take my material back to the paper to make copies. What he did was steal my material and take it back to college with him. Had it not been for an Editor at the Washington Times and the Dean at this intern's school, I would have lost a lot of my collection of energy material.

Do I believe there is a conspiracy of silence concerning decades old and current energy technology? Yes, I have experienced this for more than 25-years.

Here is the information. Please verify for yourself.

1. Some folks at Shell Oil Co. wrote "Fuel Economy of the Gasoline Engine" (ISBN 0-470-99132-1); it was published by John Wiley & Sons, New York, in 1977. On page 42 Shell Oil quotes the President of General Motors, he, in 1929, predicted 80 MPG by 1939. Between pages 221 and 223 Shell writes of their achievements: 49.73 MPG around 1939; 149.95 MPG with a 1947 Studebaker in 1949; 244.35 MPG with a 1959 Fiat 600 in 1968; 376.59 MPG with a 1959 Opel in 1973. The Library of Congress (LOC), in September 1990, did not have a copy of this book. It was missing from the files. I bought my copy from Maryland Book Exchange around 1980 after a professor informed me that it was used as an engineering text at the University of West Virginia.]

VPI published a paper, March 1979, concerning maximum achievable fuel economy. This paper has several charts illustrating achievable and impossible fuel economy. About 1980 I contacted the author concerning conflicts between the paper and documented achieved "impossible" mpg. The author said, "I will get back to you.". I am still waiting for his response.

2. The book "Secrets of the 200 MPG Carburetor" is by Allan Wallace and was available, about 198(?), from Premier Distributing, 1775 Broadway, NY, NY, 10019. Page 18 has photocopies of three 1936 tests by the Ford Motor Co. (Canada) of the Pogue carburetor (U.S. Patent # 2,026,798). The worst case test achieved about 171 MP(US)G. I can not provide any other publishing information because the book is among the material stolen from me in 1986. My copy of page 18 is very poor.] (3/08/04. I am grateful to Lee Winslett for a copy of this book and the article from Colliers.)

Collier’s magazine, in 1929, published an article "300 Miles to the gallon.

3. Argosy Magazine, August 1977, has a five-page article (Text copy here.) about Tom Ogle and the media witnessed test of the "Oglemobile". Tom Ogle, on that test run, achieved more than 100 MPG in a 4,600 pound 1970 Ford Galaxie. When I attempted to find a copy of that Argosy Magazine, it was missing from LOC files in 1980. Argosy ceased publication, I was informed, a short time after the Ogle article was published. I could not find a copy of that Argosy issue at any library within 200 miles of my home. An Editor at the company that purchased Argosy found and mailed a copy to me. While attempting to verify statements in the article, I spoke with Doug Lenzini (SP?) with the EL Paso Times. Mr. Lenzini informed me that he knew Tom Ogle, and the Oglemobile achieved more than 200 MPG. When I contacted the El Paso NBC affiliate that filmed the test run described in the Argosy article, I was informed that the person who had filmed the test had left the station and taken all the records with him.]

A. The Ogle U.S. Patent, #4,177,779, has this statement "I have been able to obtain extremely high gas mileages with the system of the present invention installed on a V-8 engine of a conventional 1971 American made automobile. In fact, mileage rates in excess of one hundred miles per gallon have been achieved with the present invention." According to the Argosy article, a Shell Oil Co. representative asked Ogle what he would do if someone offered him $25 Million for the system. Ogle responded "I would not be interested" He later said, "I've always wanted to be rich, and I suspect I will be when this system gets into distribution. But I'm not going to have my system bought up and put on the shelf. I'm going to see this thing through--that I promise." According to an article in The Washington Post Parade Magazine, March 4, 1984, Tom Ogle died of a drug and alcohol overdose in 1981. Other articles concerning Tom Ogle can be found in the El Paso Journal, January 16, 1980, and also, The Hamilton Spectator, June 24, 1978.

B. The Oglemobile, in simplification, ran on fumes extracted from a heated tank in the trunk (See the Ogle patent.) A very simple method of extracting gasoline fumes is described in a book, published in 1900, "Gas Engine Construction". This book was reprinted by Lindsay in 1986, ISBN 0-917914-46-5.

An article received from AAA has additional information.

4. There are many U.S. Patents granted for vaporizing gasoline. Some are: NASA Patent 3,640,256, General Electric Co. Patent 3,926,150, Robinson Patent 4,003,969, Harpman Patent 4,023,538, Butler Patent 4,068,638 and Totten Patent 4,106,457. Pete, "The Tree Man", was researching the Fish carburetor while staying in my home during the early 80's. He later sent me a 6 page list with more than 240 U.S. Patent numbers for vaporizing gasoline, other fuels and water.

5. During the mid 70's, physicist Don Novak traveled all over the U.S. lecturing and teaching in his seminars how to achieve 100 MPG. He also testified, October 15, 1979, before a Wichita, KS, Congressional Committee on "Reinventing the Automobile". I have known Don for many years. Once he brought to my home, in the late 70's, two carburetors; one got more than 200 MPG and the other more than 100 MPG. I contacted a local politician, who lives in my town, and was on the Virginia Energy Subcommittee. I tried to have this politician meet Don and see the carburetors. The politician was not interested.

Chevron Oil, 1986, offers to purchase large quantities of carburetors from a manufacturer. A West Virginia man, in 1990, achieves 58 mpg with an 8 cylinder 1968 Chrysler that used to get 12 mpg.

6. In the London, England, Daily Telegraph, 10/20/83, on page 9, there is an advertisement for a production Pugeot Diesel that gets 52.3 MPG in urban driving. The model 205 Diesel gets 72 mpg at 56 mph.) In the Washington Post, 9/19/83, page 37(?) is the 1983 U.S. EPA fuel economy list of various vehicles. The Pugeot USA models get between 21 and 27 MPG. The Washington Times, 8/9/91, published an article, "Gas saving engines hit streets in fall.". This article is about two engines, the Mitsubishi MVV engine, and the Honda VTEC-E. According to the company spokesmen, the Mitsubishi will get up to 50 MPG; the Honda, up to 88 MPG. I visited a local Honda dealer and got a brochure on the production automobile with the VTEC-E engine, the specified MPG, as I recall, was 53 MPG. I know of no produced Honda that gets 88 MPG. I have no information on the production Mitsubishi MVV engine. I wonder if there is something that happens to fuel economy when an automobile is transported to the USA. Is it possible that these engines "un-tweak" themselves during transit? In 2002 an English newspaper article reported a 104-mpg Toyota and 94-mpg VW/Audi vehicles. In 2003 another English newspaper tested a 75-mpg Toyota diesel. Do you wonder why these vehicles are not available in the USA? You might ask your Member of Congress for an explanation.

7. The U.S. Government supported (Grant No. DTNH22-91-Z-06014) a study of automobile fuel economy by the National Academy of Sciences. This study, "Automotive Fuel Economy--How Far Should We Go?" (ISBN 0-309-04530-4), was used by the staff of my then Congressman George Allen, to refute documentation proving that an automobile had exceeded 376 MPG. Nowhere in this "fuel economy study" is there any reference to the work of Shell Oil Co. or any other reference that could refute the conclusion of this report. The report concluded, Page 4, that a subcompact car might achieve between 39 and 44 MPG by model year 2006. Many committee meetings were held from May 15, 1991 to December 14, 1991, prior to the April 1992 publication of this report. Prior to publication of this report, I previously sent documentation to several participants of these meetings. The documentation proved that automobile fuel economies of between 49 and 376 MPG were achieved. None of the participants responded to my letters. Documentation was sent to: Jerry R. Curry, Administrator, National Highway Safety Administration, on 3/16/91; Senator Richard H. Bryan, on 3/7/91; Congressman Philip R. Sharp, on 2/18/91; Steve Plotkin, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, on 4/4/91; Charles Mendler, Energy Conservation Collation, on 11/2/90; Fred Smith, Competitive Enterprise Institute, on 4/16/91; Brian O'Neill, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, on 10/31/93; Clarence Ditlow, Executive Director, Center for Auto Safety, on 1/6/92. Previous documentation was also sent to members of organizations participating in these meetings, they are: John Koenig, Product planning Manager, Toyota Motor Co., on 3/18/91; Peter Clausen, Union of Concerned Scientist, on 10/28/90; John Morrill, American Council for Energy Efficiency, on 10/4/90. None of these people responded to my letters. I know that at least one of my letters was received. The Union of Concerned Scientist keeps trying to get me to support their organization.

8. An article "Automakers Move Toward New Generation Of Greener Vehicles" was published in "Chemical & Engineering News", August 1, 1994. This article is about "The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles", a partnership between the U.S. Government and the auto industry that has a goal of an 80 MPG automobile by 2002. In 1992 a government-funded study concluded that a subcompact car might get between 39 and 44 MPG by model year 2006 (See #7 above). In 1994 the goal is 80 MPG by 2002. Is it possible that someone read the Shell Oil book? Or could someone have actually read my February 13, 1992 letter, and 95 pages of documentation, sent to then Candidate Clinton. I wrote, September 8, 1994, to Deborah L. Illman, the author of the article, and to the editor, Michael Heylin of Chemical & Engineering News, on September 11, 1994 . No response was received from them. On September 11, 1994, I also wrote to Mary L. Good, Under Secretary for Technology, (USA) Department of Commerce. I received a response from Ms. Good. It was an undated, unaddressed, form letter. I guess the fact that a vehicle could get 376 MPG or burn water for fuel would not be a politically correct finding. How could someone explain to the American people that it was necessary to send more than 600,000 of our citizens to the Mid-east to defend oil wells if this information was public knowledge?

9. Hybrid Diesel/Electric automobiles (A Diesel/Electric locomotive uses the same principle.) The Manassas Journal Messenger, April 4, 1981, has an article about a MG sports car converted by San Diego State University. The car gets 110 MPG. The Steven R. Reed Automobile Manufacturing Corp., Newport Beach, CA, issued a press release dated February 14, 1983. This release announces the February 23, 1983 showing of the 200 MPG, two-passenger, II Millennium Cruiser at the Ambassador Hotel. The press release also states that the company will file "...a major class-action lawsuit involving a considerable number of giant American corporations within the automotive and petroleum industries, plus numerous branches and agencies of the U.S. Government responsible for regulating these companies." Don Novak informed me that when none of the major news media attended the Millennium show, the company drove the car to CBS Television, Los Angeles, and parked it on the lawn. No one came out of the building to inspect the car. Don also stated that the president of the Steven R. Reed Corp. has been in hiding for some years.

10. Mother Earth News, November/December 1977, has an article "Can This Transmission Really Double Your Car's Mileage?". This article is about a Ford Granada modified by Vincent Carman of Portland, Oregon. In simplification, Mr. Carman removed the transmission and drive shaft from the car and bolted a hydraulic motor to the differential. He then bolted a hydraulic pump to the engine to pressurize a storage tank. The storage tank is also pressurized when the car brakes or slows down. The article states that the U.S. Post Office is interested in a whole fleet of vehicles using this principle. In 1990, after reading an article in "Federal Times", I contacted Mr. Robert St.Francis, U.S. Postal Service, who was searching for alternative fuels for use by the Post Office. Mr. St.Francis said that he had never heard of Mr. Carman. I wrote two letters, October 18 & 21, 1990, to Mr. St.Francis concerning Mr. Carman's vehicle. I received no response. Another article in Mother Earth News, March/April 1976,8(?), titled "This Car Travels 75 Miles on a Single Gallon Of Gas", is about a project by the Minneapolis Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center that converted a Volkswagen to a system similar to that of Mr. Carman. The idea for the conversion came from a 1920 magazine article. The car, with a Bradley GT body and a 16 horsepower Tecumseh engine (The original VW engine was too powerful), achieved more than 75 MPG at 70 MPH. Could we combine the technology of Tom Ogle, 200 MPG, and the hydraulic drive cars and have a 400 MPG 4,600 pound car? On a recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, they write of achievements and patents concerning a hydraulic drive truck. This site does not mention the more than 28-year old achievements of others.

11. The St. Paul Pioneer News, August 22, 1990, has an article about a group that 11 years previously modified a Dodge half-ton pickup furnished by a local dealer. This modified truck got more than 35 MPG. Test stopped on this modification when a member of the group was told that he would receive a pair of cement boots if testing continued.

12. Hydrogen fuel. There are many U.S. and foreign patents for extracting hydrogen and oxygen gasses from water for use as a fuel. Some Patents are: July 2, 1935, Garrett, # 2,006,676; April 3, 1945, Klein, # 2,373,032; February 25, 1975, Chambrin, French Patent Request # 75 06619; July 6, 1976, Papineau, # 3,967,589 (This is a patent for an electrical power generator that burns water); 1976, Horvath, # 3,980,053. This statement is on the Horvath patent, "This invention relates to internal combustion engines. More particularly it is concerned with a fuel supply apparatus by means of which an internal combustion engine can be run on a fuel comprised of hydrogen and oxygen gasses generated on demand by electrolysis of water".; June 28, 1983, Meyer, # 4,389,981. Mr. Meyer has at least eight other patents relating to hydrogen and oxygen gasses extracted from water for fuel. Awake magazine 4/6/1980 has two small articles concerning Hydrogen fuel for aircraft. According to one article an optimistic date for this use is 1985.

A. Popular Science, about 1978,9(?), published an article "Hydrogen bus- could also heat its own garage". This article is about the work of Dr. Helmut Buchner of Mercedes-Benz. He is quoted "We are ready now. We could save our city of Stuttgart over one million gallons of petroleum fuel a year by converting its fleet of 300 urban busses to run on hydrogen. Heating--and air conditioning--would be free spin-offs, consuming no extra energy.".

B. Popular Science, March 1978(?), published an article "Hydrogen -demonstrates fuel of the future". This article is about the work of Dr. Billings, Billings Energy Corp., Provo, Utah. and others. The article states that a home, all the appliances, and vehicles, can be run on hydrogen. Dr. Billings converted a Cadillac Seville for duel fuel use. This Cadillac, burning hydrogen, was in President Carter's inaugural parade. I had a photograph of Dr. Billings drinking the exhaust, water, from one of his engines.

C. A Japanese inventor, with more than 2000 prior patents, plans to run automobile engine on water. Gulf Oil advertisement in Discover magazine, Feb.19??, concerning Hydrogen fuel. Note the statements concerning Hydrogen energy content in the advertisement and an article in the same magazine issue. Ballard Power Systems has demonstrated Hydrogen fuel cell technology for vehicles since 1997. Patents for decomposing water into hydrogen and oxygen for use as fuel are not new. See the Boisen Patent 1,380,183 granted in 1921 and a 106-year old patent for another process to extract fuel gas from water. A Google search for Aquafuel will list many sites for processes to extract a fuel from water.

D. Do you remember the NASA 1998 Moon probe that was looking for water? The plan was to separate some water into oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as fuel. Yet in 2004, the government is developing a fuel cell that will extract hydrogen from diesel fuel carried by navy ships. Does this make any sense when the ship is floating in a mixture of 66% hydrogen? Why not use the method that NASA was going to use to extract hydrogen from Moon water? You might ask your Member of Congress for an explanation. My members of Congress will not respond.

E. A company, AEC Technology, has developed a process to extract hydrogen from water that requires no input of power. This company has partnered with UTC Fuel Cell that will use this process to run devices. One device, per the web site, will have a reciprocating engine, similar to the one in your car, generating electricity for your home. UTC Fuel Cell has furnished fuel cells to NASA since the 60's.

F. Approximately ten years ago, I received a video tape from a company in Florida making Aquafuel. This tape, among other things, showed 4 people in a closed room breathing the exhaust from a generator burning Aquafuel. A recent goggle search for Aquafuel returned 812 "hits".

13. Completely sealed reciprocating engines. I visited the patent office years ago, when they still had the open stacks of "shoe boxes". While there, I read the application files for the Papp patent, #3,670,494. Papp applied for a patent on his engine, and the patent office, after consultation with the old Atomic Energy Commission, refused to give him a patent because his device could not possibly work. Papp responded with test results, photographs and depositions from, I think, 16 people. Papp said that maybe the patent office didn't know how his device worked, and that they also didn't know how the atomic bomb worked, but used it anyway. This statement is on his patent "...2. To provide a two cycle reciprocating engine which does not use fuel intake valves or exhaust valves, does not require an air supply and does not emit gasses. 3. To provide a precharged engine of the character stated in item 2 capable of generating power for a period of from 2,000 to over 10,000 hours continuously or until mechanical breakdown without the addition of fuel injection of air or discharge of gasses..."

1. Papp has a similar Patent
2. 4,428,193 granted in 1984. Britt, August 31, 1976, has a patent,
# 3,977,191, for a similar sealed engine. In the patent application file, Britt accuses the Patent Office of deliberately delaying his application to give a major manufacturer time to file on top of him.

14. Permanent Magnet Motor. Howard Johnson was granted U.S. Patent # 4,151,431, for a motor that is powered only by permanent magnets. An interesting thing about the first page of this patent is the chart of a magnetic field VS electromechanical coupling. The chart is from U.S. Patent # 4,151,432 which has nothing to do with the Johnson patent. Science and Mechanics, Spring 1980, published an article " Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor" about the Johnson patent. The article tells of his difficulties in having the device patented. The patent problem was solved when Johnson took working models of his device to the patent office. The magazine Science 83, May, published an article ridiculing perpetual motion machines, one of them was the Johnson motor. The Science article purports to quote from the prior Science and Mechanics article about Johnson. Because had both articles, I compared them, then called the author of the Science 83 article. When I stated that the information that he quoted was not in the prior article, he hung up saying "I will not be interrogated by you.". The editor of Science 83 also declined to speak with me. Others have informed me that there are three other permanent magnet motor patents. A Japanese electrical generator, driven by a magnet assisted motor, has an efficiency of more than 300%. Do you think the electric power companies would be happy if this device were common knowledge?

15. The Moray device. Tom Moray, in the late 20s, had a device that could sit on a kitchen table and produce 50,000 Watts of power from a field that surrounds the earth. The operation of this device was endorsed by many people. Moray's son, John, after the only copy of his father's book was stolen, wrote a book "The Sea of Energy in which the Earth Floats". See the statement concerning a meeting between Moray and a Soviet Agent in General Electric office after closing hours.) The book is about his father's work. During the early 80s, I visited many congressional offices in an unsuccessful attempt to have any Member of Congress do something about the technology hidden from the American people. When I visited Congressman Ron Paul's office, a staffer said to me "I have something that you should read, come to my residence on Saturday." This staffer gave me a letter to Congressman Paul from Tom Bearden, and the 40-page document attached to the letter. The document is a book that Mr. Bearden has written. In this book, Mr. Bearden states that the Moray device could produce 1.5 megawatts of power. Also that the Russians had adapted the Moray device to power a weapon. The weapon statement is supported by a drawing from "Aviation Week and Space Technology", July 28, 1980. Do you think that the local Power Company could justify a price increase if the power came from a field around the earth? This book was also missing from the LOC in 1990.]

Tom Bearden, with others, obtained U.S. Patent 6,362,718 for an Electric generator with no moving parts. Michael Faraday’s findings, in 1831, do not agree with current school teachings concerning generation of electricity.

16. The Energy Machine of Joe Newman. I have spoken with Joe many times over several years. He has recently published the seventh edition of "The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman" (ISBN 0-9613855-7-7) The book is available from: Joseph Westly Newman, Route 1, Box 52, Lucedale, Mississippi, 39452, Phone # (601)-947-7174. I have no doubts that his machine works as he describes it. To learn of the problems that this man has had with "The Establishment" read his book. Joe filed suit against the U.S. Patent office because they would not grant him a patent. According to Joe's book, pages 274 to 279, the Court appointed a Special Master, Mr. William E. Schuyler, a former Commissioner of the U.S. Patent Office, to advise the Court. The findings of the Special Master were that Mr. Newman had invented a machine that had more output than input. The Court refused to accept the findings. I urge you to read this 471-page book. This machine is not "bogus" as stated by others. On February 5, 1996, I was one of several hundred people, in Mobile, AL, to see the Newman Energy Machine in operation. The machine was pumping water while running a power meter, similar to the one on your house, backwards.

17. Cold Fusion. Despite the rejection of some in the USA, cold fusion is a going operation in other places. The monthly magazine "New Energy News", P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT 84158-8639, has information on many successful results in cold fusion. The magazine also has information on "free energy devices".

18. "The Energy Non-Crisis", published in 1980 by Worth Publishing Co., P.O. Box, 1243,Wheatridge, CO 80033, is written by Chaplain Lindsey Williams. (This is only one of the books he has written) Chaplain Williams was on the Alaska Pipeline during the construction and got so fed-up with the deliberate lies of the media, he came back to tour the "lower 48", and tell the truth. According to Chaplain Williams, Gull Island has a pool of oil as big as, and maybe bigger, than Purdhoe Bay. Our Government ordered ARCO "...to seal the documents, withdraw the rig, cap the well, and not release the information about the Gull Island find." A video tape of a speech that Chaplain Williams gave to a group at Salt Lake City, about 1980, is possibly available from: The National Center For Constitutional Studies, 1-800-388-4512. Chaplain Williams stated in a recent two-hour broadcast there is enough oil in Alaska to last the U.S.A. 200-years. The broadcast is on the Republic Broadcasting Network site http://mp3.rbnlive.com/Rick/0508/20050824_Wed_Rick.m3u. Additional book information is here. You can read parts of his book on this site http://www.sweetliberty.org/issues/environment/energy/.

I sent the Williams tape and a lot of other information to a previous Secretary of Energy. The response received, after a second letter, was essentially, no response. I also wrote to Dr. Bodman, our current (2005) Secretary of Energy. A response was received. If you wonder how your state legislators receive information see this document. I wrote to the authors of the document, no response.

I hope that this information will raise questions as to why we are dependent on foreign oil. All our government has to do, to take more money from our pockets, is to have an energy crisis or raise the cost of energy. The only financial interest that I have in any of above devices is that of a concerned consumer who is tired of the deliberate lies and cover-ups.

Byron Wine byronw1@msn.com

May 24, 1996. (Modified August 30, 2005)

Mark said...

World's biggest wind farm planned for London
By Helen McCormack

08 June 2005

Plans have been submitted to build the world's biggest wind farm in the Thames estuary. It is designed to generate enough electricity to supply a quarter of London homes.

The complex, named the London Array, is predicted to cost £1.5bn to build and would be capable of meeting 10 per cent of the Government's target to have 10 per cent of the UK's electricity generated by renewable energy resources by 2010.

If permission is granted to build the farm, 270 turbines, each 300ft (100m) in height would be constructed over 152 sq miles (245 sq km) 12 miles off the Kent coast. The proposals were submitted by a consortium formed by the energy companies, Shell, E.On Renewables and an Anglo-Danish company, Core.

They have, however, raised concerns over the possible impact on local wildlife and the environment. But the director of Friends of the Earth, Tony Juniper, said that projects such as the London Array were "urgently required" to tackle the problem of carbon dioxide emissions.

The right to lease the offshore site was secured 18 months ago, but the group, operating under the company name London Array Ltd, has only just applied to the government and local planning authorities for permission to begin building. The application is being opposed by the Port of London Authority, which says that the layout presents potential naval hazards.

Britain currently has two commercial offshore wind farms, North Hoyle, off the coast of Rhyl in north Wales and the Scroby Sands offshore wind farm, near Great Yarmouth. Plans to build others have been delayed by obstacles including the discovery of flocks of seabirds in the Irish Sea and uncertainty of funding grid connections.

With onshore projects marred by planning problems and difficulties in acquiring financial backing, the Government is relying on expansion in offshore wind to meet its renewables target as onshore projects.

The consortium hopes to get the go-ahead for the turbines, which will generate as much as 1,000 megawatts - the equivalent to a large gas or coal-burning power station and would be supply 750,000 homes - as early as next year.

Its aim is for construction to be completed by 2011.The consortium says the farm would not be an eyesore, because it is so far out to sea, and it would result in a reduction of 1.9m tonnes carbon dioxide emissions each year.

Mark said...

Lung-inspired fuel cell optimization:

Morgan Fuel Cell’s ( UK ) patented 'Biomimetic' bipolar plate technology (electrodes) drew its inspiration from the branching structures in animal lungs and plant tissues. The bipolar plates of the fuel cell contain two large conduits that feed into a system of capillaries.

As with the lung, this maximizing of surface area for gas exchange allows gases to flow through the plate in a far more efficient way than has ever been achieved before.

The biomimetic bipolar plates are cheaper to produce, and they boost peak power by 16%, while improving water management, enhancing reliability, and reducing backpressure.

Mark said...

Microbe-inspired replacement for platinum catalysts in fuel cells:

One reason fuel cells are so expensive is the use of platinum in the membrane that conducts the hydrogen chemistry. Cyanobacteria catalyze this same reaction using an enzyme created from common and biocompatible metals. Cedric Tard and Christopher Pickett of the John Innes Centre in the UK have successfully mimicked the active site of the hydrogenase protein.

The resulting iron-sulphur framework functions as an electrocatalyst for proton reduction, a potentially important step towards inexpensive materials to replace platinum in the anodes of fuel cells.

Mark said...

The unknown "Dr. Bombay" said:

I have mentioned this before but there is a company located in Norwood, Mass. who claims to have perfected a device that is able to draw voltage from trees. It seems that all trees have a constant charge of 12 volts running through them. The theory is the trees are drawing the energy directly from the earths magnetic field. This means, according to the company, that their device would allow you to come home from work and plug your electric car into any tree on your property to recharge. Further the company has found that the trees maintain a constant 12 volts regardless of how many of their devices are plugged into the tree itself. The article detailing the company's device was in the Providence Journal sometime back in February. I misplaced the article during a recent move and I'm not into paying a fee to access the web archives of the ProJo. However, the Prov. Public Library archives should have a digital file of that newspaper and I will try an make an effort to track it down and get the name of the company in the next couple of days.

7/29/2007 03:20:00 PM
iridescent cuttlefish said...

Dr. Bombay,

Please do try to find that article--it sounds absolutely fascinating, kind of like an arboreal diamagentism. As far as alternatives go, there is a sort of radiant energy "from the vacuum" that we may one day get to use, but the most obvious alternative is solar. We've already crossed the 8% efficiency barrier (up to 24% with the new quantum solar rigs)...if even 1/1000th of the money spent on ethanol had been put toward solar conversion & supercapacitor batteries, we'd be free of most of the artificial constraints which keep us in our place.

Interestingly, no one wants to talk about the portions of the research pie in this regard, for obvious reasons. Even if you make the set up expensive, you can't put a meter on the sun (to paraphrase Jeff Vail's Theory of Power.) Anyway, please let me know when you find that treelectricity thing.

7/29/2007 04:42:00 PM
Mark said...

Here's what's probabaly going on in the trees, based on what goes on in any slightly acidic solution between dissimilar metals...

Watch this link, short film, hardly because the world can run on lemons though because it's a common scientific principle that is certainly applicable to other slightly acidic organic liquids, maybe trees. It shows a general method of how to go about testing different trees with zinc nails and copper nails for yourself, to test for electric potentials in different trees.

Create a Lemon Battery (6:47)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AY9qcDCFeVI&feature=dir

It works with vinegar as well, so it assuredly works with the terpines in trees I bet. :-) And trees are much bigger and better lemons.

Particularly if you link up a lot of trees together, well, you could just power your house off the forest around it.

---
http://rigint.blogspot.com/2007/07/friday-july-27.html#comments

Mark said...

Another repost:

Shrubageddon said...

Here's the link to Bombay's article.

Note who MagCap's customers are? I smell a rat. Let's not forget the rigor and the intuition.


Plugged in: Startup hopes to tap electricity from trees

Don't tell MagCap Engineering's president he's barking up the wrong business model.

His Canton company claims to be developing a process of generating electricity from living trees and is working with an unidentified business in The Netherlands as a possible investor.

But local energy experts have questions about the concept behind the proposal. MagCap Engineering LLC wants to patent a process that converts the natural energy of a tree to usable direct-current electricity, company President Chris Lagadinos said.

He expects to find investors to help pay for the research needed to figure a way to increase the tree power from less than 2 volts to 12 volts sometime this year, creating an alternative to fossil fuels.

Jim Manwell, director of the University of Massachusetts Amherst's Renewable Energy Resource Laboratory, questioned the potential of MagCap's plans. "I'm wildly skeptical," he said. "I would need to see proof before I believed it. It strikes me as pretty questionable for a number of reasons."

MagCap announced the project Dec. 20 and was subsequently inundated with inquiries, Lagadinos said.

"It's been a zoo, the e-mails we've been getting - (we've) been swamped with contacts (from) all over the world. Most of them verified our results to find out we're for real," he said.

Lagadinos declined to name the potential investor. But he said the Dutch company is in the energy-storage business.

Lagadinos said he didn't know how much it would cost to develop the technology nor how long it would take to produce the 12-volt electricity. "I'm hoping within 2006," he said.

MagCap is developing the system with an Illinois-based inventor named Gordon Wadle. Wadle was not available for comment.

Dwayne Breger, manager of the renewable energy and climate change group at the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, said he has questions about the source of the energy and whether the process would damage trees.

"My reaction is that it sounds too good to be true," he said. "But I'm interested in seeing what they're able to come up with. What they need to demonstrate is that there's a sustainable energy source over time without a degradation to the tree." MagCap, which was founded in 1969, lists Raytheon Co., Thales Broadcast & Multimedia, Lockheed-Martin Corp. and British Aerospace as some of its customers.

Wadle became interested in the concept while studying lightning coming from the ground, "which led him to believe that there's some type of power emanating from earth, which led him to trees," Lagadinos said.

He said Wadle has worked on the project about one year and enlisted MagCap nine months ago. Lagadinos wasn't sure why Wadle selected MagCap for the project.

Boston-based law firm Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo PC filed a patent application with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Lagadinos said.

Mintz Levin patent attorney Jason Mirabito said he wouldn't have filed the application if he didn't have a reasonable amount of confidence in MagCap's concept. He filed the patent application in early December and expects the approval process to take about three years. Mirabito acknowleged the uniqueness of MagCap's proposal.

"This is really something out of left field," he said. "In my 25 years of practicing patent law, I've never seen anything like this."

Lagadonis said tests have generated 0.8 volts to 1.2 volts by driving an aluminum roofing nail half an inch into a tree attached to a copper water pipe driven 7 inches into the ground. But the electricity is useless because it's unstable and fluctuates.

The trick will be to learn how to filter and stabilize the electricity so it can be used to charge batteries, Lagadinos said.

"It's a renewable source and it's an unlimited source," he said. "It's virtually untapped. The issue is clean energy and it's readily available. There are trees everywhere."

Manwell said his skepticism is science-based.

"There's a fundamental law of physics," he said. "The energy has to come from somewhere."

http://rigint.blogspot.com/2007/07/friday-july-27.html

Mark said...

In the above "cry uncle" skepticism quote of "it's the laws of physics, it's got to come from somewhere," ah, though are we using all the laws of nature to design our technology? No, we aren't. Particularly for energy, we are artificially limiting ourselves to thermodynamics for energy.

Another excellent example:

[more "energy storage, what storage?"]

MAGNETIC MIRACLE: Inventor's design consumes no fuel, emits no fumes

By Bud Kenny
Free Press, Little Rock, AR
April 14-27, 1994


Devices that have truly improved the human condition - such as electricity, the telephone and the airplane - were created by people who passionately believe their inventions would make the world a better place to live. Troy Reed of Tulsa, Oklahoma is such a person.

Reed has invented and patented a motor that consumes no fuel and emits no fumes. It is powerful enough to turn a 7,000-watt generator, which is enough electricity to run an average home. Production of the Reed Magnetic Motor for use by the general public may begin by year's end.

Reed, 57, has also invented an automobile called "Surge" that employs his new technology. Unlike a battery-powered car, Reed's Surge does not have to be plugged in to be recharged. The car recharges itself as it rolls down the highway at speeds of up to 85 miles an hour. Reed and actor Dennis Weaver, a cousin and inventor in the project, plan to make the first highway test-run of the car this summer.

Reed said he has been contacted about coverage of the test run by, among others, 20/20, 60 Minutes, Larry King Live, Primetime Live and CNN. A representative of CNN, Reed said, has already seen the car and might broadcast daily updates during the journey.

The idea for this technology came to Reed in a number of dreams and visions over the past 35 years. He said he got the first in 1959 while employed as a machinist making 70 cents an hour. Thirty years later, in 1989, he put those dreams to the test, turning a hand crank that put the first Reed Magnetic Motor in motion. That prototype was seven feet tall, weighed more than 500 pounds, had four moving parts and powered a 500-watt generator. His latest motor takes two car batteries to start (they are re-charged by the generator), is 20 inches high, weighs less than 200 pounds, has one moving part and runs a 7000-watt generator.

If Reed's motor works as well as he says it does, it would be a rather amazing technological breakthrough. After all, it would mean a person could live anywhere one wanted with all the comforts and never have to pay an electric bill. One would also be able to drive to work, or anywhere else, without consuming fuel. And best of all, one could do these things without polluting the environment.

Although most people have never heard of the Reed Magnetic Motor, it is well known in the science world. Since 1989 Reed and his motor have been featured at numerous international scientific conferences - the most recent on in Denver in March. Reed also has been written up in scientific journals and is included in the latest edition of Monuments of Mars, a book of inventors written by former NASA science writer Richard Hoagland.

If Reed has his way, his motor soon will no longer be a scientific curiosity. Currently he is in the final stages of granting a license to produce the motor to an American company and a company in India. Reed would not give the names of the companies because he said he is still "negotiating."

"I've been approached by lots of companies from all over the world," Reed said. "I wanted the company that builds this motor to be doing it for the same reason I developed it - to help mother earth."

Reed did say that the companies granted licenses would start producing the motors for the consumer almost immediately. "The technology is already there, it is just a matter of putting all together the right way to make it work," Reed said.

The 1989 prototype uses a horizontal shaft with several magnets on it. Above the shaft are four vertical spring-loaded pistons with a magnet on the end closest to the shaft. Turning the hand crank spins the horizontal shaft and the magnetic spring-loaded pistons move up and down to trigger the motion of the shaft and the magnetic force field. Once the shaft is put into motion, it continues to spin until a brake is applied.

Instead of moveable pistons, the latest model of the motor uses and electronic system and stationary magnets to start and control the motion of the shaft. Consequently, the only moving part in the motor is the horizontal shaft. In the current model, the shaft turns in bearings, but Reed said the mass-produced model will not have the bearings. Instead, the shaft will be magnetically suspended inside the motor casing. Suspending the shaft means there will be nothing to wear out, or make noise, Reed said.

Reed is aware inventions such as his often end up being shelved away from the consumer by a large oil company. So Reed said he has proceeded with caution. "Just like the companies that are going to produce these motors, I made sure that my investors were motivated for the right reasons," Reed said. "If they are only in it for the money, then I turned them away. On the other hand, if they share my desire to see this technology in the marketplace to help save the environment, then we made a deal."

Reed said he also has been careful in how he financed the development of his motor. He said he talked with other would-be world-saving inventors who were put out of business by the government for violating interstate security exchange laws. "They needed capital to develop their ideas, so they sold their investors stock," Reed said. "It always takes longer to develop something like this than you think it will. So when it came time to make good on that stock, they couldn't do it."

When Reed needed capital, instead of issuing stock he gave his investors promissory notes that were contingent on his invention eventually making it to market. Once the motors are available to the public, Reed said he will offer his investors the option of "holding the promissory notes or exchanging them for stock."

However, the federal government is aware of what is going on at Reed Technologies. In fact, Reed said NASA has volunteered to test the motor.

Reed estimated it will cost about $3,500 per motor to mass produce his invention.

Bud Kenny of Hot Springs is scheduled to begin a 15-year world-walking tour on June 5 (see related story page 23). Kenny will live in a small house on wheels, which will be pulled by two mules. Electricity for the house will be provided by alternative electrical generating systems such as solar panels and a pedal generator that will store power from the rotation of Dylan's wheels. Kenny's first stop on his world tour will be around the first of August in Tulsa, where Reed will help Kenny develop the electrical system for the home.

http://www.kbmorgan.com/marsmission/marsbull/bull326.htm

and a short video on it

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SURGE TECHNOLOGY NO BATTERIES NO GAS (6:20)

FREE ENERGY MACHINE electric vehicle with no batteries to run just a 12 volt battery to start and run the radio and fan blower
TOTAL ENERGY INDEPENDENCE FOR TOMORROW'S WORLD

COVERT YOUR CAR TO SURGE TECHNOLOGY NO NEED FOR CHARGING STATIONS CAR RUNS AND PRODUCES ITS OWN POWER IN A LOOP NO NEED FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES

THE CYNERGY DRIVE BY TOYOTA IS TO KEEP THE PETROL DUDS HAPPY still need to by GAS TO RECHARGE BATTERIES WHAT A LOAD OF BS get rid of the gas machine and fit one of these surge technology units into your hybrid and run for free and forever.

more info on
http://www.kbmorgan.com/marsmission/marsbull/bull326.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jt5z8L4LBJE&mode=related&search=

Mark said...

"Stormblade:" The First Truly Quiet Residential Wind Turbine

by John Laumer, Philadelphia on 01. 2.07

[see picture at above link]

Being of newborn prototype, Stormblade, we think, deserves appropriate background music.

So, just imagine "Riders On the Storm" playing now, if you will. We found little Stormrider spinning away on "engineer - live" whose motto...you've got to love this...is "for engineers, by engineers."

So, in the foreground, we must also supply with our imagination, some engineers with very sexy pocket protectors.

Stormblade, works by accelerating the wind onto the blades and is therefore more efficient at low as well as high wind speeds.

Accordingly, "Bird and bat friendly, the design does not have the mechanical noise often associated with commercial wind turbines and, as a result, is very silent in operation.

It has fewer parts and higher generating capacity than other models and can theoretically, operate at any wind speed...

Stormblade Turbine can convert up to 70 per cent of wind power into electricity, double the current average.

Operational wind speed is expected to be 7mph to 120mph, double the current average range ...".

The Stormblade project has a website here.

http://www.stormbladeturbine.com/

2.

Silent wind turbine is ultra-efficient
August 10, 2007

Silent wind turbine is ultra-efficient

Stormblade Turbine Ltd is a London business start up company and it has designed an ultra-efficient wind turbine which works by accelerating the wind onto the blades and is therefore more efficient at low as well as high wind speeds.

Bird and bat friendly, the design does not have the mechanical noise often associated with commercial wind turbines and, as a result, is very silent in operation. It has fewer parts and higher generating capacity than other models and can theoretically, operate at any wind speed. The maximum wind speed will only be restricted by the materials used in construction.

Stormblade Turbine can convert up to 70 per cent of wind power into electricity, double the current average. Operational wind speed is expected to be 7mph to 120mph, double the current average range and the design is less noisy and wildlife friendly.

The propeller blades and all the moving parts are housed within the nacelle and therefore pose no danger to migrating birds or bats.

Stormblade is also unique in that it produces less drag, operates at extreme wind speeds, has more power per rotation, requires less maintenance and is a third of the size of comparable industrial wind turbines.

The initial design and virtual testing of the prototype is complete and the company has benefited from the help of the London Manufacturing Advisory Service (London MAS). The London MAS team has provided support in analysing the overall project, advising on company structure and grants available and are currently identifying potential partners to bring the design into production.

Initial market research has identified at least 14 companies and support groups who have expressed an interest in Stormblade's technology and would like to further explore collaboration opportunities.

For more information, visit www.mas-london.org.uk

http://www.engineerlive.com/news/16981/silent-wind-turbine-is-ultraefficient.thtml

Mark said...

quote from 21st century Schauberger-technologist Frank Germano — a former aerospace engineer, professional musician, and president of a company that made Tesla-design turbine engines:

"

Germano: The most obvious application is to use flowing water to power the turbine. When I say “flowing water” I am not talking about using current technology that requires building a dam, where the hydroelectric energy comes from gravity. Schauberger's work proved that there is more energy available by forcing water to flow into a spiral vortex than is available by free-fall of comparable footage. The technology is very simple and can be implemented today. We can supply industrial quantities of electricity to any community simply by using water power from rivers — without a dam — and it is totally ecologically sensible and sustainable.

Another application would be to get power from the Earth's oceans. For example, if you were to sink a deep well in the middle of the ocean, putting a pipe down to the level where it meets the 4-degree anomaly point, the water below that point would be relatively deoxygenated. So then if you were to pump water down into that pipe, water that was highly oxygenated, the water below it, which was “starved” for oxygen, would seek that level. And as this oxygen-starved water sought the oxygenated water, it would be forcefully “ejected” back up the pipe to the surface level, under great pressure and velocity. A device like our Bladeless Disk Turbine would easily capture that energy from the flowing water and, through a generator, convert it to electricity. Again, this is ecologically sensible power generation.

This principle can be used in air conditioning and heating systems. The temperature differential creates energy, and this energy not only can be used, but it's very efficient. A home or building that was temperature controlled with this type of technology would use only about one-third of the electricity of standard systems currently in general use.

Susan: Does your company carry these kinds of systems?

Germano: Yes, we've got all that ready to go.

Susan: I guess I just don't understand. If there are engines out there that are three times more effective than the kind we are using, why doesn't everybody have one? If there are heating and air conditioning systems that could save people so much money and energy, why doesn't everybody know about this?

Germano: This is the problem we're facing. I don't really have the answer. We're not going to run out of fossil fuels. What we're going to run out of is our ability to live on the planet. The misuse of fossil fuels is a worldwide problem. For whatever reason, we're treating energy the wrong way. And we do have the technology to change this. What we don't have is the infrastructure. It would take billions of dollars.

Susan: My guess is that the fossil fuel industry doesn't want this to change. It wants us to consume more and more fossil fuels.

Germano: Just to begin with, we never, ever needed to use fossil fuels in the first place. We could have used water all along and not had this pollution problem.

Once a water-power driven plant [see below] is built, the energy is now “free” from nature. It's non-polluting, and it lasts as long as the river lasts. You get ecologically sensible alternative energy. If you were using the river's energy correctly, you could easily power the entire United States on just the Mississippi.

The cost of solar and wind energy is still too high. [Actually, hardly so anymore--see above posts] But water power is right there, readily available. Our Tesla Turbine engine simply carries that energy. It's basically a “better mousetrap”: a bladeless disk engine, very simple, very easy to understand, and we took that a little further by forcing the water into a spiral vortex.

http://lackluster.zaadz.com/blog/2007/7/viktor_schauberger_-_the_man_who_gazed_at_rivers_by_susan_barker

2.

See pictures:
Water Vortex Drives Power Plant

In a fairly radical departure from the principles that normally govern hydroelectric power generation, Austrian engineer Franz Zotlöterer has constructed a low-head power plant that makes use of the kinetic energy inherent in an artificially induced vortex. The water's vortex energy is collected by a slow moving, large-surface water wheel, making the power station transparent to fish - there are no large pressure differences built up, as happens in normal turbines.

Vortex_Turbine.jpg

Special turbine collecting vortex energy - Image: gravitationswirbel.


The aspect of the power plant reminds a bit of an upside-down snail - through a large, straight inlet the water enters tangentially into a round basin, forming a powerful vortex, which finds its outlet at the center bottom of the shallow basin. The turbine does not work on pressure differential but on the dynamic force of the vortex. Not only does this power plant produce a useful output of electricity, it also aerates the water in a gentle way. Indeed, the inventor was looking for an efficient way to aerate the water of a small stream as he hit upon this smart idea of a plant that not only gives air to the medium but also takes from it some of the kinetic energy that is always inherent in a stream.

Of course the use of water vortices has been pioneered by another Austrian - Viktor Schauberger, who was also known as the "water wizard". He floated hard-to transport heavy logs from remote regions of the Austrian forests, not accessible at the time by streets, to where they would be milled and processed. The feat was accomplished by carefully regulating the water's temperature and by inducing a rolling, longitudinal vortex motion in the water.

At one point, Schauberger took out a patent on a turbine he invented, that made use of vortex dynamics.

An article about that turbine of Schauberger's which I wrote way back in the 90s can be found here.

The turbine wheel was designed in the form of a cone with a cork screw pattern, and it was fast running. Quite different from the turbine of Zotlöterer which is optimized for aerating the water, rather than for production of power.

Still, Zotlöterer's results are quite respectable. The cost of construction for his plant was half that of a conventional hydroelectric installation of similar yield and the environmental impact is positive, instead of negative.

- - -


Vortex_No_Turbine.jpg

Inlet with overflow and vortex basin during construction - Image: gravitationswirbel.


The diameter of the vortex basin is 5 meters.

The head - difference between the two water levels - is 1.6 meters.

The turbine produced 50.000 kw/h in its first year of operation.

Construction cost was 57.000 Euro

Vortex_Complete_Installation.jpg

The complete installation - Image: gravitationswirbel.

- - -

More information in this article on the treehugger site:

Gravitational Vortex Power Plant is Safe for Fish

and for those who speak German, here the original site:

Neue Wege im Wasserbau - Wasserwirbeltechnik

- - -

I have long been partial to vortex-based technology. Here are two of my early articles on use of this technology in a hydroelectric power context.

Understanding Water Power
Herbrand, an electrical engineer in Germany, relates a story from his youth about a turbine installed at the Rheinfelden power plant (on the Rhine river, not far downstream from Lake Konstanz) that was much more efficient than other equipment before and even after it. The article explores a possible solution to the riddle.

Dynamic Hydropower
Another article on water power, analysing the principle of the use of the dynamic forces inherent in flowing water, which is an important component of the total energy obtainable from the downstream flow of water. An important recognition expressed in the article is the fact that vortices are able to give direction to normally chaotic thermal energy and thus convert it into motion, into a dynamic force, a concept pioneered by Viktor Schauberger.

http://blog.hasslberger.com/2007/06/water_vortex_drives_power_plan.html

comments there

Mark said...

Biomimicry Inspired Solar Panels: 'Synthetic Chlorophyll' Organic Dyes Instead of Toxic Silicon Processes for Solar Energy--Can Be put in Walls, Roof, Glass, etc., as Building Materials as well

April 19, 2007

Taking Nature's Cue for Cheaper Solar Power
Auckland, New Zealand

[RenewableEnergyAccess.com]

Solar cell technology developed by Massey University's Nanomaterials Research Centre in New Zealand may one day enable the country's residents to generate electricity from sunlight at a tenth of the cost of current silicon-based photovoltaic solar cells.

Dr. Wayne Campbell and researchers in the Centre have developed a range of colored dyes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

"The refining of pure silicon, although a very abundant mineral, is energy-hungry and very expensive. And whereas silicon cells need direct sunlight to operate efficiently, these cells will work efficiently in low diffuse light conditions."
-- Dr. Wayne Campbell, Massey University, Nanomaterials Research Centre

The synthetic dyes are made from simple organic compounds closely related to those found in nature.

Green dye is synthetic chlorophyll derived from the light-harvesting pigment plants use for photosynthesis.

Other dyes being tested in the cells are based on haemoglobin, the compound that gives blood its color.

Unlike the silicon-based solar cells currently on the market, says Dr. Campbell, the 10x10cm green demonstration cells generate enough electricity to run a small fan in low-light conditions -- making them ideal for cloudy climates.

The dyes can also be incorporated into tinted windows that trap to generate electricity.

According to Dr. Campbell, the green solar cells are more environmentally friendly than silicon-based cells as they are made from titanium dioxide -- a plentiful, renewable and non-toxic white mineral obtained from New Zealand's black sand. Titanium dioxide is already used in consumer products such as toothpaste, white paints and cosmetics.

"The refining of pure silicon, although a very abundant mineral, is energy-hungry and very expensive. And whereas silicon cells need direct sunlight to operate efficiently, these cells will work efficiently in low diffuse light conditions," Dr. Campbell says.

"The expected cost is one-tenth of the price of a silicon-based solar panel, making them more attractive and accessible to home-owners."

The Centre's new director, Professor Ashton Partridge, says they now have the most efficient porphyrin dye in the world and aim to optimize and improve the cell construction and performance before developing the cells commercially.

"The next step is to take these dyes and incorporate them into roofing materials or wall panels. We have had many expressions of interest from New Zealand companies," Professor Partridge says.

He says the ultimate aim of using nanotechnology to develop a better solar cell is to convert as much sunlight to electricity as possible.

"The energy that reaches earth from sunlight in one hour is more than that used by all human activities in one year," said Partridge.

The solar cells are the product of more than 10 years research funded by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology.

For Further Information
* Nanomaterials Research Centre, Massey University

Please Note: RenewableEnergyAccess.com does not endorse the sites behind these links. We offer them for your additional research. Following these links will open a new browser window.
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Reader Comments (15)

Author:
Adrian Akau
Date Posted:
April 19, 2007
Nature's PV

Toothpaste that we brush with to make teeth clean and bright,
Titanium dioxide is sure to reach its height, For use in dye solar cells, will convert weak light,
We expect it will make solar power a very common sight.

For walls and for roofing,
this low cost dye will do,
Synthetic chlorophyll or hemoglobin too,
Low power for production of a PV cell that's new,
Less costly than silicon,
we like it through and through.

adrianakau@aol.com
Comment 1 of 15
Author:
Gajraj Singh
Date Posted:
April 20, 2007

It's very good news ,we are going to the static energy source. Here is used Synthetic chlorophyll in the system,so we must take care of getting the chlorophyll from harmful plants. Cutting useful plants is harmful to all of us as the problem of glabal warming.

i hope we all will get the advantage of the new energy source.

Comment 2 of 15
Author:
Don Lemna
Date Posted:
April 20, 2007
Lovely! Go New Zealand!

Comment 3 of 15
Author:
Michael Halpin
Date Posted:
April 20, 2007
Great news on the home front.

Congratulations to you and the team Wayne "go kiwis go"

Massey is brimming with talent;I hope the next step is to demonstrate how your green cells can produce green hydrogen.

Then maybe I can convince your university design team to "get in behind" the H. pHenomena project.

I would love to showcase it at the new Albany centre

Mike H. www.hydrogenheads.org

Michael Halpin founder HYDROGENHEADS

Comment 4 of 15
Author:
Scott Leone
Date Posted:
April 20, 2007

This gives even more significance to "green" energy. I just went online and bought the domain name "chlorolectric.com". Now, perhaps, I can deduct a trip to New Zealand.

Comment 5 of 15
Author:
Radhakrishnan Chirukandath
Date Posted:

April 20, 2007
This will be a great step forard to help millions of unlit houses in Kalimanthan Island of Indonesia and simlar places. I wish to paint my house roof with a solar energy capturing material

It is indeed a great development

Comment 6 of 15
Author:
Michael Gross
Date Posted:
April 20, 2007
Excellent! www.SolarPanel-Rental.com

Comment 7 of 15
Author:
Keith Ljunghammar
Date Posted:
April 21, 2007
It seems that E = MC2 is back in circulation. You evidently have the new formula. But this time everyone can understand it.

Comment 8 of 15
Author:
Clara Duran Reed
Date Posted:
April 21, 2007
Fantastic! Our company builds green communities and lower cost alternatives to current technology is encouraging! The savings can be passed on to the consumer.

Comment 9 of 15
Author:
Roy Bauer
Date Posted:
April 22, 2007
Best invention since the light bulb.
Good job Massey University.

Comment 10 of 15
Author:
EUGENE Lucas
Date Posted:
April 23, 2007
The efficient solar cell (40+%) would be fantastic. This would be much greater. Now the trick, is to get massive funding to accelerate the research, and get a product on-line. Please do it! The world is waiting.

Comment 11 of 15
Author:
sarat panigrahy
Date Posted:
April 24, 2007
Congratulations! Dr Wayne & Your team for your fantastic achievement - its great NEWS for the humanity.

It would be a wonderful fete to take solar power to the under privileged people in Asia , Africa and the rest of the World.

Comment 12 of 15
Author:
EUGENE Lucas
Date Posted:
April 25, 2007

If present thin-film solar roofing is cost-effective at only 3% conversion efficiency, think what the future holds with this technology! California's "Million Solar Rooftops" might become a cost-effective reality instead of a rebate-loaded PV nightmare.

---
http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/story?id=48187

Mark said...

Instead of using biomimicry chlorophyll dyes, a more polluting industrial process is mentioned below--though one that is going into mass production of nanosolar panels. This is the nanosolar "CIGS" (abbreviations for the particular chemical elements in it--some human and biologically toxic). It was described in another article above.

A CIGS facility for production in the USA is to become the world's largest solar panel plant. It is being built outside of San Francisco.

A nice quote from one of the comments compares "rollout production of solar cells" may be on par with the invention of the Gutenberg press.

Nanosolar to build world's largest solar cell factory in [San Francisco] Bay Area (!)

Martin Roscheisen

Forgive the exclamation point. But this could be one of the greatest Silicon Valley stories this year.

Martin Roscheisen, the chief executive of Nanosolar, emailed us Monday to tell us he has finally done it. He has succeeded in taking far-out nanotechnology and applying it to solar cells in a way that promises to work commercially.

This is significant because all solar cells until now have been made from clunky, crystalline silicon. That's why you get these big old thick solar panels that some think are an eyesore. More importantly though, they have remained expensive, which is why you need states to subsidize solar projects. And lately, they've been in short supply, driving up costs even more. Martin's company, Nanosolar, has developed solar cells so thin you can paint them onto a piece of foil (click on video below). It uses a copper alloy, called CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide). The resulting cells are efficient as traditional silicon cells, but can be manufactured at one-fifth the cost.


Printed solar cells (CNN)
In short, he's promising a revolution of sorts, just when we need one. If all goes well, it will make solar a more economical alternative energy source, and will help save the environment without costing us and arm and a leg. True, the proof will be in the pudding, and we'll first see the cells emerge from the factory next year. But his announcements, scheduled announced tomorrow (Wednesday), are promising:
First, after a four-year race to get a working product out, he's now building the world's largest factory for making solar cells right here in the Bay Area -- to be finished this year.

Second, to help, he has raised $75 million more in venture capital.

We've been on vacation, and so we handed the story to our environmental reporter, Paul Rogers. Here is the story, to be published in tomorrow's Mercury News.

We met Roscheisen two summers ago, when he was putting his team together, and had started a race against other players doing similar things, including Konarka on the East Coast. We haven't heard much from those players.

Roscheisen, 37, was an early dot-com pioneer, having sold Internet company eGroups to Yahoo for $432 million in 2000 during what he says was ''my other life.'' (That's when he worked with the brother of Google co-founder Larry Page; indeed, Larry and Sergey have both invested in Nanosolar).

As he told us the story a couple of years ago, he was kicking around for his next business idea, and found most software and Internet technologies were well covered by other companies. But he noticed how much he was paying for inefficient heating bills and at the gas pump to fill up the guzzling Mercedes-Benz G500 he bought from Sequoia venture capitalist Michael Moritz. Traveling the world, and inquiring about how to develop better energy sources, he fell upon the idea for Nanosolar.

For Roscheisen, the change of industries is a family tradition. His great great grandfather founded the Germany's first regional electricity utility, still powering Bavaria today -- but only after he first built a construction company.

Within the next two to six weeks, Nanosolar will select either San Jose, Santa Clara or San Francisco for the facility -- which will churn out 430 megawatts a year of solar cells -- almost tripling the entire wattage produced elsewhere in the U.S.!

The Merc piece doesn't mention much about the funding, so here it is: Beside existing investors Mohr Davidow Ventures, Benchmark Capital, Onpoint and Mitsui, the number of new investors is large:

--SAC Capital and GLG Partners, two world-class investment funds with substantial PV industry investment experience;
--Swiss Re, the insurance sector leader of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index;
--Grazia Equity, the original backer of Conergy AG, the world's largest PV system integrator;
--Christian Reitberger, the original backer of Q-Cells, the world's largest independent silicon cell PV manufacturer;
-- Capricorn Management, the investment arm of Jeff Skoll, known for its support of clean energy causes;
--the investment arms of SAP founders Klaus Tschira and Dietmar Hopp, and
--Beck, a leading PV power plant system integrator.


Posted by Matt Marshall on June 20, 2006 8:51 PM | Linking Posts

Tags: Nanosolar Martin+Roscheisen




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Comments
I heard that the technology was invented by Chris Eberspacher (current VP of Nanosolar). Efficiency of its module is around 7%. Any comments?

YY on June 22, 2006 11:25 AM
Comment link

>This is significant because all solar cells until now have been made from clunky, crystalline silicon.

Not true. For years amorphous silicon solar cells have been available from Energy Conversion Devices in Detroit and Iowa Thin Film. The small solar cells on calculators and watches are made from amorphous silicon.

>That's why you get these big old thick solar panels that some think are an eyesore.

Also not true. Solar panels are big because you need a large area to generate a large power. Unless efficiency jumps up (which is not something Nanosolar promises), then their technology will not change this fact. Solar cells printed on foil can be lighter and thinner but you can already order such solar cells *right now* from ECD and Iowa Thin Film.

What Nanosolar is offering that is novel is a solar cell manufacturing technology that is all solution-based and does not require expensive vacuum systems. This distinction has gotten, ahem, a bit obscured in the Merc's coverage.

>The resulting cells are efficient as traditional silicon cells, but can be manufactured at one-fifth the cost.

We'll know if they can make cheap, efficient solar cells that way when the first product ships.

Alison Chaiken on June 22, 2006 11:49 AM
Comment link

Thanks for your comments Alison. Two words the vc's can't resist are 'nano' and 'solar.' It's good to get some perspective amidst the hype.

David Marcus on June 22, 2006 12:25 PM
Comment link

There are so many interesting solar start-ups out there. Does anyone know anything about Solyndra? Information is hard to come by. Appears that it may be similar to Miasole (sputtered CIGS thin film technology)?

Nicole Rutherford on June 22, 2006 3:54 PM
Comment link

Galium Arsenide solar conversion semiconductors are the next wave. Besides the copper indium there is indium phosphate and a host of other doping agents to change the specific band of the solar technology. All have big advantages of being very robust semiconductors and all have disadvantages of being very difficult to manufacture. One thing is sure, they convert VC money in hype as fast as solar flux into electricity.

ALNRG on June 22, 2006 9:36 PM
Comment link

This is fantastic! Finally some good news. Now if only we could get someone to come up with a great storage battery and figure out a way for superconductivity to occur at room temperatures. I live out in the country and I used to be able to smell pine trees almost all the time. Now it comes and goes. In reality, no one is going to give up their cars but at the same time we are burning all the fuel to move around the planet. These three things would go a long way into helping us solve the transportation problem.

Patrick Lim on June 22, 2006 10:46 PM
Comment link

re: Gallium Arsenide ... next wave. Spreading acres of arsenic doped material which could eventually leach into the soil and groundwater due to exposure and the elements (rain, hail etc.) does not sound like a very smart approach. At least Indium and SiGe avoid this.

Michael Graebner on June 23, 2006 11:08 AM
Comment link

re: Gallium Arsenide ... next wave. Spreading acres of arsenic doped material which could eventually leach into the soil and groundwater due to exposure and the elements (rain, hail etc.) does not sound like a very smart approach. At least Indium and SiGe avoid this.

Michael Graebner on June 23, 2006 11:09 AM
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I think if what they [NanoSolar] says is true, then the cost per kw will be on par with fossil fuels.

That being said... game over, especially when you throw available solar/renewable subsidies on top of it, then you will have net energy costs CHEAPER than traditional energy sources.

There's the bottom line, period.

Also, it will subsequently remove a lot of the hurdles in production of other renewables such as hydrogen, where the biggest roadblocks were distribution points and the fact electricity used in production would still have ultimately been sourced from fossil fuels. With cheap solar, the distribution AND manufacture of hydrogen can be very modular and 99% green.

Ben on June 24, 2006 8:29 AM
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Now we can explore extracting hydrogen from these cheap panels which will be spread onto building materials, hills, parking lots, etc.. Therefore, we can explore on-site hydrogen into fuel cells for a 24/7 power scenario. Good Bye, Utility companies, your game is over, at least within the next 10 years!!! The 3rd world can also be economically financeable for investors to create power for remote villages worldwide powering refrigerators (to sustain medicines!, Mr. Gates) lighting and most importantly, computers. To me, this 3rd coming of PV is truly awe-inspiring. Thank you,Martin, you are using your money well!!!
Sam...NJ

Sam Salamay on June 29, 2006 6:22 AM
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That being said... game over, especially when you throw available solar/renewable subsidies on top of it, then you will have net energy costs CHEAPER than traditional energy sources.

Not quite. While being able to roll-print solar cells is an important milestone - on par with the Gutenburg printing press, IMHO - solar faces one serious hurdle: the US consumes roughly 100 quadrillion BTUs of energy from all sources annually. A quadrillion is a 1 followed by 15 zeros (usually: The British quadrillion is a 1 followed by 24 zeros but I'm being charitable here). This works out to roughly 3,352,449 MW of power. It would only take ~7800 years for the Nanosolar plant to replace all other forms of energy but I'm afraid that doesn't count as "game over" quite yet.

Orion on June 30, 2006 9:15 AM
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Orion -- muliply by about 5. PV watts have a capacity factor of around 20% or so. :-)

How *long* will it take nanosolar to build a 430MW factory? If the factory produces 430MW in 2007, then, yes, it may triple US PV production. But if the factory doesn't finish ramping up until 2010, then it'll be a nice big factory but it won't dominate the landscape.

cesium62 on June 30, 2006 6:05 PM
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I need all the information about the amorphous silicon solar cells technology to buy it to establish a project in my country
Thanks

mazin altaee on July 29, 2006 3:09 AM
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Always bear in mind these factors: $/WT, conversion rate, size. All three needs to be there in order for solar technology to be really acceptable. There is a company out there which found the ideal material. I would not label the buzz around Nanosolar as hype but since better companies still need time to grow, so far CIGS may look good. But then again, have not yet seen anything out of Nanosolar

Pete on August 7, 2006 10:38 AM
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I find it hard to belive it will be the largest in the world. Is that right?

homemade solar on August 11, 2006 5:32 AM
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That's what they say. We are staying close to this story, so stay tuned.

Matt Marshall on August 11, 2006 5:37 AM
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---
http://www.siliconbeat.com/entries/2006/06/20/nanosolar_to_build_worlds_largest_solar_cell_factory_in_bay_area_.html

Mark said...

[Title: Another "Green tech" of recycling waste materials into oil. There is another version of this above that utilizes high pressure cooking to do the same. This version is microwave based.

This is of course hardly optimal because it still relies on thermodynamics based pollution and burning afterwards. However, for a form of recycling of wastes it is useful. Oils can be utilized for more than fuel (which requires bad burning and pollution. They can be lubricants as well. So it's rather "green tech" though only on one side, and with still burning things it is hardly green on the other. It leads to something that is burned and creates pollution though is called green?

For lubricants though it is interesting and more sustainable a solution.

The other interesting point is that it is already commercial.

The other interesting point is that it homes in on particular frequencies of specific materials to do its job of recycling into oil. The microwaving based technologies are similar to the microwaving of steel (far cheaper for energy use to do that than to burn things in steel or metals production). However, with ideas mentioned by Benyus that mining could be conducted without the 'heat, beat, and treat' frameworks using microorganisms that extract metal ions from water (that would make extraction and manufacturing of metals possible without burning or mining), even the microwaving of steel may be superfluous. The other wavelength based tecchnologies are mentioned in electromedicine areas of the medical/drugs category. Look for more there as well.]

Green Tech
THE MICROWAVE MAGICIAN

Frank Pringle has found a way to [REMEDIATE WASTES AND] squeeze oil and gas from just about anything

I'm not sure if I'm watching a magic trick, or an invention that will make the cigar-chomping 64-year-old next to me the richest man on the planet. Everything that goes into Frank Pringle's recycling machine—a piece of tire, a rock, a plastic cup—turns to oil and natural gas seconds later. "I've been told the oil companies might try to
assassinate me," Pringle says without sarcasm.


The machine is a microwave emitter that extracts the petroleum and gas hidden inside everyday objects—or at least anything made with hydrocarbons, which, it turns out, is most of what's around you. Every hour, the first commercial version will turn 10 tons of auto waste—tires, plastic, vinyl—into enough natural gas to produce 17
million BTUs of energy (it will use 956,000 of those BTUs to keep itself running).

Pringle created the machine about 10 years ago after he drove by a massive tire fire and thought about the energy being released. He went home and threw bits of a tire in a microwave emitter he'd been working with for another project. It turned to what looked like ash, but a few hours later, he returned and found a black puddle on the floor of the
unheated workshop. Somehow, he'd struck oil.

Or rather, he had extracted it. Petroleum is composed of strings of hydrocarbon molecules. When microwaves hit the tire, they crack the molecular chains and break it into its component parts: carbon black (an ash-like raw material) and hydrocarbon gases, which can be burned or condensed into liquid fuel. Pringle figured that some gases from his microwaved tire had lingered, and the cold air in the shop had
condensed them into diesel. If the process worked on tires, he thought, it should work on anything with hydrocarbons. The trick was in finding the optimum microwave frequency for each material—out of 10 million possibilities.

Pringle has spent 10 years and $1 million homing in on frequencies for hundreds of materials. In 2004 he teamed up with engineer pal Hawk Hogan to take the machine commercial.

Their first order is under construction in Rockford, Illinois. It's a 5.1-million microwave machine the size of small bus called the Hawk, bound for an auto-recycler in Long Island, New York. More deals loom:

The U.S. military may use Hawks in Iraq on waste such as water bottles and food containers. Oil companies are looking to the machines to gasify petroleum trapped in shale. [Talk about using an interesting technology for a bad unsustainable idea! We are without a requirement for mining for oil here, though the oil companies want to use the technology that puts them out of business for further extractions of the oil from the ground! Talk about hubris and brazenness.]

Back at the shop, Pringle is still zapping new materials. A sample labeled "bituminous coal" goes in and, 15 seconds later, Pringle ignites the resulting gas. "You see," he says, "why they might want to kill me."

Mark said...

Tidal Power Can Replace Coal
author: Peswiki

(Putting a Venturi on a Wind or Tidal Turbine to Increase Efficiency)

link:
http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Davidson_Hill_Venturi_by_Tidal_Energy_Pty_Ltd

Since half of Earth's population lives within 50 miles of a coast, harnessing the ocean's energy using such devices can move the world profoundly toward clean, sustainable and local energy production.

Venturi System Optimizes Water Flow Harnessing

A Patented venturi-turbine system by Aaron Davidson and Craig Hill of Tidal Energy Pty Ltd., increases the turbine efficiency as much as 3.84 times compared to the same turbine in free stream without the venturi, making this a world best if not world leading design.

The venturi not the turbine is the key component of the Davidson-Hill design. The design uses the venturi to create faster flow across the turbine increasing turbine efficency and output power of almost any type of turbine.

The venturi concept could also be integrated into wind turbine scenarios, but the company is focusing first on water free-flow scenarios such as tide, ocean currents, and run-of-the-river.

The technology can also be used to pump water, for desalination, and for hydrogen production using electricity to break the covalent bond between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms via the process of electrolysis.

The DHV Turbine can be mounted on a mono pile on the sea bed where surface events such as large ocean swells and sea chop might buffet the turbune, slung under a pontoon on a swing mooring or flown like a kite under water. In each case power is cabled to shore for use.

Since half of Earth's population lives within 50 miles of a coast [1] ( http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=4498 ), harnessing the ocean's energy using such devices can move the world profoundly toward clean, sustainable and local energy production.

D&H plan to keep cost down by the use off-the-shelf generators, readily available in the industry, which are robust in ocean environments; such as are used in the submarine industry.

The company is now commencing the commercialization stage, with an expected price that competes with coal in the range of 3.5 to 6 cents per kw-h.

---

All of these factors would benefit from a clean energy production at the coastal ocean area:

"[1] Half of Earth’s population lives within 50 miles of a coast. [2] Coastal areas supply 90 percent of the world’s fish catch....[3] More than 80 percent of U.S. global trade passes by ship through our harbors. [4] Beaches and coastal waterways are fertile territory for tourism and recreation, the largest sector of the U.S. service industry [for just one country's example]."

Mark said...

From a correspondent of mine, Eric:

"EEStor has developed a storage system for portable electricity that is so secretive they can't post to their own website. By the time I got back to www.eestor.com, the site was gone. I did, however, copy and paste what I found to by blogs. One of these is a link to a company that actually sells these power cells in a hand held drill with a vid that is posted to my blog and a website to direct order the "Coleman" but..the story got very complicated. I ordered the item using Paypal and got an email saying they will ship today. I thought I was dealing with Coleman the camping company but when I enquired,, well..here is their response..............

Dear Eric,

This was manufactured by Team Products. The Coleman Company entered into a licensing agreement with Team Products to manufacture and produce products to be sold under the Coleman brand. These items included the Coleman Foam Flooring, 9-can Turbo Car Cooler, the Cold Heat Soldering Iron, Hands-free Utility Light and Portable Bug Zapper and the Coleman Powermate Cordless Tool Kits, Power Inverters, 16 qt.
12-volt Thermoelectric Coolers, 12-volt Ceramic Heaters, Jumpstarts, Portable Compressors, Buffers, Cordless Drills, Vacuums and Rechargeable Spotlights.

Team Products was responsible for the product, repairs, and customer service on these products.

Unfortunately, Team Products has filed bankruptcy and gone out of business and replacement units and parts are not available.

The warranty service and replacement parts for these products were the responsibility of and handled by Team Products. Coleman has never carried or distributed these products and we have no parts or replacement units available. Coleman also does not have any information on these items. We have no copies of the instruction manuals nor do we have specifications for replacement charging adaptors. If you are needing a replacement charging unit or bulb, you might try a local electronics shop or Radio Shack for a comparable unit.

Replacement tips for the Cold Heat Soldering Irons can be purchased
through www.coldheat.com as that company supplied the Irons to Team Products. To our knowledge, Coldheat does not cover the warranty for the Coleman Coldheat Soldering Iron.

Thank you,

Corinne
Coleman Consumer Service

Original Message Follows: ------------------------

The buzz on the internet is a new product by Coleman

Coleman Flash Cell Ultracapacitor Screwdriver

which I would like to purchase. When will it be on your website? eric [xxxxxx]
..............................................................................................

Anyway, Mark...EEStor is a big story and the video that demonstrates
the Coleman Flash Cell Ultracapacitor Screwdriver is
here:...


http://www.ultracapacitors.org/

The link to ordering is at the bottom of the page. I hope this
doesn't turn out to be a scam but it is a rocky road nonetheless.

Visit Zenn cars in Canada to see more including the ultracapacitor
update for cars...

Mark said...

A world run on water energy, energy larger than any chemical reaction.

And I think that the Brown's Gas process can help us understand the mere chemical nuclear effects interactions seen in 'cold fusion'.

The creation of a instant vacuum is the constant that seems to touch on the zero point energy and allows it to burst through, whether in cold fusion (done with high frequency in the liquids and special sized pellets to create the cavitation sometimes--that's a common theme in all the various places that it's been reported).

The high temp vacuum state when the hydrogen and oxygen burn/implode in Brown's Gas seems to generate the same physics/cold fusion noted effects.

Just an observation. Watch the cold fusion video if you haven't seen it, and think about the chemical/nuclear effects of Brown's gas (for nuclear waste remediation for instance)...

The chemists don't talk to the physicists, and the physicists don't talk to the chemists, though there is a world of interactive chemical/nuclear interactions out there that the academic separations are keeping us in the dark about.

The War Against Cold Fusion [part 1 of 5]
[originally from the Phenomenon Files entitled Heavy Watergate: The War Against Cold Fusion]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTBSp1QvCuw
10 minutes

Mark said...

Well, this is hardly the superheat from cold fusion style reactions, and it is hard to call this optimal as a result. Though if anything, it's insulting to see toys utilizing greener technology when the major car manufactures know they can scale this (like the water cars of the 1990s by inventors that were soon 'dead in prison'--despite having international patents that it worked for larger cars.)

And those water cars of the 1990s of Stan Meyers for instance weren't hydrogen cells, they were split zero-point water engines which were much more efficient than hydrogen cells.

So beware low grade hydrogen cells doubling for the 'real thing'--the cold fusion engines and/or Brown's gas style reactions that are more efficient and much cheaper to make).

-----------

From The Times
February 7, 2008
Futuristic [sic, not so futuristic it's an old technology that is repressed] toy car runs on tap water
The new hydrogen fuel cell powered radio controlled car from Corgi

The new hydrogen fuel cell powered radio controlled car from Corgi
Lewis Smith

A remote-control car produced by the toymaker Corgi is the first household item to be powered by hydrogen fuel cell technology.

The car, called H2GO, uses hydrogen derived from tap water as its fuel and was developed by the Leicester-based company in partnership with Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies, an international firm based in Shanghai that hopes to extend the technology to home appliances.

The hydrogen is separated from oxygen in the tap water via a miniaturised unit powered by a rechargeable battery. A tiny solar panel to charge the battery is an optional extra. The H2GO, which is billed as the first “zero emissions” remote-control toy, went on show at the Nuremberg International Toy Fair. It is expected to sell for £130 from September.

---
http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/gadgets_and_gaming/article3321653.ece

Mark said...

THE DISCOVERY OF BROWN'S GAS

[it is a special 1:2 mixture of oxygen and hydrogen that has different properties than simply burning oxygen and hydrogen together; this particular ratio area generates a vacuum/implosion pressure when ignited instead of an explosion--with a consonant hotter flame as well as a much safer controllable flame; its waste stream is just water vapor; it has strange burning properties of matching its heat to the material in question to be burned, as well as burns hotter than acetylene and with only water as fuel or waste of course. It's clean applications are endless for energy generation (including ambient heat, water remediation, waste remediation, etc.--since clean water is its by-product!). A video showing the different ways the same Brown's Gas mixture can be utilized is featured in the Oxy Hydrogen Process video at the introduction to this 'energy' thread section above.]


Born in 1922 in Bulgaria, Yull Brown went to Australia in 1958 as an electrical engineer with a deep belief that Jules Verne’s vision of "There is fire in water", could be realized. He worked as an unknown laboratory technician until he could develop his own laboratory. By 1978 Professor Brown was being described by The Australian Post as "the most talked about inventor in Australia today". He discovered in the early 1970's a proprietary method of water electrolysis that yields a non-explosive mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gas in the precise atom-to-atom ratio of two volumes of hydrogen to one volume of oxygen. Professor Yull Brown discovered that hydrogen and oxygen gas can be safely mixed (plus or minus 5 percent) if that ration is strictly maintained. The result is Brown's Gas, a hydrogen and oxygen mixture that can be economically generated, compressed, and used safely.

In Professor Brown's process, the hydrogen and oxygen gases are immediately and intimately mixed at exactly the right ratio (the scientific term is “stoichiometric mix"). Brown's Gas is produced within an electrolysis cell, without membranes and with safety, invented by Professor Brown.

One of the design features of the gas generator is that its electrodes consist of inexpensive, ordinary mild steel, unlike many conventional electrodes that employ expensive, exotic noble metals. (Noble metals are chemically inert or inactive, especially toward oxygen).

There are extraordinary characteristics of Brown's Gas when produced by the patented generator. The properties of the gas have been the subject of considerable international interest and various research projects and third party reports.

The first Australian Patent 590309 was granted to Yull Brown in 1977. U.S. Patent 4014777 was granted in 1977 and U.S. Patent 4081656 was granted in 1978. Yull Brown has the intellectual rights to Brown's Gas. These rights are his for fifty years and are far from expired. While a person could build a machine from the original patent, they would not be allowed to produce Brown's Gas without Yull Brown's written approval, which has been exclusively granted to Better World Technology for the United States. Many of the larger industrialized countries have granted patents or offer protection through international treaties. (A strategy of patent enhancement that may further extend the life of U.S. patents is presently in development.)

With the initial granting of patents, emphasis was placed on documentation and analysis of the properties, behavior and safety of the gas. Commercial development of the widespread potential applications was not a principal focus until 1986.

BROWN'S GAS PROPERTIES

The raw materials for the production of Brown's Gas are water and electricity. One kwh of electricity produces approximately 340 liters of gas. Virtually any amount of Brown's Gas can be produced in any volume through cells in series, cells miniaturized, or cells enlarged.

One unit of water yields 1,860 units of gas. The inverse applies as well. Upon ignition, Brown's Gas implodes. When implosion of the gas mixture occurs, the result is a 1,859 unit vacuum with one unit of water.

Tests have demonstrated various potential applications for pumps and motors operating as a result of the vacuum created by igniting the gas in a closed chamber. The end result of the implosion is always water. The effect of the gas's self implosion is to create a nearly perfect vacuum, almost instantaneously. The vacuum can be generated in a device without moving parts.

A standard torch, such as used in oxy/acetylene welding, can be used to burn Brown's Gas. Ignition is achieved with a hot spark. There are remarkable properties to the flame that are considerably different from a flame produced by mechanically combining oxygen and hydrogen gases. It appears that the unique nature of the extreme thermal energy produced by Brown's Gas is from interactive effects with the particular material being heated.

Hydrogen burning in an oxygen environment should theoretically reach a temperature of between 2210 and 2900 degrees centigrade. Tungsten was vaporized (sublimated) which requires a temperature of 5900 degrees centigrade, considerably above the flame temperature. A section of tungsten rod (1/8 inches in diameter) was sublimated in about 30 seconds.

The flames properties are different from those of conventional welding gases. For example, the flame is exceedingly pure and the flame results from the burning of the gas without the addition of oxygen, as required for acetylene. When the gas flame is directed to a fire brick, the contact area quickly reaches a condition of white heat and then begins to melt. Such results are not observable with conventional welding gases. In various demonstrations of the burning of Brown's Gas, holes were thermally bored through bricks, bricks were welded together with the material melting to an igneous rock similar to volcanic material, ceramic tiles were pierced by the flame, and steel was welded to brick.

An observable characteristic of the implosive flame is that it concentrates heat into a small area. Various independent consultants have tested this aspect by holding a piece of mild steel (six inches long) in one bare hand, and using the flame, cutting an inch or more from the other end. The cutting operation is completed before heat is significantly conducted through the metal. Welders familiar with conventional welding devices would assume the absolute requirement of asbestos gloves for such an experiment.

The intense heat concentration of the flame is immensely important in welding certain metals where the conducted overflow heat can weaken the metal adjacent to a weld. A typical example would involve aluminum welding. With Brown's Gas, the heat energy is concentrated into a small area where it performs its function without a wide dispersal of the applied heat. In applications which involve roll cutting steel plate, the smoothness of the cut is significant, in part because of this characteristic of greater heat concentration.

THIRD PARTY STUDIES AND OBSERVATIONS

There have been supportive studies and conclusions reached about Professor Brown's discovery by various independent authorities and consultants. Some of those are summarized below.

Dr. C.D. Ellyett, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Newcastle University, N.S.W., Australia, prepared an independent technical assessment of Professor Brown's technology in 1986. Dr. Ellyett has a double masters in chemistry and physics and a Ph.D. in physics. He was Foundation Professor of Physics at the University of Newcastle from 1964 to 1980,. specializing in geophysics. He is the author of 64 articles in various professional journals and has been consultant to the U.S. government in upper atmospheric and space physics. He has lectured in the USA Sweden, Antarctica, South Africa, Holland, Canada, Singapore, the Philippines, West Germany and Finland.

In preparing his observations of the Brown’s Gas Generator, Dr. Ellyett went through several demonstrations of the technology, reviewed the U.S. patent, and also reviewed three reports prepared by Dr. John Bockris, various technical reports supplied by a large Australian industrial firm (prepared in 1976), a report by Caltex Oil (1979), and two Australian consultant’s report (1979 and 1983).

Dr. Ellyett noted that Professor Brown's Gas was considerably different in properties from a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. He wrote: "The resulting differences are so unexpected that they raise initial skepticism in many technically trained people, including the present author, but the weight of demonstration forces its acceptance.

"It should be stated here that the study of uses and applications has gone ahead of a complete scientific understanding of all facets of this process. Such a study will probably take several years to complete. However, enough has now been demonstrated to justify the techniques being commercialized immediately, and the first country to do so may in the long run achieve an enormous advantage in many technical processes.

"Brown's Gas is burnt in a blowtorch. The oxygen combines with the hydrogen itself, and as much energy is released on recombination as was needed to produce the initial dissociation. This results in a high temperature. The product is water.”

"Surrounding air and its associated moisture is excluded so the temperature is not lowered due to this factor, as it can be with other flames. However, at the high temperatures reached, some of the resulting water is again probably dissociated and hydrogen will interact to varying degrees with the material being heated. The extent of creation of atomic hydrogen and oxygen is presently unknown, but complex reactions occur within the flame and between the flame and the solid, so that some materials being heated reach greater temperatures than others".

Dr. Ellyett, in reporting on various welding applications of the gas wrote: "Metal welding, including aluminum, become simple processes. Metal welds are particularly clean, due to the correct hydrogen/oxygen balance".

Regarding the stability of the gas, he wrote: "It is stable and non-explosive at any reasonable pressure, and has been approved for manufacture and use by the New South Wales Department of Explosives. Any simple mixture of the two gases would probably explode if it was significantly compressed, but Brown's Gas is stable in this regard".

Regarding the self-implosion characteristic of the gas, Dr. Ellyett noted, "If a spark plug is inserted in the gas and a spark passed, the gas immediately collapses to water with an 1860 to 1 reduction in volume. This creates a near vacuum and opens the way to many interesting, practical uses, such as the pumping of water or other fluids in emergency situations, using the surrounding atmosphere to move the fluid".

Dr. Ellyett also wrote: "The gas generator can produce the gas rapidly as it is required. This obviates the need for heavy storage cylinders, with all the cost factors of transport to and from the working site.

"Alternatively, if storage is required, it can be achieved quite simply in the field. Non-continuous generators of electricity, such as solar photovoltaic cells or windmills, could create the Brown's Gas by electrolysis of water, and the gas could be stored as a source of energy for use at any future time. This would be particularly advantageous in remote areas, and would eliminate the use of storage batteries.

"Study of the calculations for the production of Brown's Gas by electrolysis indicates a highly efficient process; 1 kWh of electricity producing 340 liters of gas. Direct current is used for the electrolysis, so there is a small energy loss in converting from alternating current. The electrolysis itself is considered to be approximately 95% efficient, so the overall efficiency from an alternating current source is calculated to be in excess of 90%. The cost of Brown's Gas appears from observation and calculation to be many times cheaper than the cost of obtaining a similar quantity of bottled oxyacetylene or oxyhydrogen gases on-site."

Dr. John Bockris prepared comments following a comprehensive review and demonstration of Professor Brown's generator and the various heat and implosion characteristics of the gas. Dr. Bockris has a PH.D. from the University of London who was appointed to the Department of Chemistry at Imperial College, London in 1945. He organized a team of professors in electrode processes at Imperial College that resulted in significant new contributions to the field. In 1953 he was appointed a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he formed and led the Electrochemistry Laboratory and another team that made additional advances in the field of electrochemistry. In 1972 he became a professor at The Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia, where he continued his studies in photo-electrochemistry and the potential for a hydrogen economy.

Dr. Bockris is a founding member of the International Society of Electrochemistry and the International Association of Hydrogen Energy. He is an associate editor of four international energy journals, the author of several hundred research papers and some dozen books. He is widely considered a world authority on hydrogen and its potential use as an energy source.

Dr. Bockris prepared several research reports on Professor Brown's invention. In his July 1977 report, he observed the following: "I witnessed the welding of stainless steel. I also saw the hydrogen/oxygen mixture which came from the generator driving an internal combustion engine."

Dr. Bockris concluded in an August 1977 report, "I should think that a company making this device could take over the entire welding market in a few years, possible worldwide."

He continued to write about Professor Brown's invention in a report in 1978. He stated that, "there was no doubt whatsoever that the things which Mr. Yull Brown talks about are genuine." This was a letter to the Livestock & Grain Producer's Association of New South Wales. He had been asked to comment on the potential of using Professor Brown's technology for running tractors and farm machinery. He wrote: "As a Scientist who operates largely overseas, and has spent most of his life in the UK and the U.S., I am utterly flabbergasted that Mr. Yull Brown's inventions have lasted so long without their being exploited by Australian concerns. The general situation of Mr. Brown's inventions-the production of hydrogen from water, and the use of hydrogen as a fuel--is almost certainly some big part of the future..."

The Australian Welding Research Association issued a formal report on Professor Brown's Gas generator and its applications in 1977. The Association's study, which reviewed operational costs relative to oxyacetylene operational costs, stated: "In terms of costs of operation, even when an electrical inefficient welding transformer is employed, (Professor Brown's generator) is less expensive to operate than oxyacetylene..." The Welding Research Association indicated that "the production of explosive gas mixtures poses potential dangers. It is observed, however, that these have been given considerable attention in the design of the hydrogen/oxygen apparatus, which has received the approval of the appropriate authorities in New South Wales..."

Gerard P. Martins is a ten-year professor of metallurgy at the Colorado School of Mines. Mr. Martins prepared this report based in his visit and observation of a Brown's Gas demonstration of May 16, 1986;

Characteristics and Interactions of Flame with Solid Materials

A. A piece of 1/16" thick mild steel sheet was cut by 'burn through' of the steel as the torch was moved transversely across the sheet.

B. The flame was directed onto the surface of a refractory brick. An intense, bright spot was produced over the impingement region between the flame and the brick. Localized melting occurred and a glazed spot was observed on the brick.

C. The end of a piece of 1/8" diameter high alumina rod (melting point 2020 degrees C.), supplied by me, was contacted with the flame. The end 'melted' back to form a globule of molten material.

D. The end of a 1/8" wide strip of 0.010" thick tantalum (melting point 2996 degrees C.) metal sheet, also supplied by me, was contacted with the flame. A liquid phase was produced as the end of the strip 'melted' back.

"From the above qualitative observations, I concluded that the temperature, which was produced when the flame contacted these materials, could be as high as 6000 degrees C. based on the observations with tantalum, (d). The work melted as it appears in the above observation is used cautiously, since it is possible that chemical compounds could be formed during the contact with the flame, thus resulting in a melting point different to that of the original material. In addition, high luminosity was only produced when the flame contacted the surface of the materials tested."

Clifford E. Sawyer prepared a report on Professor Brown's Gas mixture in May 1986. Mr. Sawyer has national certificates in engineering and sciences and graduated from the Military College of Science prior to active service with the Canadian Army. He spent 22 years with the Ford Motor Company with broad manufacturing and senior management responsibilities. He also spent five years as vice president of industrial development at Brascan Ltd., with responsibility for the diversification of the Toronto-based multinational energy company. He is presently the president of Wespac Planning Corporation, with consulting assignments related to strategic planning and project evaluation for various companies, government agencies, and ministries. He serves as director for various publicly listed resources and manufacturing companies.

Mr. Sawyer observed Professor Brown's Gas demonstration over a two-week period. His report made the following comments: "In terms of usable energy sources, hydrogen offers a practical potential of more than 50,000 BTUs per pound compared, for example, to most coal, in the range of 10,000 to 12,000 BTUs per pound, and gasoline, in the 16,000 BTU-per-pound range. The problem which, in the past, has inhibited wider use of hydrogen as a viable fuel has concerned its volatility and practical problems involved in preventing an accidental mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the work area.

"There is convincing evidence that the combination of these two high potential energy gases has now been accomplished in Professor Brown's Gas to make available a safe and widely usable source of energy."

"The range of potential applications of the gas as an alternative energy source is extensive and will require considerable further research before all the opportunities can be described.”

"Furthermore, it is likely that the effective utilization of the amazing implosion effect of Brown's Gas will require the development and engineering of some entirely new devices.”

"However, additional time and expense for research and development is not anticipated in the case of flame welding and metal fabrication applications, where the very unusual qualities are believed to have the potential to impact the present practices and associated economics in a very substantial fashion.”

"The utilization of the gas as a source of process heat could be accomplished within a shortened period of time because standard types of welding and cutting equipment can be used as is or easily adapted.”

"From the reported direct experience of users of Brown's Gas in Australia and New Zealand, it is apparent that all the regular flame welding and gas cutting functions are feasible.”

"In addition, there are important cost saving advantages, particularly over the oxyacetylene and similar systems. For example, the delivered price of acetylene includes high distribution and delivery costs. It is premature to discuss specific policies with respect to pricing and distribution for Professor Brown's Gas. However, it is anticipated that the use of water and electricity as the 'raw materials' and the probability that the gas will be generated at, or close to, the point of use, should facilitate a reasonably competitive and profitable cost structure.”

"Another key advantage concerns safety. By nature, manufacture of the other commercial gases face problems of instability and are vulnerable to explosion after receiving the slightest shock. These gases are heavier than air, and if a leak occurs, the highly explosive gases will collect around the low point on the floor or in stairwells and are easily set off by a spark. In contrast, Brown's Gas is lighter than air and will easily disperse into the ambient air without help.”

"Finally, in terms of quality work standards, the cut edges produced by the gas are similar to those using oxyacetylene cutting systems. The capability to produce the same heat reactions underwater without creating special atmosphere bubbles will be of great significance to the field of underwater construction engineering."

Ronald B. Davis has had the opportunity to work as Professor Brown's assistant for approximately six years in Australia. He has an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Sydney University and a masters degree from the University of New South Wales. He was a visiting professor to the University of California, Berkeley, and is presently a lecturer in mathematics at the University of New South Wales. Mr. Davis made the following personal remarks about Professor Brown and his achievement; "Some of the applications of the implosion action of Brown's Gas that could be researched include pumping, marine motors, the transportation ability potential as a primary fuel, and an energy source for rocket propulsion. Safe storage of hydrogen in a bi-atomic state with oxygen as a self-contained fuel is a scientific break through that will fuel transportation on the ground, under the sea, in the air, and into space in future generations.

"In my opinion, Yull Brown could be called a 'living treasure' as described by the Japanese of their contemporaries having skills par excellence. Yull has the ability to mentally visualize very complicated atomic models at variance to the Bohr model, and to ‘see' interactions which would require a new look at quantum physics."

SAFETY

The gas burns with a clear flame. The gas generator supplies gas at 280 - 320 k PA (40 to 60 psi).

The flame contains hydrogen and oxygen and no other elements. The end product after burning = water (only H20).

The gas burns through a variety of nozzle sizes and presently can have a flame length of up to 400 mm.

INTERACTIVE COMBUSTION EFFECT

Theoretical flame temperature is 2,210 to 2,900 degrees C. However, it changes with different applications. Tests have been made which exceed 6,000 degrees C. Further tests have been conducted indicating in excess of 8,400 degrees C. (8,400 C. = 15,152 F.).

The flame produced when Brown's Gas is ignited under 40 to 60 psi pressure is initially yellow in color and quickly reverts to a neutral blue cone with a long extension of a pale red/blue flame. There are several distinct regions, called mantles, within the flame's sheath. The remarkable property of this flame is that it is NOT formed as a set of explosions, but is formed as a set of implosions. Consequently, the classical theory of combustion products, highest temperature region and other specifics must be revised.

The central blue cone is the region separating the inner sustained vacuum from the continuously forming implosion produced and it is in this narrow hand that the novel combustion situation is sustained.

All fuel types, including gasoline, LPG, butane, propane, diesel fuel and natural gas have constant combustion or burn temperatures. Brown's Gas flame, upon application to an element or compound of elements, changes its temperature due to an interactive combustion property. This is the unique characteristic of Brown's Gas.

There is no theoretical temperature limit to the applied flame as the environment of the combustion will determine the extension of incremental calorific energy supplied. The outer mantles surrounding the blue cone region prevent oxygen from interfering in the combustion process. In fact, the mantles located within the central hot region form an inert substance as found in modern TIG and MIG welders.

In that each material, such as soil, rocks, metals or liquids have a different atomic makeup, each material will burn, liquefy or sublimate (turn into a gas form) at its own respective temperature. In each case, when Brown's Gas is administered to a material, the temperature of the Brown's Gas changes. To date, the capability to define the high end temperature of generated by the gas has not been possible due to the lack of appropriate testing equipment.

The flame produced from this gas is capable of drilling holes in high-temperature refractory products in seconds. It turns brick to glass.

To illustrate the temperature range, it is possible, using the same gas flame pressure (with no change in flow rate) to both (1) successfully weld aluminum sheet without a gas envelope at 660 degrees C. and (2) sublimate (vaporize) tungsten at approximately 6,000 degrees C. Again, this is accomplished in seconds with the same flame with no increase in volume. (See the Video tape).

The intriguing explanation for the large range of calorific response when the flame is applied to different materials is governed by the rate of mono-atomic absorption of hydrogen on the surface of these materials. For example, when the flame is applied to aluminum, white heat isn't the immediate reaction as it is when applied to brick. Instead, the flame may be shown to produce water on the aluminum by condensing the steam in the mantles on this hard conductive surface. The reasons for this low temperature reaction are three-fold.

A) The flame temperature is not high in its natural state. B) The aluminum is a good conductor of heat. C) The hydrogen in the heated region is only mildly absorbed into the aluminum.

However, when the flame is applied to tungsten, the heated metal surface readily absorbs mono-atomic hydrogen, thus releasing the additional calorific energy obtained from the interactive division and absorption as subsequent surfaces of the metal are exposed to the applied flame. The process accelerates under the high temperature build-up, coupled with the shielding effect of the surrounding mantles of water which, incidentally, are poor absorbers of hydrogen.

The salient features of this combustion process are that nascent hydrogen is readily absorbed in most elements, and especially when this reaction occurs with a neutral flame and water is re-cycles through dissociation caused at elevated temperatures within that environment.

CONVERSION

DC power conversion efficiency to thermal energy of the produced gas is 95%. AC to DC conversion may be as high as 98%; so the maximum efficiency of the gas production from AC supply is 91.3%. A focal factor of this system is its ability to produce gas immediately (and cheaply) on demand as required. Inherent problems of storage and loss by leakage are not relevant. The neutral flame of the gas is important for welding and also as a clean heat source of energy capable of replacing fossil fuels.

ULTRA HIGH VACUUM

Totally new vacuum technology is now possible using the implosion of Brown's Gas. The vacuum is produced with no contaminants whatsoever. No other technique for producing a vacuum of such a high purity in such a short period of time with inexpensive equipment exists. Cost of operation is an order of magnitude below existing vacuum systems.

IMPLOSION

If Brown's Gas is exposed to a heat source, it will expand. Implosion of this expanded gas will utilize atmospheric pressure. Numerous pumping applications and the development of atmospheric implosion motors are the result.

Implosion, as a single reaction, only occurs with this gas and is impossible with other known substances!

When Brown's Gas burns, it turns into water. When it is produced from water using electrolysis, it expands 1,860 to 1.

Implosion is achieved with a high frequency spark of 9,000 Volts or higher. When subjected to electric ignition. it uniquely implodes (patented in March, 1990 after 8 years process time) producing a near perfect vacuum. Upon implosion, vacuum is 1,859. The remaining "1" becomes once again a pure form of water. Only a low decibel "ping" accompanies the implosion.

The speed of detonation (or burn rate) is greater than 3,600 meters per second. There is no contraction - expansion effect when the gas is imploded only contraction. Little heat is lost to the equipment in an implosion cycle. The low cost of gas production than ensures an inexpensive method for production of ultra high vacuum.

BROWN'S GAS COST FORMULA

1 Liter H20 expands to 1,860 Liters of Brown's Gas.

1 kWh creates = 340 Liters of Brown's Gas.

1,860 divided by 340 = 5.47 kWh.

Example.- 5.47 kWh X 0.084 cents = 0.459 cents for 1,860 Liters of Brown's Gas.

(NOTE: Cost per kWh depending upon locality).

Losses are dependent upon where DC energy is acquired.

More information at Better World Technologies
http://www.bwt.org/

---
http://www.pytela.com/int_ene_BrownsGas.html

Mark said...

More water/hydropower issues, and some secrets of getting more energy from water out of specific architectural/technical design issues of water engineering projects that can encourage water's special velocity properties:

Regarding Schauberger's ideas and patents long before there was a Nazi Party that stole him and these ideas for Hitler's use:

Dynamic Hydropower

The "suction turbine" or "jet turbine" of Viktor Schauberger

Hydropower engineering, up to this day, is almost exclusively concerned with two variables, one being the altitude differential between head water and turbine and the other the quantity of water that can be brought to flow through the turbines.

A third important variable, the velocity of flow of water, is generally not thought to be important. It is taken into consideration only as the velocity resulting from the release of water pressure connected to and dependent on altitude differential but not as an important factor in its own right. In fact, current design of hydropower facilities normally excludes utilization of the dynamic energy potential inherent in the free flow of water. A dam destroys this natural energy potential by bringing the water from its dynamic state of flow to a static state, a complete absence of motion.

If we study the writings of Viktor Schauberger and Ludwig Herbrand, we find that the energy inherent in the free and unhindered flow of water may be potentially much greater than that obtainable from the exclusive use of pressure resulting from altitude differential.

A normal flow of water rather than an altitude-induced pressure, has been used in mills and old blacksmith hammerworks of the pre-industrial era.

Schauberger

In recent times, it was Viktor Schauberger, the Austrian inventor and genial observer of nature's ways who first advocated the use of increased water velocity rather than water pressure for the production of hydroelectric power.

He obtained a patent for what he termed a jet turbine (Strahlturbine) as early as the year 1930. (1)

...

[And we're hardly dependent upon bandying about Schauberger. Another person noted a similar hydropower phenomenon regarding velocity of water as Schauberger, so Schauberger has nothing to do with anything I guess since the phenomenon hardly "originated" with him.]

Herbrand

Another instance of the use of the dynamic powers of flowing water has been documented by Ludwig Herbrand, a German engineer who as a student in the mid 1930's was called to evaluate and calculate the parameters of some generators and exciter units that had recently been installed in the Rheinfelden power station, as well as to design electrical overload protection and relevant switching mechanisms for these generators.

He was also required to compare the generators with those of another power station that had been described in an article of a specialized magazine.

Much to the dismay of the then young and inquisitive engineering student, it seemed that the generators under examination were supplying more electrical energy than they should have, according to accepted [incomplete] theory. One of the generators of the Rheinfelden power plant, with 50 cubic meters of water per second and an altitude differential of only one meter supplied just as much power as a generator in near Ryburg-Schwörstadt, which had a capacity of 250 cubic meters of water per second and an altitude differential from head waters to turbine of 12 meters! (3)

That fact was confirmed by prof. Finzi, the designer of the turbines and generators, saying to young Herbrand:

"Do not worry about this. It is correct. The generator has been working without problems for some time now. Make the calculations backwards and you will see for yourself. We are electrical engineers. Why, those other problems are not ours to solve, we leave them to the water people. We have repeated our measurements and the generator's yield of power is exactly as specified. The only thing is - no one knows about this." (4)

Herbrand was soon drafted into the army and World War II did not allow him to pursue the matter further.

Only much later, in the 1970s and 1980s, Herbrand came back to the calculations made for his engineering exams and tried - so far without success - to interest industry and government in this different and more efficient use of hydropower.

...


How to increase electrical output

There are two basic variables in hydropower engineering that determine electrical output. They are the amount of water available and the velocity of flow. The first variable, the amount of water available, depends very much on location and is generally not subject to increase by human intervention.

It is the second variable, the velocity of the water's flow, which can be manipulated in many ways. Apart from increasing water pressure, which is a comparatively inefficient way to increase flow velocity, this parameter can be influenced by other, more simple and more cost effective engineering solutions.

It is a common principle in rocketry to increase the velocity of flow of the hot exhaust gases by a restriction of the path of flow of these gases. This is called the jet principle and has been used successfully for decades.

The same principle can be used to increase the velocity of a flow of water, such as a river. In fact, where a river is forced, by the natural configuration of terrain, to flow through a narrow gorge, the velocity at the narrowest point is much higher than it is before and after the river's passage through the gorge. This effect can be utilized by finding a natural gorge or by artificially narrowing a river's bed so as to bring about an increase in water velocity.

Another way to increase velocity of flow in water is to promote the formation of a longitudinal vortex. This is a rolling or spinning motion, the axis of which coincides with the direction of flow of the water. Such vortices have the property of causing an increase of the velocity of flow, and a contraction of the diameter of the space needed by the body of water. They also cause a lowering of the water's temperature and thus an increase in its density. (The highest specific density of water is reached at a temperature of + 4° C.)

Water has a natural tendency to form vortices, especially if its flow is accelerated by some external influence such as gravity. We can observe this by noting the swirl with which a full bathtub or sink or any other container full of water empties, if the water is forced to flow through a pipe connected to a hole in the bottom of the container. But even a simple water faucet, releasing a flow of water, will show this same phenomenon if the water flows relatively undisturbed, without bubbles or agitation. As the water picks up speed, it forms a distinctly funnel-shaped vortex right before our eyes.

A confirmation of this tendency of vortices to increase water velocity (or in other words to decrease resistance to the water's flow) comes from experiments performed in 1952 at the Technical College in Stuttgart by Prof. Franz Pöpel and Viktor Schauberger.

The experiments were performed with pipes of different materials and different shapes, to determine if either materials or shapes had an influence on the resistance of the flow of water in pipes.

It seems that best results were achieved with copper pipes, and that this material caused less resistance to the water's flow than even the smooth glass pipes used as comparison. But the most important datum emerging from these experiments is, that by using a certain spiral configured pipe, based on the form of the kudu antelope's horn, the friction in this pipe decreased with an increase in velocity and at a certain point, the water flowed with a negative resistance. (5)

Theory and practice

The best theory is not worth the paper it is written on, if it cannot be put into practice. We shall therefore examine the practical utilization of these principles in hydropower engineering.

The object is to increase the velocity of the flow of water to such a degree that the resulting jet will release more kinetic energy than conventional utilization of water pressure achieved with comparable means.

[how to do it] Step 1:....

[to make the point short, I cut out a lot though you can find this article on the internet if you want to read more]

--
http://www.hasslberger.com/tecno/tecno_2.htm

written by

Josef Hasslberger
Rome, Italy
December 1993

References:

1. Patent granted to Viktor Schauberger by Austrian Patent Office, number 117 749 of 10 May 1930

2. Implosion nr. 58, pg 31 article (unsigned) "Kann Energie wachsen?"

3. Hasslberger, Josef Understanding Water Power
EXPLORE! Vol. 4 number 1, 1993

4. Herbrand, Ludwig "Das Geheimnis der Wasserkraft", 1. Nov. 1990, S. 9

5. Alexandersson, Olof "Living Water" Gateway Books, Bath, UK

6. Schauberger, Viktor "Das Problem der Donauregulierung" in Implosion nr. 23

7. Hasslberger, Josef A New Beginning for Thermodynamics EXPLORE! Vol. 4 number 5, 1993

8. Hasslberger, Josef Vortex - The Natural Movement EXPLORE! Vol. 3 number 5, 1992


-----

another:

Viktor Schauberger
(30.6.1885 - 25.9.1958)

Schauberger could be called the father of implosion technology.

The implosion principle is of course diametrically opposite to what today's explosion oriented technology utilises.

Implosion has to do with a self sustaining vortex flow of any liquid or gaseous medium, which has a concentrating, ordering effect and which decreases the temperature of the medium, in opposition to the dictates of 'modern' thermodynamics.

See my two articles Vortex - the Natural Movement and A new Beginning for Thermodynamics.

Viktor Schauberger constructed water sluices for the transport of logs which, with controlled water temperature and vortex flow were able to transport even logs of a high specific weight that normally cannot be transported on water.

He proposed a more effective means of utilising hydroelectric power by his jet turbine (see my article Dynamic Hydropower).

In the Second World War he was forced to develop his concepts of vortex dynamics at the service of Hitler's SS and he is said to have produced working prototypes of levitating disks using these principles. At the end of the war, some of the remains of his work fell into Russian and partly into American military hands. [The Nick Cook book, The Race for Zero Point, is a good start I think on this expansion of global 'black projects'. Cook is an award winning journalist for Jane's Defense Weekly and a co-founder of the New Energy Congress after he published his book that explored lots of technological repression as a subtheme in these black projects.]

After the war, Schauberger worked on a concept of water-based power generation through vortex action, in a closed cycle.

In 1958 he was attracted to the USA, by promises of a possibility to get his technology further developed and applied. He was thoroughly debriefed, his writings and prototypes were kept, and he apparently had to sign a promise not to promote his technology further, in order to be able to return home to Austria.

Five days after his return to Austria - on 25 September 1958 - he died, a broken man.

[I have heard two stories of his death.]

A book that details some of the life story of Schauberger was written by Olof Alexandersson.

The title is "Living Water" ISBN 0 936551 57 X distributed in the UK by Gateway Books (The Hollies, Wellow, Bath BA2 8QJ) and in the US by The Great Tradition (11270 Clayton Creek Road, Lower Lake, CA 95457).

The German edition of the book is entitled "Lebendes Wasser" ISBN 3 85068 377 X and is available from Ennsthaler Verlag, A 4402 Steyer.

Another source of information about Schauberger is the magazine "Implosion" (in German), published quarterly by Verein für Implosionsforschung und Anwendung, Windschlägerstr. 58, D 77652 Offenburg. This magazine is a precious source for many of Schauberger's original writings (in German).

--
http://www.hasslberger.com/tecno/tecno_8.htm

========


This implosion based energy is a 'green theme' mentioned several times in the introduction to this thread on energy at Commodity Ecology.

Lots of examples of implosion based energy as more efficient and clean at the link where there are some films demonstrating some now:

http://commodityecology.blogspot.com/2007/06/34-energy.html

Mark said...

[using microwave radiation in a resonating superconducting cavity and other emf to create resonating thrust due to strange properties of relativity; this is a prototype idea and the actual materials issues are problematic, though an interesting use of harnessing a force that most physicists attempt to demote in their constructive work, instead here it is enhanced:

"The key, says Shawyer, is to make the cavity superconducting. Without electrical resistance, currents in the cavity walls will not generate heat. Engineers in Germany working on the next generation of particle accelerators have achieved a Q of several billion using superconducting cavities. If Shawyer can match that performance, he calculates that the thrust from a microwave engine could be as high as 30,000 newtons per kilowatt - enough to lift a large car."]


Relativity drive: The end of wings and wheels?
08 September 2006

www.newscientisttech.com/article/mg19125681.400;jsessionid=NMGHKBGMCGMM

Justin Mullins

Web Links
Shawyer's theory paper (pdf)

Look, no wings! The trip from London to Havant on the south coast of England is like travelling through time. I sit in an air-conditioned train, on tracks first laid 150 years ago, passing roads that were known to the Romans. At one point, I pick out a canal boat, queues of cars and the trail from a high-flying jet - the evolution of mechanised travel in a single glance.

But evolution has a habit of springing surprises. Waiting at my destination is a man who would put an end to mechanised travel. Roger Shawyer has developed an engine with no moving parts that he believes can replace rockets and make trains, planes and automobiles obsolete. "The end of wings and wheels" is how he puts it. It's a bold claim. Read Shawyer’s theory paper here (pdf format).

Of course, any crackpot can rough out plans for a warp drive. What they never show you is evidence that it works. Shawyer is different. He has built a working prototype to test his ideas, and as a respected spacecraft engineer he has persuaded the British government to fund his work. Now organisations from other parts of the world, including the US air force and the Chinese government, are beating a path to his tiny company.

The device that has sparked their interest is an engine that generates thrust purely from electromagnetic radiation - microwaves to be precise - by exploiting the strange properties of relativity. It has no moving parts, and releases no exhaust or noxious emissions. Potentially, it could pack the punch of a rocket in a box the size of a suitcase. It could one day replace the engines on almost any spacecraft. More advanced versions might allow cars to lift from the ground and hover. It could even lead to aircraft that will not need wings at all. I can't help thinking that it sounds too good to be true.

When I meet Shawyer, he turns out to be reassuringly normal. His credentials are certainly impressive. He worked his way up through the aerospace industry, designing and building navigation and communications equipment for military and commercial satellites, before becoming a senior aerospace engineer at Matra Marconi Space (later part of EADS Astrium) in Portsmouth, near where he now lives. He was also a consultant to the Galileo project, Europe's satellite navigation system, which engineers are now testing in orbit and for which he negotiated the use of the radio frequencies it needed.

Dangerous idea
With that pedigree, you'd imagine Shawyer would be someone the space industry would have listened to. Far from it. While at Astrium, Shawyer proposed that the company develop his idea. "I was told in no uncertain terms to drop it," he says. "This came from the very top."

What Shawyer had in mind was a replacement for the small thrusters conventional satellites use to stay in orbit. The fuel they need makes up about half their launch weight, and also limits a satellite's life: once it runs out, the vehicle drifts out of position and must be replaced. Shawyer's engine, by contrast, would be propelled by microwaves generated from solar energy. The photovoltaic cells would eliminate the fuel, and with the launch weight halved, satellite manufacturers could send up two craft for the price of one, so you would only need half as many launches.

So why the problem? Shawyer argues that for companies investing billions in rockets and launch sites, a new technology that leads to fewer launches and longer-lasting satellites has little commercial appeal. By the same token, a company that offers more for less usually wins in the end, so Shawyer's idea may have been seen as too speculative. Whatever the reason, in 2000, he resigned to go it alone.

Surprisingly, Shawyer's disruptive technology rests on an idea that goes back more than a century. In 1871 the physicist James Clerk Maxwell worked out that light should exert a force on any surface it hits, like the wind on a sail. This so-called radiation pressure is extremely weak, though. Last year, a group called The Planetary Society attempted to launch a solar sail called Cosmos 1 into orbit. The sail had a surface area of about 600 square metres. Despite this large area, about the size of two tennis courts, its developers calculated that sunlight striking it would produce a force of 3 millinewtons, barely enough to lift a feather on the surface of the Earth. Still, it would be enough to accelerate a craft in the weightlessness of space, though unfortunately the sail was lost after launch. NASA is also interested in solar sails, but has never launched one. Perhaps that shouldn't be a surprise, as a few millinewtons isn't enough for serious work in space.

But what if you could amplify the effect? That's exactly the idea that Shawyer stumbled on in the 1970s while working for a British military technology company called Sperry Gyroscope. Shawyer's expertise is in microwaves, and when he was asked to come up with a gyroscopic device for a guidance system he instead came up with the idea for an electromagnetic engine. He even unearthed a 1950s paper by Alex Cullen, an electrical engineer at University College London, describing how electromagnetic energy might create a force. "It came to nothing at the time, but the idea stuck in my head," he says.

In his workshop, Shawyer explains how this led him to a way of producing thrust. For years he has explored ways to confine microwaves inside waveguides, hollow tubes that trap radiation and direct it along their length. Take a standard copper waveguide and close off both ends. Now create microwaves using a magnetron, a device found in every microwave oven. If you inject these microwaves into the cavity, the microwaves will bounce from one end of the cavity to the other. According to the principles outlined by Maxwell, this will produce a tiny force on the end walls. Now carefully match the size of the cavity to the wavelength of the microwaves and you create a chamber in which the microwaves resonate, allowing it to store large amounts of energy.

What's crucial here is the Q-value of the cavity - a measure of how well a vibrating system prevents its energy dissipating into heat, or how slowly the oscillations are damped down. For example, a pendulum swinging in air would have a high Q, while a pendulum immersed in oil would have a low one. If microwaves leak out of the cavity, the Q will be low. A cavity with a high Q-value can store large amounts of microwave energy with few losses, and this means the radiation will exert relatively large forces on the ends of the cavity. You might think the forces on the end walls will cancel each other out, but Shawyer worked out that with a suitably shaped resonant cavity, wider at one end than the other, the radiation pressure exerted by the microwaves at the wide end would be higher than at the narrow one.

Key is the fact that the diameter of a tubular cavity alters the path - and hence the effective velocity - of the microwaves travelling through it. Microwaves moving along a relatively wide tube follow a more or less uninterrupted path from end to end, while microwaves in a narrow tube move along it by reflecting off the walls. The narrower the tube gets, the more the microwaves get reflected and the slower their effective velocity along the tube becomes. Shawyer calculates the microwaves striking the end wall at the narrow end of his cavity will transfer less momentum to the cavity than those striking the wider end (see Diagram). The result is a net force that pushes the cavity in one direction. And that's it, Shawyer says.

Hang on a minute, though. If the cavity is to move, it must be pushed by something. A rocket engine, for example, is propelled by hot exhaust gases pushing on the rear of the rocket. How can photons confined inside a cavity make the cavity move? This is where relativity and the strange nature of light come in. Since the microwave photons in the waveguide are travelling close to the speed of light, any attempt to resolve the forces they generate must take account of Einstein's special theory of relativity. This says that the microwaves move in their own frame of reference. In other words they move independently of the cavity - as if they are outside it. As a result, the microwaves themselves exert a push on the cavity.

"How can photons confined inside a cavity make the cavity move? This is where relativity and the strange nature of light come in"Each photon that a magnetron fires into the cavity creates an equal and opposite reaction - like the recoil force on a gun as it fires a bullet. With Shawyer's design, however, this force is minuscule compared with the forces generated in the resonant cavity, because the photons reflect back and forth up to 50,000 times. With each reflection, a reaction occurs between the cavity and the photon, each operating in its own frame of reference. This generates a tiny force, which for a powerful microwave beam confined in the cavity adds up to produce a perceptible thrust on the cavity itself.

Shawyer's calculations have not convinced everyone. Depending on who you talk to Shawyer is either a genius or a purveyor of snake oil. David Jefferies, a microwave engineer at the University of Surrey in the UK, is adamant that there is an error in Shawyer's thinking. "It's a load of bloody rubbish," he says. At the other end of the scale is Stepan Lucyszyn, a microwave engineer at Imperial College London. "I think it's outstanding science," he says. Marc Millis, the engineer behind NASA's programme to assess revolutionary propulsion technology accepts that the net forces inside the cavity will be unequal, but as for the thrust it generates, he wants to see the hard evidence before making a judgement.

Thrust from a box
Shawyer's electromagnetic drive - emdrive for short - consists in essence of a microwave generator attached to what looks like a large copper cake tin. It needs a power supply for the magnetron, but there are no moving parts and no fuel - just a cord to plug it into the mains. Various pipes add complexity, but they are just there to keep the chamber cool. And the device seems to work: by mounting it on a sensitive balance, he has shown that it generates about 16 millinewtons of thrust, using 1 kilowatt of electrical power. Shawyer calculated that his first prototype had a Q of 5900. With his second thruster, he managed to raise the Q to 50,000 allowing it to generate a force of about 300 millinewtons - 100 times what Cosmos 1 could achieve. It's not enough for Earth-based use, but it's revolutionary for spacecraft.

One of the conditions of Shawyer's £250,000 funding from the UK's Department of Trade and Industry is that his research be independently reviewed, and he has been meticulous in cataloguing his work and in measuring the forces involved. "It's not easy because the forces are tiny compared to the weight of the equipment," he says.

Optimising the cavity is crucial, and it's as much art as science. Energy leaks out in all kinds of ways: microwaves heat the cavity, for example, changing its electrical characteristics so that it no longer resonates. At very high powers, microwaves can rip electrons out of the metal, causing sparks and a dramatic loss of power. "It can be a very fine balancing act," says Shawyer.

To review the project, the UK government hired John Spiller, an independent space engineer. He was impressed. He says the thruster's design is practical and could be adapted fairly easily to operate in space. He points out, though, that the drive needs to be developed further and tested by an independent group with its own equipment. "It certainly needs to be flown experimentally," he says.

Armed with his prototypes, the test measurements and Spiller's review, Shawyer is now presenting his design to the space industry. The reaction in China and the US has been markedly more enthusiastic than that in Europe. "The European Space Agency knows about it but has not shown any interest," he says. The US air force has already paid him a visit, and a Chinese company has attempted to buy the intellectual property associated with the thruster. This month, he will be travelling to both countries to visit interested parties, including NASA.

"A Chinese company has tried to buy rights to the microwave thruster"To space and beyond
His plan is to license the technology to a major player in the space industry who can adapt the design and send up a test satellite to prove that it works. If all goes to plan, Shawyer believes he could see the engine tested in space within two years. He estimates that his thruster could save the space industry $15 billion over the next 10 years. Spiller is more cautious. While the engine could certainly reduce the launch weight of a satellite, he doubts it will significantly increase its lifetime since other parts will still wear out. The space industry might not need to worry after all.

Meanwhile Shawyer is looking ahead to the next stage of his project. He wants to make the thrusters so powerful that they could make combustion engines obsolete, and that means addressing the big problem with conventional microwave cavities - the amount of energy they leak. The biggest losses come from currents induced in the metal walls by the microwaves, which generate heat when they encounter electrical resistance. This uses up energy stored in the cavity, reduces the Q, and the thrust generated by the engine drops.

Fortunately particle accelerators use microwave cavities too, so physicists have done a lot of work on reducing Q losses inside them. The key, says Shawyer, is to make the cavity superconducting. Without electrical resistance, currents in the cavity walls will not generate heat. Engineers in Germany working on the next generation of particle accelerators have achieved a Q of several billion using superconducting cavities. If Shawyer can match that performance, he calculates that the thrust from a microwave engine could be as high as 30,000 newtons per kilowatt - enough to lift a large car.

This raises another question. Why haven't physicists stumbled across the effect before? They have, says Shawyer, and they design their cavities to counter it. The forces inside the latest accelerator cavities are so large that they stretch the chambers like plasticine. To counteract this, engineers use piezoelectric actuators to squeeze the cavities back into shape. "I doubt they've ever thought of turning the force to other uses," he says.

No doubt his superconducting cavities will be hard to build, and Shawyer is realistic about the problems he is likely to meet. Particle accelerators made out of niobium become superconducting at the temperature of liquid helium - only a few degrees above absolute zero. That would be impractical for a motor, Shawyer believes, so he wants to find a material that superconducts at a slightly higher temperature, and use liquid hydrogen, which boils at 20 kelvin, as the coolant. Hydrogen could also power a fuel cell or turbine to generate electricity for the emdrive.

In the meantime, he wants to test the device with liquid nitrogen, which is easier to handle. It boils at 77 kelvin, a temperature that will require the latest generation of high-temperature ceramic superconductors. Shawyer hasn't yet settled on the exact material, but he admits that any ceramic will be tricky to incorporate into the design because of its fragility. It will have to be reliably bonded to the inside of a cavity and mustn't crack or flake when cooled. There are other problems too. The inside of the cavity will still be heated by the microwaves, and this will possibly quench the superconducting effect. "Nobody has done this kind of work," Shawyer says. "I'm not expecting it to be easy."

Then there is the issue of acceleration. Shawyer has calculated that as soon as the thruster starts to move, it will use up energy stored in the cavity, draining energy faster than it can be replaced. So while the thrust of a motionless emdrive is high, the faster the engine moves, the more the thrust falls. Shawyer now reckons the emdrive will be better suited to powering vehicles that hover rather than accelerate rapidly. A fan or turbine attached to the back of the vehicle could then be used to move it forward without friction. He hopes to demonstrate his first superconducting thruster within two years.

What of the impact of such a device? On my journey home I have plenty of time to speculate. No need for wheels, no friction. Shawyer suggested to me before I left that a hover car with an emdrive thruster cooled and powered by hydrogen could be a major factor in converting our society from a petrol-based one to one based on hydrogen. "You need something different to persuade people to make the switch. Perhaps being able to move in three dimensions rather than two would do the trick."

What about aircraft without wings? I'm aware that my feeling of scepticism is being replaced by a more dangerous one of unbounded optimism. In five minutes of blue-sky thinking you can dream up a dozen ways in which the emdrive could change the world. I have an hour ahead of me. The end of wings and wheels. Now there's a thought.

---
http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/mg19125681.400;jsessionid=NMGHKBGMCGMM

Mark said...

Synthetic Molecules Capture Solar Energy
Green Building Press
September 5, 2006

A leaf is a highly efficient solar cell and researchers in Sydney have created molecules that mimic those in plants.

Like the cells in plants, they harvest light and create power.

According to the research team, led by Dr Deanna D'Alessandro, the best leaves can harvest 30 to 40 per cent of the light falling on them.

The latest state of the art solar cells are only 15 to 20 per cent efficient, and expensive to make.

But the researchers say they have recreated some of the key systems that plants use in photosynthesis.

Bacteria and green plants use photosynthesis to convert light energy into usable chemical energy. Wheel-shaped arrays of molecules called porphyrins, collect light and transfer it to the hub where chemical reactions use the light energy to convert carbon dioxide into energy-rich sugar and oxygen.

This process, which occurs in about 40 trillionths of a second, is fundamental to photosynthesis and is at the base of the food chain for almost all life on Earth.

More than 100 of the newly constructed synthetic porphyrins can be assembled around a tree-like core called a dendrimer to mimic the wheel-shaped arrangement in natural photosynthetic systems.

The molecules designed by the team are about one trillionth the size of a soccer ball.

But the large number of porphyrins in a single molecule means that a significant amount of light can be captured and converted to electrical energy – just like in nature. Since they are so efficient at storing energy, D'Alessandro believes they could also be used as batteries – replacing the metal-based batteries that high technology devices depend on.

The team say their preliminary results are very promising, although they are still in the early stages of building practical solar energy devices using the molecules.

Now they’ve made the molecules, the team along with their Japanese collaborators at Osaka University are working to combine them in the equivalent of a plant cell.

Over the next five years they will attempt to scale the technology up to commercial scale solar panels. "

---
www.physorg.com/news76344249.html

Mark said...

[the Hydrino: "source of near-limitless power that costs virtually nothing, uses tiny amounts of water as its fuel and produces next to no waste." Learning from a special principle of variable orbital shells of hydrogen's electrons.]

If Bruce DePalma ---> http://depalma.pair.com/ found exceptions to Newtonian physics with respects to gravity and inertia for rotating bodies, this 'hydrino' sounds like yet another area that would make the next reformation of quantum mechanics possible. They call it classical quantum mechanics.]

" What has much of the physics world up in arms is Dr Mills's claim that he has produced a new form of hydrogen, the simplest of all the atoms, with just a single proton circled by one electron. In his "hydrino", the electron sits a little closer to the proton than normal, and the formation of the new atoms from traditional hydrogen releases huge amounts of energy.

This is scientific heresy. According to quantum mechanics, electrons can only exist in an atom in strictly defined orbits, and the shortest distance allowed between the proton and electron in hydrogen is fixed. The two particles are simply not allowed to get any closer.

According to Dr Mills, there can be only one explanation: quantum mechanics must be wrong. "We've done a lot of testing. We've got 50 independent validation reports, we've got 65 peer-reviewed journal articles," he said. "We ran into this theoretical resistance and there are some vested interests here. People are very strong and fervent protectors of this [quantum] theory that they use."

Rick Maas, a chemist at the University of North Carolina at Asheville (UNC) who specialises in sustainable energy sources, was allowed unfettered access to Blacklight's laboratories this year. "We went in with a healthy amount of scepticism. While it would certainly be nice if this were true, in my position as head of a research institution, I really wouldn't want to make a mistake. The last thing I want is to be remembered as the person who derailed a lot of sustainable energy investment into something that wasn't real."

But Prof Maas and Randy Booker, a UNC physicist, left under no doubt about Dr Mill's claims. "All of us who are not quantum physicists are looking at Dr Mills's data and we find it very compelling," said Prof Maas. "Dr Booker and I have both put our professional reputations on the line as far as that goes."

Dr Mills's idea goes against almost a century of thinking. When scientists developed the theory of quantum mechanics they described a world where measuring the exact position or energy of a particle was impossible and where the laws of classical physics had no effect. The theory has been hailed as one of the 20th century's greatest achievements.

But it is an achievement Dr Mills thinks is flawed. He turned back to earlier classical physics to develop a theory which, unlike quantum mechanics, allows an electron to move much closer to the proton at the heart of a hydrogen atom and, in doing so, release the substantial amounts of energy he seeks to exploit. Dr Mills's theory, known as classical quantum mechanics and published in the journal Physics Essays in 2003."



Quote:Fuel's paradise? Power source that turns physics on its head

· Scientist says device disproves quantum theory
· Opponents claim idea is result of wrong maths

Alok Jha, science correspondent
Friday November 4, 2005
The Guardian

It seems too good to be true: a new source of near-limitless power that costs virtually nothing, uses tiny amounts of water as its fuel and produces next to no waste. If that does not sound radical enough, how about this: the principle behind the source turns modern physics on its head.

Randell Mills, a Harvard University medic who also studied electrical engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, claims to have built a prototype power source that generates up to 1,000 times more heat than conventional fuel. Independent scientists claim to have verified the experiments and Dr Mills says that his company, Blacklight Power, has tens of millions of dollars in investment lined up to bring the idea to market. And he claims to be just months away from unveiling his creation.

The problem is that according to the rules of quantum mechanics, the physics that governs the behaviour of atoms, the idea is theoretically impossible. "Physicists are quite conservative. It's not easy to convince them to change a theory that is accepted for 50 to 60 years. I don't think [Mills's] theory should be supported," said Jan Naudts, a theoretical physicist at the University of Antwerp.

What has much of the physics world up in arms is Dr Mills's claim that he has produced a new form of hydrogen, the simplest of all the atoms, with just a single proton circled by one electron. In his "hydrino", the electron sits a little closer to the proton than normal, and the formation of the new atoms from traditional hydrogen releases huge amounts of energy.

This is scientific heresy. According to quantum mechanics, electrons can only exist in an atom in strictly defined orbits, and the shortest distance allowed between the proton and electron in hydrogen is fixed. The two particles are simply not allowed to get any closer.

According to Dr Mills, there can be only one explanation: quantum mechanics must be wrong. "We've done a lot of testing. We've got 50 independent validation reports, we've got 65 peer-reviewed journal articles," he said. "We ran into this theoretical resistance and there are some vested interests here. People are very strong and fervent protectors of this [quantum] theory that they use."

Rick Maas, a chemist at the University of North Carolina at Asheville (UNC) who specialises in sustainable energy sources, was allowed unfettered access to Blacklight's laboratories this year. "We went in with a healthy amount of scepticism. While it would certainly be nice if this were true, in my position as head of a research institution, I really wouldn't want to make a mistake. The last thing I want is to be remembered as the person who derailed a lot of sustainable energy investment into something that wasn't real."

But Prof Maas and Randy Booker, a UNC physicist, left under no doubt about Dr Mill's claims. "All of us who are not quantum physicists are looking at Dr Mills's data and we find it very compelling," said Prof Maas. "Dr Booker and I have both put our professional reputations on the line as far as that goes."

Dr Mills's idea goes against almost a century of thinking. When scientists developed the theory of quantum mechanics they described a world where measuring the exact position or energy of a particle was impossible and where the laws of classical physics had no effect. The theory has been hailed as one of the 20th century's greatest achievements.

But it is an achievement Dr Mills thinks is flawed. He turned back to earlier classical physics to develop a theory which, unlike quantum mechanics, allows an electron to move much closer to the proton at the heart of a hydrogen atom and, in doing so, release the substantial amounts of energy he seeks to exploit. Dr Mills's theory, known as classical quantum mechanics and published in the journal Physics Essays in 2003, has been criticised most publicly by Andreas Rathke of the European Space Agency. In a damning critique published recently in the New Journal of Physics, he argued that Dr Mills's theory was the result of mathematical mistakes.

Dr Mills argues that there are plenty of flaws in Dr Rathke's critique. "His paper's riddled with mistakes. We've had other physicists contact him and say this is embarrassing to the journal and [Dr Rathke] won't respond," said Dr Mills.

While the theoretical tangle is unlikely to resolve itself soon, those wanting to exploit the technology are pushing ahead. "We would like to understand it from an academic standpoint and then we would like to be able to use the implications to actually produce energy products," said Prof Maas. "The companies that are lining up behind this are household names."

Dr Mills will not go into details of who is investing in his research but rumours suggest a range of US power companies. It is well known also that Nasa's institute of advanced concepts has funded research into finding a way of using Blacklight's technology to power rockets.

According to Prof Maas, the first product built with Blacklight's technology, which will be available in as little as four years, will be a household heater. As the technology is scaled up, he says, bigger furnaces will be able to boil water and turn turbines to produce electricity.

In a recent economic forecast, Prof Maas calculated that hydrino energy would cost around 1.2 cents (0.7p) per kilowatt hour. This compares to an average of 5 cents per kWh for coal and 6 cents for nuclear energy.

"If it's wrong, it will be proven wrong," said Kert Davies, research director of Greenpeace USA. "But if it's right, it is so important that all else falls away. It has the potential to solve our dependence on oil. Our stance is of cautious optimism."



Hydrino Study Group
http://www.hydrino.org/

Quote:Theory in a Nutshell

Dr. Mills unifies the theories of Bohr, de Broglie, Maxwell, Einstein, Newton, etc. via a new insight into the nature of the atom. Mills takes advantage of a 1986 Herman Haus paper that explains how charged particles may undergo acceleration without radiation. He then applies the mathematics of this insight into a new analysis of the hydrogen atom. His new model treats the electron, not as a point nor as a probability wave, but as a dynamic two-dimensional spherical shell surrounding the nucleus. The resulting model, called the "orbitsphere", provides a fully classical physical explanation for phenomena such as

1. Quantization
2. Angular momentum
3. Bohr magneton

Essentially, the electron orbitsphere is a "dynamic spherical resonator cavity" that traps photons of discrete frequencies. Broader implications of GUT-CQM include the possibility of catalytically shrinking the hydrogen atom to below "ground" state, releasing useful energy in the process. Unification of the electron orbitsphere radius formula with General Relativity (GR) provides a quantum explanation for gravity as well. This leads to a novel explanation for the recently observed accelerating expansion of the cosmos.



BlackLight Power, Inc.
http://www.blacklightpower.com/

Quote:BlackLight Power, Inc

Overview
Having exactly solved the atom using physical laws for the first time, BlackLight is the primary mover in advancing applications of a new chemical process of releasing the latent energy of the hydrogen atom, the BlackLight Process.

An ordinary hydrogen atom consists of an electron orbiting a proton. The BlackLight Process allows the electron to move closer to the proton, to which it is attracted, below the prior-known ground state. This generates power as heat, light, and plasma (a hot, glowing, ionized gas) with the formation of strong hydrogen products that are the basis of a vast class of new chemical compounds with broad commercial application.

The energy released from this process is hundreds of times in excess of the energy required to start it. The primary fuel is hydrogen gas, which can be created inexpensively via electrolysis from water. Energy is released as heat and may be converted to electricity using known methods. The process is scalable from small, hand-held units to large, fire-box replacements in large central power stations.

Rather than pollutants, the BlackLight Process releases heat, light, and valuable chemicals. The lower-energy atomic hydrogen products of the process can be used to form novel hydrino hydride compounds ("HHCs") which are proprietary to the company, and form a vast class of new chemistry. Alternatively, the product can be a new inert form of hydrogen gas that may serve in revolutionary applications such as the medium for a new high-energy laser. Since this gas is lighter than air, it may also be safely vented and allowed to diffuse into space.

BlackLight's technology has far-reaching applications in many industries such as: Power, Heating, Lighting, Lasers, Chemicals, Batteries, and Advanced Materials.

BlackLight’s experimental results are published in over 65 peer-reviewed publications and have been replicated by many independent groups. Reports by leading independent researchers claim that the state of the art BlackLight Process reactors are ready for development and commercialization. The process, apparatus and compositions of matter are covered by patents pending and issued. BlackLight will license companies for the commercialization of our technologies as we continue to develop new technologies related to the BlackLight Process.

Applications
BlackLight Power, Inc. has created a commercially competitive new source of energy. In BlackLight's patented process, energy is released as the electrons of atomic hydrogen are induced to undergo transitions to lower energy levels producing plasma, light, and novel hydrogen compounds. BlackLight uses a chemically generated plasma to form atomic hydrogen, and a catalyst to form lower-energy hydrogen atoms called hydrinos. Since hydrinos have energy levels much lower than uncatalyzed hydrogen atoms, the energy release is intermediate between conventional chemical and nuclear energies. The net energy released may be over one hundred times that of combustion with power densities like those of fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power plants.

Thus, the catalysis of atomic hydrogen, the BlackLight Process, represents a potential new source of energy. The hydrogen fuel is obtained by diverting a fraction of the output energy of the process to power the electrolysis of water into its elemental constituents. With water as the fuel, the operational cost of BlackLight Power generators will be very inexpensive. Moreover, rather than air pollutants or radioactive waste, novel hydride compounds with potential commercial applications are the by-products. The BlackLight Process offers a prospectively efficient, clean, cheap, and versatile thermal energy source. Two of the potential applications of its technology are in the heating and electric power production.

Heat generating prototypes have indicated the BlackLight Process to be competitive with existing primary generation sources over a range of scales from microdistributed to central power generation. They have better performance characteristics than proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells without the restrictive capital costs that arise from the requirement of hydrocarbons with the associated infrastructure and hydrocarbon-to-electricity conversion systems. The BlackLight Process thermal power source is ideal for interfacing with commercially available electric power generating equipment such as Sterling engines and turbines for microdistributed and distributed electrical applications, respectively. BlackLight has also successfully demonstrated direct plasma to electricity power conversion which is possible since the Process generates a plasma. On larger-scales, BlackLight technology is well-suited for and could eliminate problems attendant to the utility industries, such as those arising from the variable regional supply and price of fuels such as natural gas, the associated cost of building out a suitable supporting infrastructure and transmission grid, and eliminate pollution, green-house-gas emission and other externalities. In time, it may be possible to meet the world’s energy needs cleanly and safely at a greatly reduced cost.

The BlackLight Process is a new primary energy source that has unique competitive advantages in all energy markets: electricity, heat, cogeneration (electricity production with waste heat recovery and utilization), and motive power. As an example of the potential in the latter application, consider that the average US gas station pumps about 2000 gallons of gasoline per day corresponding to an energy equivalent of 3 MW of electricity that could be provided by using the BlackLight Process. Thus, power cells of the 1-10 MW electric may be a competitive solution for generating electricity locally at gas stations, for example, and also produce hydrogen gas from the electrolysis of water using the electrical output temporarily diverted from the local grid as a replacement for gasoline. The savings of avoiding transmission and distribution costs represents a considerable cost advantage that is often half the price of electricity. Considering the absence of fuel costs that is permissive of reduced complexity and costs of power-conversion equipment, lack of pollution, the ability to produce fuels with an absence of the need to on-site reform natural gas to hydrogen for use in certain fuel cells, BlackLight represents for the first time a possibility to realize the vision of the hydrogen economy that frees the world from fossil fuels and undesirable or limited primary-power-source options. The transition could occur relatively seamlessly with existing and developing technologies with the consumer realizing savings and the producer realizing higher, stable profits while the environment benefits. In the interim, the ability to generate low-cost heat and hydrogen could relieve the pressure on oil demand by providing a cost-efficient method of producing crude from some of the hundreds of billions of barrels of oil locked in known North American reserves of tar sands and oil shale


Lighting
The power from the BlackLight Process forms a plasma (a hot, glowing, ionized gas) that represents a primary light source as well as a primary energy source in the form of heat. Systems have been developed that harness the power primarily as light. Prototype lighting devices comprising a cell similar to a conventional light bulb but containing a catalyst of the BlackLight Process as well as a source of atomic hydrogen have produced thousands of times more light for input power using 1% the voltage compared to standard light sources. Projected into a product, these results indicate the possibility of a light that could deliver the power of conventional fluorescent and incandescent lighting, but operate off of a flashlight battery for a year without an electrical conne

.

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5E6A



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Posts: 137


PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 2:10 pm Post subject: Re: the odds Reply with quote

If 'they' are as nefarious as many here account, and given the reports of oil usurpers' spontaneous combustion ( or suicide, accident, etc. fill in cover story of choice here...) once they got a little too public with their findings, would he have been allowed to solicit investment capital for going on 20 years now if what he asserts is reality?

I dunno. Just a thought........

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bvonahsen



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PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 4:37 pm Post subject: Re: the odds Reply with quote

twenty years??

hmmm, that changes things a bit. Here I thought this was relatively recent.

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Dreams End
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 5:00 pm Post subject: Re: the odds Reply with quote

If I remember, one of the reasons quantum theory was developed in the first place is to explain what seemed to be an anomaly in classical physics. If you allow an electron to occupy any of the intervening space between orbitals...i.e. a continuum, then mathematically you should have literally an INFINITE amount of energy released. Since this seemed absurd, they need to explain it...and the idea of electrons only being able to inhabit discrete spaces around the electron was born.

I have no idea how all that plays out in this theory. In quantum theory, it's not even that the electron is a certain distance away, it's just that the probability of finding it is highest at a particular place.

Anyway, I can't imagine why energy companies would invest in this, as it would put them out of business, so if it is true, it's more than likely to squash it. EVentually, if it works, it'll get black budgeted and sucked into the military/industrial complex.

"Hiding advanced technology....it's WHAT WE DO..."

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slimmouse



Joined: 20 May 2005
Posts: 2880
Location: within YOU.

PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 5:13 pm Post subject: Agreed. Reply with quote

Quote:Anyway, I can't imagine why energy companies would invest in this, as it would put them out of business, so if it is true, it's more than likely to squash it. EVentually, if it works, it'll get black budgeted and sucked into the military/industrial complex.

"Hiding advanced technology....it's WHAT WE DO..."



Call me an old cynical fart, but I must confess, this kinda worried me too.

But, we live in hope. As the eternal optimist that I rather foolishly have always been, perhaps a corner has been turned.

Though I wont at this point be holding my breath....not just yet anyways.

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PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 6:15 pm Post subject: Re: Agreed. Reply with quote
Well, cynicism aside, how would energy companies make money if this thing goes to market. If they are well made then after the initial billionaires are created out of the sale of devices using this technology (and they can have the money if it works, in my view) how do you KEEP making money off of them? Make them run on Microsoft Software and require updates?

Anyway, it's fascinating and goes even beyond an energy revolution if it works. Because, it can't work. So if it does, then 100 years of physics goes bye bye.

---
http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1511

Mark said...

breeding plankton efficiently many hundreds of times more efficient than corn/sugar ethanol]

A Spanish company claimed on Thursday to have developed a method of breeding plankton and turning the marine plants into oil, providing a potentially inexhaustible source of clean fuel.


Vehicle tests are some time away because the company, Bio Fuel Systems, has not yet tried refining the dark green coloured crude oil phytoplankton turn into, a spokesman said.

Bio Fuel Systems is a wholly Spanish firm, formed this year in eastern Spain after three years of research by scientists and engineers connected with the University of Alicante.

"Bio Fuel Systems has developed a process that converts energy, based on three elements: solar energy, photosynthesis and an electromagnetic field," it said in a press dossier.

"That process allows us to obtain biopetroleum, equivalent to that of fossil origin [sic, petroleum is abiotic; only coal is biotic]."

Phytoplankton, like other plants, absorb carbon dioxide as they grow.

Scientists have examined the possibility of stimulating growth of the single cell plants as a means of reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.

CO2, liberated by burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas, is widely held responsible for global warming.

Bio Fuel Systems said its new fuel would reduce CO2 [though burning it would create more: there are better fuels than thermodynamics based fuels], was free of other contaminants like sulphur dioxide and would be cheaper than oil is now.

"Our system of bioconversion is about 400 times more productive than any other plant-based system producing oil or ethanol," it said, referring to currently available biofuels made from plants like maize or oilseeds.

Bio Fuel Systems is working with scientists at the University of Alicante on the project. It has drawn up industrial plans to make the fuel and says it will be able to start continuous production in 14 to 18 months.

Taken from Yahoo News
news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060720/sc_nm/energy_spain_plankton_dc;_ylt=AuTt7v5cVR.hOOUSid4yosqs0NUE;_ylu=X3oDMTA3ODdxdHBhBHNlYwM5NjQ-

Mark said...

From another website: "I posted about the mysterious em-drive awhile back and now here's another development... a faster than light capable 'warp' drive that the US air force is showing remarkable interest in. So, perhaps these stories are cover to explain the invention of tech they already secretly have. Perhaps we're getting close to a disclosure of some sort.

Welcome to Mars express: only a three hour trip
IAN JOHNSTON SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT
http://news.scotsman.com/ViewArticle.aspx?articleid=2739585
[the link is gone]

AN EXTRAORDINARY "hyperspace" engine that could make interstellar space travel a reality by flying into other dimensions is being investigated by the United States government.

The hypothetical device, which has been outlined in principle but is based on a controversial theory about the fabric of the universe, could potentially allow a spacecraft to travel to Mars in three hours and journey to a star 11 light years away in just 80 days, according to a report in today's New Scientist magazine.

The theoretical engine works by creating an intense magnetic field that, according to ideas first developed by the late scientist Burkhard Heim in the 1950s, would produce a gravitational field and result in thrust for a spacecraft.

Also, if a large enough magnetic field was created, the craft would slip into a different dimension, where the speed of light is faster, allowing incredible speeds to be reached.

Switching off the magnetic field would result in the engine reappearing in our current dimension.

The US air force has expressed an interest in the idea and scientists working for the American Department of Energy - which has a device known as the Z Machine that could generate the kind of magnetic fields required to drive the engine - say they may carry out a test if the theory withstands further scrutiny.

Professor Jochem Hauser, one of the scientists who put forward the idea, told The Scotsman that if everything went well a working engine could be tested in about five years.

However, Prof Hauser, a physicist at the Applied Sciences University in Salzgitter, Germany, and a former chief of aerodynamics at the European Space Agency, cautioned it was based on a highly controversial theory that would require a significant change in the current understanding of the laws of physics.

"It would be amazing. I have been working on propulsion systems for quite a while and it would be the most amazing thing. The benefits would be almost unlimited," he said.

"But this thing is not around the corner; we first have to prove the basic science is correct and there are quite a few physicists who have a different opinion.

"It's our job to prove we are right and we are working on that."

He said the engine would enable spaceships to travel to different solar systems. "If the theory is correct then this is not science fiction, it is science fact," Prof Hauser said.

"NASA have contacted me and next week I'm going to see someone from the [US] air force to talk about it further, but it is at a very early stage. I think the best-case scenario would be within the next five years [to build a test device] if the technology works."

The US authorities' attention was attracted after Prof Hauser and an Austrian colleague, Walter Droscher, wrote a paper called "Guidelines for a space propulsion device based on Heim's quantum theory".

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PostPosted: Sun Jan 08, 2006 7:52 pm Post subject: 'The G-Engines are Coming' - headline 1956 Reply with quote

Nick Cook's The Hunt for Zero Point begins in his office at Jane's Aviation Weekly with someone anonymously dropping a clipping with that headline on his desk.

The article reads that "in the United States and Canada, research centers, scientists, designers and engineers are perfecting a way to control gravity - a force infinitely more powerful than the mighty atom.

The result of their labors will be antigravity engines working without fuel - weightless airliners and space ships able to travel at 170,000 miles per second."

The article states the research is supported by the Glenn L Martin Aircraft Company, Bell Aircraft, Lear and several other US firms.

It quotes Lawrence Bell as saying they are "already working" on canceling out gravity. The head of Advanced Programs and VP in charge of the "G-Project" at Martin Aircraft, George S Trimble, adds that manufacturing a gravitational field drive "could be done in about the time it took to build the first atom bomb."

Cook almost throws it in the waste basket, because almost as soon as such reports were published in '56 it was as though they'd never existed.

The research either never happened, was discontinued, or went deep black. Cook, picking up the thread, begins by tracking down Trimble. He asked his media contact friend at Lockheed Martin, Daniella Abelman to look up Trimble without telling her specifically why. She called back soon after, and said that Trimble was alive and retired in Arizona. "Sounds hard as nails, but an amazing guy. He's kinda mystified why you want to talk to him after all this time, but seems okay with it. Like you said, it's historical, right?"

"Right," Cook said.

Abelman called back a few days later. "Separated by an ocean and five time zones," Cook writes, "I heard the catch in her breathing."

"It's Trimble," she said. "The guy just got off the phone to me. Remember how he was fine to do the interview? Well, something's happened. I don't know who this old man is or what he once was, but he told me in no uncertain terms to get off his case. He doesn't want to speak to me and he doesn't want to speak to you, not now, not ever. I don't mind telling you that he sounded scared and I don't like to hear old men scared. It makes me scared. I don't know what you were really working on when you came to me with this, Nick, but let me give you some advice. Stick to what you know about; stick to the damned present. It's better that way for all of us."

Edited by: Rigorous Intuition at: 1/8/06 5:55 pm
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anotherdrew



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PostPosted: Sun Jan 08, 2006 8:19 pm Post subject: Re: 'The G-Engines are Coming' - headline 1956 Reply with quote

the body of raw info seems to suggest that either thay have such tech in hiding, or are willing to work their asses off making it seem like they do when they don't. I'm just not sure I can't buy any of the probable motives for them to stage a cover up of nothing. So... it seems like wishful thinking, but I'm feeling like it's true. Now a lot of possibly bad news is riding in the back seat... but how wonderful if we can really build such vehicles.

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marykmusic



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Location: Central Arizona

PostPosted: Sun Jan 08, 2006 9:32 pm Post subject: Re: 'The G-Engines are Coming' - headline 1956 Reply with quote
Grav-lev has been here since the end of WWII. I have seen black-and-white film of German experimental aircraft bouncing along the ground and a few feet into the air... the Nazis were so far along that Project Paperclip was developed to keep 'em working. It was a saucer-shaped craft, too. Hauneby I was on the drawing board in 1939, II in 1943, and III in 1945. Copies of these drawings are in the book Reich of the Black Sun ny Joseph P. Farrell. --MaryK


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http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1483

Mark said...

[there theoretically could be a way to draw out this zero point energy fluctuation into creating Bruce DePalma effects (since the link is via electrogravitics. You could create a steady state inertial creating/enhancing or inertia destroying engine (anti-gravity).]

Brilliant Disguise: Light, Matter and the Zero-Point Field

Is matter an illusion? Is the universe floating on a vast sea of light, whose invisible power provides the resistance that gives to matter its feeling of solidity? Astrophysicist Bernhard Haisch and his colleagues have followed the equations to some compelling -- and provocative -- conclusions.

by Bernard Haisch

Is matter an illusion? Is the universe floating on a vast sea of light, whose invisible power provides the resistance that gives to matter its feeling of solidity? Astrophysicist Bernhard Haisch and his colleagues have followed the equations to some compelling — and challenging — conclusions.

"God said, ‘Let there be light,’ and there was light."

It is certainly a beautiful poetic statement. But does it contain any science? A few years ago I would have dismissed that possibility. As an astrophysicist, I knew all too well the blatant contradictions between the sequence of events in Genesis and the physics of the Universe. Even after substituting eons for days, the order of events was obviously wrong. It made no sense to have light come first, and then to claim that the Sun, the moon and the stars — the obvious sources of light in the night sky of the ancient world — were created only subsequently, be it days or eons later. One could, of course, generalize light to mean simply energy, and thus claim a reference to the Big Bang, but that would, to me, be more of a stretch than a revelation.

My first inkling that the deceptively simple "Let there be light" might actually contain a profound cosmological truth came in early July 1992. I was trying to wrap things up in my office in Palo Alto so that I could spend the rest of the summer doing research on the X-ray emission of stars at the Max Planck Institute in Garching, Germany. I came in one morning just before my departure and found a rather peculiar message on my answering machine; it had been left at 3 a.m.by a usually sober-minded colleague, Alfonso Rueda, a professor at California State University in Long Beach. He was so excited by the results of a horrifically-long mathematical analysis he had been grinding through that he just had to tell me about it, knowing full well I was not there to share the thrill.

What he had succeeded in doing was to derive the equation: F=ma. Details would follow in Germany.

Most people will take this in stride with a "so what?" or "what does that mean?" After all what are F, m and a, and what is so noteworthy about a scientist deriving a simple equation? Isn't this what scientists do for a living? But a physicist will have an incredulous reaction because you are not supposed to be able to derive the equation F=ma. That equation was postulated by Newton in his Principia, the foundation stone of physics, in 1687.

A postulate is a law that you assume to be true, and from which other things follow: such as much of physics, for example, from that particular postulate. You cannot derive postulates. How do you prove that one plus one equals two? The answer is, you don't. You assume that abstract numbers work that way, and then derive other properties of addition from that basic assumption.

But indeed, as I discovered when I began to write up a research paper based on what Rueda soon sent to Garching, he had indeed derived Newton's fundamental "equation of motion." And the concept underlying this analysis was the existence of a background sea of light known as the electromagnetic zero-point field of the quantum vacuum.

To understand this zero-point field (for short), consider an old-fashioned grandfather clock with its pendulum swinging back and forth. If you don't wind the clock, friction will sooner or later bring the pendulum to a halt.

Now imagine a pendulum that gets smaller and smaller, so small that it ultimately becomes atomic in size and subject to the laws of quantum physics. There is a rule in quantum physics called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle that states (with certainty, as it happens) that no quantum object, such as a microscopic pendulum, can ever be brought completely to rest.

Any microscopic object will always possess a residual random jiggle thanks to quantum fluctuations.

Radio, television and cellular phones all operate by transmitting or receiving electromagnetic waves. Visible light is the same thing; it is just a higher frequency form of electromagnetic waves. At even higher frequencies, beyond the visible spectrum, you find ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays. All are electromagnetic waves which are really just different frequencies of light.

It is standard in quantum theory to apply the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to electromagnetic waves, since electric and magnetic fields flowing through space oscillate like a pendulum. At every possible frequency there will always be a tiny bit of electromagnetic jiggling going on. And if you add up all these ceaseless fluctuations, what you get is a background sea of light whose total energy is enormous: the zero-point field. The "zero-point" refers to the fact that even though this energy is huge, it is the lowest possible energy state. All other energy is over and above the zero-point state. Take any volume of space and take away everything else — in other words, create a vacuum — and what you are left with is the zero-point field. We can imagine a true vacuum, devoid of everything, but the real-world quantum vacuum is permeated by the zero-point field with its ceaseless electromagnetic waves.

The fact that the zero-point field is the lowest energy state makes it unobservable. We see things by way of contrast. The eye works by letting light fall on the otherwise dark retina. But if the eye were filled with light, there would be no darkness to afford a contrast. The zero-point field is such a blinding light. Since it is everywhere, inside and outside of us, permeating every atom in our bodies, we are effectively blind to it. It blinds us to its presence. The world of light that we do see is all the rest of the light that is over and above the zero-point field.

We cannot eliminate the zero-point field from our eyes, but it is possible to eliminate a little bit of it from the region between two metal plates. (Technically, this has to do with conditions the electromagnetic waves must satisfy on the plate boundaries.) A Dutch physicist, Hendrik Casimir, predicted in 1948 exactly how much of the zero-point field would end up being excluded in the gap between the plates, and how this would generates a force, since there is then an overpressure on the outside of the plates. Casimir predicted the relation between the gap and the force very precisely. You can, however, only exclude a tiny fraction of the zero-point field from the gap between the plates in this way. Counterintuitively, the closer the plates come together, the more of the zero-point field gets excluded, but there is a limit to this process because plates are made up of atoms and you cannot make the gap between the plates smaller than the atoms that constitute the plates. This Casimir force has now been physically measured, and the results agree very well with his prediction.

The discovery that my colleague first made in 1992 also has to do with a force that the zero-point field generates, which takes us back to F=ma, Newton’s famous equation of motion. Newton — and all physicists since — have assumed that all matter possesses an innate mass, the m in Newton's equation. The mass of an object is a measure of its inertia, its resistance to acceleration, the a. The equation of motion, known as Newton's second law, states that if you apply a force, F, to an object you will get an acceleration, a — but the more mass, m, the object possesses, the less acceleration you will get for a given force. In other words, the force it takes to accelerate a hockey puck to a high speed will barely budge a car. For any given force, F, if m goes up, a goes down, and vice versa.

Why is this? What gave matter this property of possessing inertial mass? Physicists sometimes talk about a concept known as "Mach's Principle" but all that does is to establish a certain relationship between gravity and inertia. It doesn’t really say how all material objects acquire mass. In fact, the work that Rueda, I and another colleague, Hal Puthoff, have since done indicate that mass is, in effect, an illusion. Matter resists acceleration not because it possesses some innate thing called mass, but because the zero-point field exerts a force whenever acceleration takes place. To put it in somewhat metaphysical terms, there exists a background sea of quantum light filling the universe, and that light generates a force that opposes acceleration when you push on any material object. That is why matter seems to be the solid, stable stuff that we and our world are made of.

Saying this is one thing. Proving it scientifically is another. It took a year and a half of calculating and writing and thinking, over and over again, to refine both the ideas themselves and the presentation to the point of publication in a professional research journal. On an academic timescale this was actually pretty quick, and we were able to publish in what is widely regarded as the world's leading physics journal, the Physical Review, in February 1994. To top it off, Science and Scientific American ran stories on our new inertia hypothesis. We waited for some reaction. Would other scientists prove us right or prove us wrong? Neither happened.

At that point in my career I was already a fairly well-established scientist, being a principal investigator on NASA research grants, serving as an associate editor of the Astrophysical Journal, and having many dozens of publications in the parallel field of astrophysics. In retrospect, my experience should have warned me that we had ventured into dangerous theoretical waters, that we were going to be left on our own to sink or swim. Indeed, I would probably have taken the same wait-and-see attitude myself had I been on the outside looking in.

An alternative to having other scientists replicate your work and prove that you are right is to get the same result yourself using a completely different approach. I wrote a research proposal to NASA and Alfonso buried himself in new calculations. We got funding and we got results. In 1998, we published two new papers that again showed that the inertia of matter could be traced back to the zero-point field. And not only was the approach in those papers completely different than in the 1994 paper, but the mathematics was simpler while the physics was more complete: a most desireable combination. What’s more, the original analysis had used Newtonian classical physics; the new analysis used Einsteinian relativistic physics.

As encouraged as I am, it is still too early to say whether history will prove us right or wrong. But if we are right, then "Let there be light" is indeed a very profound statement, as one might expect of its purported author. The solid, stable world of matter appears to be sustained at every instant by an underlying sea of quantum light.

But let's take this even one step further. If it is the underlying realm of light that is the fundamental reality propping up our physical universe, let us ask ourselves how the universe of space and time would appear from the perspective of a beam of light. The laws of relativity are clear on this point. If you could ride a beam of light as an observer, all of space would shrink to a point, and all of time would collapse to an instant. In the reference frame of light, there is no space and time. If we look up at the Andromeda galaxy in the night sky, we see light that from our point of view took 2 million years to traverse that vast distance of space. But to a beam of light radiating from some star in the Andromeda galaxy, the transmission from its point of origin to our eye was instantaneous.

There must be a deeper meaning in these physical facts, a deeper truth about the simultaneous interconnection of all things. It beckons us forward in our search for a better, truer understanding of the nature of the universe, of the origins of space and time — those "illusions" that yet feel so real to us.

Bernhard Haisch, staff physicist at the Lockheed Martin Solar & Astrophysics Laboratory in Palo Alto, California, is a scientific editor of The Astrophysical Journal and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Scientific Exploration.

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http://www.science-spirit.org/article_detail.php?article_id=126

Mark said...

extracting the hydrogen from salt water to use as fuel on demand

From this link:
http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1480

Zero Point Energy as a fuel source may be interesting, but all our motors run on conventional fuel so the changeover would require a motivated industrial sector to spearhead us into energy utopia...

The new hydrogen economy seems like a sick joke, in the ways being suggested. All the power that will produce the hydrogen comes from conventional sources. So therefore there is nothing new but a paint job.

Solar and Wind...not for most of out power, but some for sure. [actually, yes, for more than 5x our power according to just using about 5% of global wind power sites with old wind generator technology]


An in-obvious solution may be water running through the engines we have now (using that high quality H20) having the pistons smacking hydrogen for the kick, and water as it's pollution. Sounds too good to be true, for now it has been. And there are plenty of dirty tricks, and Bull***t out there about alternative energy, but it might be a positive investigation that the open minds of Rigorous Intuition to see if there is any validity to some of these claims.

An interesting start may be this article/list Energy Supprestion: An Invisible Galaxy of Inventions
http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/feb2/bird.htm


shortly into it a blurb on

...Francisco Pacheco, an inventor from Bolivia, created the "Pacheco Bi-Polar Autoelectric Hydrogen Generator" (U.S. Patent No. 5,089,107), which separates hydrogen from seawater.

He has built successful prototypes that have fueled a car, a motorcycle, a lawnmower, a flashlight, and a boat. And most recently, in 1990, he energized an entire home in West Milford with the device...

one of the The patents

patent link


United States Patent 5,089,107
Pacheco February 18, 1992
Bi-polar auto electrolytic hydrogen generator

Abstract

An autoelectrolytic hydrogen generator system constituted by one or a plurality of similar cells wherein a galvanic arrangement of magnesium and aluminum plates of sacrificial elements as anode; stainless steel as cathode and sea water as electrolyte, by its very nature is made to develop a voltage when connected in short circuit causing a current to flow within the system and hydrogen production of hydrogen in situ and on demand by the electrolytic action at one pole, the cathode, and additional hydrogen by the electrochemical reaction at the other pole, the anode.

Surplus electric energy of the system applied to a optional electrolyzer will also be made to produce additional hydrogen at its two sacrificial aluminum electrodes.

-------------

a little more on Francisco Pacheco


...Francisco`s dream was to reproduce the “super battery” and he experimented with many metals until he finally came close to 2 volts from the battery. One evening, while working alone in his laboratory with his array of glass jars and electrodes, he noticed bubbles of gas forming. Because pressure was building in one of the glass vessels, he vented the jar. But, it wasn´t until he lit a cigarette that he knew that the bubbles that were emerging from the water were filled with hydrogen gas. There was an explosion which dented the ceiling. After that, Francisco dropped his battery experiments and concentrated on improving the efficiency of the process he had discovered; that of extracting the hydrogen from salt water to use as fuel on demand. His first experiment involved a small unit which produced enough fuel to boil water. From there, he took his hydrogen fuel generator and used it to run a motorcycle.

In 1942, U.S. Vice President, Henry Wallace, while on a Good Will Tour of South America, saw the Pacheco generator run an automobile engine and shortly thereafter, the president of Bolivia, General Enrique Penaranda, observed the same phenomena. Both men encouraged Francisco to bring his invention to the United States.

In 1943, Francisco arrived in the U.S. with a letter addressed to the Chief Military Intelligence Service of the United States War Department from Colonel Clarence Barnett, the military attache to the American Embassy, introducing Francisco and requesting an audience to see his invention. At that time, it was believed that the hydrogen generator might be helpful to the U.S. war efforts. In April of that year, Mr. Pacheco successfully demonstrated his generator to the Bureau of Standards in Washington DC and applied for a U.S. patent. But, because there was a war going on, all U.S. patents had to be sealed for one year. After the year was up, Pacheco received a letter from the patent office stating that because of the high cost of aluminum and magnesium (the two metals used in his invention) that his patent was impractical. His patent attorney, after several letters to the patent office, also advised him to “shelve” his patent until a later date, as petroleum was still believed plentiful and cheap....

...In the 1970 ´s, when air pollution and oil shortage became a problem, Francisco “unshelved” his generator believing that the time was finally right. He secured a U.S. patent and a few years later, he received patents from Germany, Brazil and Japan. In February of 1974, with the hopes of acquiring government backing and support, Pacheco demonstrated his pollution free hydrogen fuel cell to Congressman Robert Roe. With no outside power source, the self taught chemical engineer connected the fuel cell to a Homelite alternator unit with a 3 horse power 1000 watt generator with a 4 stroke engine. The demonstration was successful. Mr. Roe seemed impressed and said that he would bring it to the attention of Washington officials. Upon leaving, Mr. Pacheco invited the congressman to another demonstration he had planned later that year at Point Pleasant, New Jersey.Congressman Roe was invited to take part in a history making voyage; the first power boat ride “fueled by seawater”. Many newspapers were invited as well.

Congressman Roe did not show up and neither did many newspapers. Mr. Pacheco never heard from the Congressman again about his invention or the promise to bring it to the attention of appropriate Washington officials, but his voyage was a success. History was made on July 17th, 1974 when a 26 foot power boat ran for nine hours using the Pacheco generator and seawater for fuel, putting back into the oceans its waste, only clean water.

To good to be true?… Jules Verne, in his futuristic tale, Twenty-thousands Leagues Under The Sea, fueled the famous Nautilus with hydrogen fuel. Today, it is the fuel that sends rockets into space. The source for hydrogen fuel is virtually inexhaustible and it burns clean. It is a perfect energy source which puts back into the environment something that is necessary to life and becoming scarce… clean water.

In an effort to overcome the skepticism he was facing and the Phd he could not add to his name, Francisco had his invention analyzed by independent experts. The Pacheco generator passed all tests at the New Jersey Gollob Analytical Service Corporation Labs in September of 1973, and in 1979. Nan Waters, a consulting chemist with the Aesop Institute analyzed the generator and wrote the following report.

“I have read the literature relating to Pacheco´s hydrogen generator. In my opinion, there is no reason why it ought not work as described. Basically, he has combined in one device three very simple chemical principles; a) The use of active metals to produce hydrogen from water, b) The differing electrical potential of two metals to produce an electrical current, c) The use of electrical current to produce hydrogen from water by electrolysis. All the ideas are well known; they simply havn´t been put together this way before. It is so simple as to be elegant.”

When Francisco tried to interest the automobile industry in his invention, he was again confronted with skepticism or ignored. He contacted energy companies and one such company, Consolidated Edison, sent a research chemist to see the generator in action. The chemist was enthusiastic about the invention but when he took it back to his company, he told Mr. Pacheco later, his company had no interest. He sent details of his invention to all the major oil companies. The response was either cool or nonexistent. One oil company returned all papers to him in an unmarked envelope and then after a two hour meeting with him, a representative told him, “We are in the oil business. Your invention, if we were to develop it, would be against our interests.” ...

...In 1980 the CBS program 60 Minutes contacted Francisco and told him they wanted to do an entire show on his invention. At last he believed on demand hydrogen would be recognized as a viable alternative energy source. Relieved and happy, he prepared for the show....

A 60 Minutes crew arrived to film his demonstration which took place in a friends barn. The demonstration included showing a hydrogen fueled burner, running an electric motor, blowing up a balloon with the gas, cutting a number 2 from a ¾” thick steel plate with a torch using the hydrogen and running a 3hp lawnmower engine. All demonstrations worked perfectly except for the lawnmower engine. Because he was going to be on national TV, Francisco went out and bought a new lawnmower for the presentation and did not have time to test it. Unfortunately, the engine choked due to the excessive amount of fuel being produced. The 60 Minutes crew reassured Francisco and told him not to worry. They said they had enough footage of the successful demonstrations to complete a program.

When the show was aired, however, it had quite a different focus. The only part of the demonstration that was shown was the failure of the lawnmower to work and was used to point out an example of an independent inventors non-working invention. Although Francisco was advised to sue the program for misrepresenting his work, he discovered that the cost to do so would be more than he could bear having already mortgaged his home to put the needed dollars into prototypes and demonstration models.

At first devastated by this betrayal, his belief system that motivated his research for 50 years, despite the obstacles and frustrations experienced along the way, kept him focused. In 1986, he wrote to the Department of Energy about his generator. He received a form letter in response from an “Information Specialist” which included brief information describing the virtues and drawbacks of hydrogen as fuel.

Although the DoE will not deny the advantages of this fuel, comparatively little research or dollars have been spent on developing hydrogen as a viable source for generating energy. Our huge dollar commitment to the nuclear industry and to the fossil fuel cartels, who are also heavily involved in nuclear processes, have blinded them to all practical alternatives. The powers that be, seem to wish to remain and will do so until people demand they move over and make way for some real solutions.

Francisco wrote back to the DoE, addressing each of their points with technical data on his system, showing them that the system he developed would overcome the obstacles they described. His detailed response was ignored.

For 46 years, Francisco tried to give his technology to America, his adopted country. He believed there were solutions to the serious environmental and health problems caused by the use of fossil and nuclear fuels. The evidence as to the negative effects of these energy choices is strong and growing stronger. Our concerns about the destruction of the ozone layer, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, air and water pollution, and oil spills that destroy marine life, and the nightmares created by our pursuit of an incomplete nuclear technology are now costing the public a great deal more than dollars. Perhaps, since it is “we” the public who ultimately pay, it is time “we” begin to pay closer attention and stop looking to a government, which has been part of the problem, for the solutions we need to find.

It has been a long time since Francisco Pacheco first came to the United States. After a lifetime of efforts to gain recognition for his work, which he offers to America as a tribute to liberty and as an instrument of peace, he remains firm in his convictions. He humbly but strongly believes in the words of an old wise man who once told him, “SON, God put on your shoulders something very big. Do not ask yourself, why me? Think why not me.”

This article was first published in “The Messenger” (June 1989). The Pacheco Story was subsequently presented to the United Nations Environmental Forum in a speech given by the author Karin Westdyk. Later that year, Francisco was invited to demonstrate his generator at the Green Energy Conference in Canada, and in 1990 he was invited to participate in the International Hydrogen Energy Conference in Hawaii where his invention was the only prototype producing hydrogen fuel on demand. A chapter was devoted to the Pacheco Generator in Suppressed Energy Inventions, published by the Aukland Institute of Technology in 1994, and his story is included in The Coming Energy Revolution, by Jeane Manning (1996).

Francisco died in 1992. His grandson Edmundo holds the patent rights to the Pacheco Generator. His wife and daughter returned to Bolivia where Francisco's ashes were spread throughout the mountains of his beloved homeland and the source of his inspiration.

---
http://www.mothersalert.org/pacheco.html

Mark said...

Another closed resonating emf resonating cavity form of propulsion.

I've posted some interesting exceptions to

classical graviation theory (DePalma)

classical inertial assumptions (DePalma)

classical electron models ('hydrino')

Here's another classical caveat:

From another link:

If this is real, and it seems more possible than any other such thing I've ever seen, this could be amazing, if some people have been keeping this sort of thing secret the cat is about to get out of the bag. This was covered in the last Fortean Times btw.

www.emdrive.com

Quote:A force for space with no reaction

Tom Shelley reports on an extraordinary concept which, if it turns out to be as good as it promises, could have a profound impact on engineering


A reactionless force motor, designed for space use, has the potential to drive objects on until they reach speeds close to that of light. Upon first inspection it looks as if it cannot possibly work, however one of the UK's leading engineers has developed a prototype which has been endorsed by academics and government alike.

Defying conventional wisdom, it is low cost, is said to obey the laws of physics (as they are currently understood) and, in the longer term, could revolutionise transport and actuation.

The Emdrive is the brainchild of Roger Shawyer who, in the past, has had charge of some of Britains most advanced aerospace projects.

The germ of the present idea, he says, started when he worked at Sperry Gyroscope and was asked to look for a reactionless system for missile guidance.

Many of you may, at this point, throw up your hands and say that a reactionless system is not possible while citing Newton's Third Law. [actually citing 'the second Newtown', DePalma, it is correct.]

However while photons obey Newton's Laws in some respects, the idea of the solar sail being a typical example, in other respects, light and objects travelling at or near light speed do not obey them.

(Some people say that gyroscopes disobey the Third law - perhaps readers would like to comment).

In essence, the Emdrive is a resonating bottle full of microwaves.

Because microwaves are a low frequency form of light, their behaviour is governed by Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity.

And while microwaves and other forms of electromagnetic radiation may be thought of as very fast moving particles, they also have to be thought of as waves. At the same time that the constituent particles are moving at light speed, or their phase velocity, energy is transferred by the wave aspect travelling at group velocity.

Group velocity is the result of waves of different wavelengths interacting with each other.

According to Einstein, the phase velocity of electromagnetic waves is the speed of light in the appropriate medium whatever happens and in whatever moving frame of reference the observer happens to be; group velocity, however, varies.

Group velocity can be any speed from stationary to light speed (with a few physicists suggesting the additional possibility of faster than light). This varies the level of momentum imparted when striking an impenetrable barrier, and thus the force exerted on it.

Hence, it is possible to have a bottle full of electromagnetic waves exerting more force on one end than the other, whereas this is not possible for anything else that an engineer would normally be expected to encounter.

In the case of the prototype unit, the closed resonating cavity is wider at one end than the other.

Mathematical analysis shows that group velocity is higher at the wide end than the narrow end and, as a consequence, there is a net force exerted on the wider end.

Furthermore, the net force exerted is proportional to Q (Q being the effectiveness that the cavity shows as a resonator). Most academics have blanched at the very idea of getting involved in such a controversial idea. One, however, Dr Richard Paris, a reader in mathematics at the University of Abertay in Dundee, has endorsed the calculations. While the theoretical analyses may still be wrong, there is no denying that the prototype device appears to behave as predicted.

A curiosity of the constructed prototype is that when switched on, it takes some seconds to build up to full thrust.

At first Shawyer suspected that the apparent thrust might be due to some buoyancy effect arising from heat generated within the EMC enclosure. Careful modelling and analysis, however, shows that the effect arises purely from the time constants of the pulsed output of the microwave source and the way these interact with the time constant of the balance system used to measure the forces developed.

The device uses a resonator made of copper, filled with microwaves from a commercial magnetron running at 2.5GHz, delivering 850W at an efficiency of around 70%.

Enclosed in an EMC enclosure for safety reasons, the total weight of the box of apparatus is 15kg.

When the box is placed upon a balance one way up and is switched on, it exerts a downward force of 15kgf + 2gf and, when placed the other way up, it exerts a force of 15kgf - 2gf (the force motor and microwave generator weigh only 9.4kg, the remaining weight is that of the EMC enclosure). A force of 2gf, or about 0.02N, may not sound much, but on a spacecraft, it is dramatic, because it can be constantly applied for hours, days, weeks, months or years.

A three tonne satellite typically carries 1.7 tonnes of propellant.

If it did not need to do this, its weight would be halved, and so would the launching cost of each satellite, currently a minimum of £80 million (Russian launcher).

It would also greatly increase the working life of satellites, since this is presently ended when they run short of propellant, and are no longer able to keep themselves in their correct orbit.

The end result would be the increased economic viability of satellite communication and navigation systems, especially those that presently have marginal economics, tipping the balance between fibre optic ground-based systems and space-based systems.

Wrist-mounted communication systems and PDAs which would never lose signal, unless underground, would be the most immediate result noted by the 'man in the street'. Even on the basis of present satellite launch programmes, projected cost savings of £15.5 billion over the next 10 years earned the idea a DTI SMART Award in August 2001, and they are encouraging the raising of serious money for the next stage in development.

Assuming that the measured effects are as real as they appear to be, and that the theoretical analyses are correct, it is possible to speculate where the technology might go after this. In space, it would reduce the journey time to Mars from nine months to three, rendering feasible the proposed NASA/ESA manned mission to Mars program, presently a pipe dream because of cost.

On the ground, it may be possible to make the engine much more powerful, even powerful enough to provide lift against the force of gravity.

We have been asked not to say how this might be done, but we can reveal that it involves a drastic improvement in the 'Q' factor, which can be made possible using present day technology, but one which would require a fair amount of expenditure to develop. Shawyer insists that such an engine would not be an anti gravity machine, which it may or may not be possible to construct [it is, read about DePalma; and additionally, read the Nick Cook book about zero point and electrogravitics technology], but would certainly behave like one.

One of the curiosities of the idea is that as the size goes down, the working frequency goes up. Hence, it may one day be possible to make very small force motors working on the same principle, but powered by light.

These would be more compatible with very small scale robotics than trying to build very small mechanical actuators.

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marykmusic



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PostPosted: Wed Oct 26, 2005 10:14 am Post subject: Re: well, this could be huge... Reply with quote

Is it for real? Electromagnetic energy and how it works is not really well-understood.

Anything to stop depending on oil, at this point, is interesting. --MaryK

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anotherdrew



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PostPosted: Wed Oct 26, 2005 4:09 pm Post subject: Re: well, this could be huge... Reply with quote

well, this could help with getting us off fossil fuels [like coal and abiotic fuels like oil] to some extent, but it needs electricity to work. It sure would make space travel faster and simpler tho.

It's so easy to write this off as yet another false hope, but apparently the British government which has funded most of the research and the prototype's construction think it's real.

"The team claims to have undergone seven independent reviews from experts at BAE Systems, EADS Astrium, Siemens and the IEE. The DTI has awarded the company £125,000 to develop a prototype engine as part of a three-year, £250,000 programme."

this bit: "...it may be possible to make the engine much more powerful, even powerful enough to provide lift against the force of gravity. We have been asked not to say how this might be done, but we can reveal that it involves a drastic improvement in the 'Q' factor, which can be made possible using present day technology..."

Basically they're saying they've invented a UFO engine.

Just keep electricity running to it, and you've got thrust. It's very scale-able too, so it can go from tiny little thrusters providing hundredths of a G accelerations to larger ones able to generate in excess of 1 G acceleration.

This will mean very fast trip times to the moon for instance. This could be as or more significant an advance as going from the steam engine to the internal combustion engine.

Some people suspect we already have such technology and are keeping it secret. In fact that we have an off-planet navy already. There was a British hacker arrested recently who broke into lots of US military computers, doesn't remember much and didn't take notes, claims he was 'too stoned' (or he's being told to forget most of the details if he wants to live). He was specifically looking for UFO related info. One thing he found was a list of what were referred to as "non-terrestrial" officer transfers involving ship names not known to be in the wet-navy. So who knows...

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Posts: 528


PostPosted: Thu Oct 27, 2005 1:31 am Post subject: Re: Utopia or Oblivion! Reply with quote


yep. we are playing some high stakes poker here on earth these days, best game in the galaxy at the moment, maybe that's why so many visitors stop in for a look 'round, all kinds of visitors: from outside, inside and unside.

ah well, even if it's oblivion, we'll always get to play again (I think).

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glubglubglub



Joined: 22 Apr 2005
Posts: 328


PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2005 12:07 am Post subject: I'll make you a bet, drew: Reply with quote


if this propulsion device works the Biefield-Brown effect is also legitimate, and functions off of a similar principle -- exploiting differences in phase velocity between two areas of a local em field.

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Connut



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Posts: 133

...

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anotherdrew



Joined: 23 May 2005
Posts: 528


PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2005 5:49 pm Post subject: Biefeld-Brown effect Reply with quote

glubglubglub,
There may be a similar thing going on in the B-B effect. perhaps the ionic wind between the two electrodes can function as a weak (or low-Q) wave guide for some electromagnetic radiation emitted by the 'big electrode'. I don't think anyone's looked into that, plus it would seem to produce a much weaker thrust than the ionic wind effect.

I'm fairly convinced that B-B effect doesn't work in a vacuum and the "lifter" thrust only comes from the ionic 'wind'
There seems to be some holding onto the idea that there may be more going on in the B-B effect than (just) the ionic wind, but I'm not aware of anyone showing that it DOES work in a vacuum.

hmmm... is near vacuum a good insulator?

cheers :D

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bie...own_effect
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EHD_thruster

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glubglubglub



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PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2005 6:25 pm Post subject: yeah, I think Brown claimed his stuff worked in a vacuum Reply with quote


but I also have never seen any credible experiments demonstrating the point; the 'lifters' are only vaguely related, and not really operating on the same 'principle' as the B-B stuff -- asymmetric capacitor plates -- but the lifters clearly only work in a vacuum. That JN Audin fellow claims to have made a lifter work in a near vacuum, but I was extremely unimpressed with the experimental setup and his overall rigorousness.

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anotherdrew



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PostPosted: Sat Oct 29, 2005 1:36 am Post subject: Re: yeah, I think Brown claimed his stuff worked in a vacuum Reply with quote

"but the lifters clearly only work in a vacuum"
I've seen video of lifters working in people's backyards, for sure they work in air. We may be talking about two different things tho... here's the site... jnaudin.free.fr/lifters/main.htm

Oddly enough, JL Naudin died in 2001, sortly after his lifter videos gained wide-spread attention on the net. Anyway, it says he's dead. Kinda like Eugene Mallove who was murdered in 2004. The coincidence theorists can have a field day with this I supose, but maybe... maybe "distruptive technologies" is still a dangerous business. (disruptive of the status quo that is).

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glubglubglub



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PostPosted: Sat Oct 29, 2005 10:41 am Post subject: whoa Reply with quote
that was my mistake -- I meant to say the lifters only work when NOT in a vacuum. I had no clue Naudin died.

Mark said...

PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2005 10:07 am Post subject: Metal? Reply with quote


And then there's this -

Metal: The fuel of the future
22 October 2005
Kurt Kleiner
Magazine issue 2522
The clean, green car of the future will cruise the highway on a tankful of powdered metal - welcome to the new Iron Age
IF smog-choked streets test our love for petrol and diesel engines, then rocketing fuel prices and global warming could end that relationship once and for all. But before you start saving for the fuel-cell-powered electric car that industry experts keep promising, there's something you should know. The car of the future will run on metal.

So reckons Dave Beach, a researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, who has come up with a plan to transform the way we fuel our engines. Chunks of metal such as iron, aluminium or boron are the thing, he believes. Turn them into powder with grains just nanometres across and the stuff becomes highly reactive. Ignite it, and it releases copious quantities of energy. With a modified engine and a tankful of metal, Beach calculates that an average saloon car could travel three times as far as the equivalent petrol-powered vehicle. Better still, ...

www.newscientist.com/arti...1.100.html

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glubglubglub



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PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2005 10:34 am Post subject: that metal engine is awful Reply with quote
the environmental costs of refining, say, 50-100 ls. of aluminum per 'tank' of water far outweighs the costs of just driving a regular gas-burning automobile. Sure the water/metal car produces less output at the driving stage, but the net environmental effect of fuel production is actually worse than that for conventional cars.

---
http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1468

Mark said...

The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency is reportedly investing in a power unit that can generate substantial electrical energy without using any fuel.

The units manufactured by a small Virginia start-up company - SkyBuilt Power - are so rugged they can be dropped by parachute from an airplane and operate so simply, two people could have a unit running in just a few hours, the Christian Science Monitor reported Tuesday.

The generators are fueled by solar and wind energy, with a battery backup for use during the night or when winds are calm. And the units are designed to run for years with little maintenance, the newspaper said.

Depending upon its configuration, SkyBuilt's Mobile Power Station can generate up to 150 kilowatts of electricity.

And now privately owned, SkyBuilt has a new investor -- In-Q-Tel -- a venture capital firm owned by the CIA.

The "Q" in In-Q-Tel is a reference to the fictional character "Q" who supplies James Bond with scientific gadgets.

Although no models for homes are yet available, SkyBuilt says its mobile power station can help meet critical power needs, such as during disasters, terrorist attacks, military operations or meteorological emergencies.

www.spacewar.com/news/ene...zzzzg.html

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Starman



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...

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http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1465

Mark said...

Another novel, innovative energy system whose inventor and supporters claim can replenish itself:

www.apfn.org/apfn/free_energy.htm

[i'm removing the unsupported claims from some sources in this article.]

Inventor Claims Discovery of Free Energy
By Kevin Smith
Reuters

DUBLIN (Jan. 22) - It has been a pipe-dream of inventors since Leonardo da Vinci, but has the secret of free energy now been found in Ireland?

A cold stone house on a wind-swept Irish hillside may seem an unlikely setting for the birthplace of such an epoch-making discovery, but it is here that an Irish inventor says he has developed a machine that will do no less than change the world.

The 58-year-old electrical engineer, who lives in the Irish republic and intends -- for ''security and publicity-avoidance reasons'' -- to keep his identity a secret, has spent 23 years perfecting the Jasker Power System.

It is an electromechanical device he says is capable of nothing less than replenishing its own energy source.

The Irishman is not alone in making such assertions. The Internet is awash with speculation about free or ''zero point'' energy, with many claiming to have cracked the problem using magnets, coils, and even crystals.

...
...


The makers of the Jasker -- a name derived from family abbreviations -- say it can be built to scale using off-the-shelf components and can power anything that requires a motor.

''The Jasker produces emission-free energy at no cost apart from the installation. It is quite possibly the most significant invention since the wheel,'' Tom Hedrick, the only person involved with the machine willing to give his name, told Reuters.

Hedrick, chief executive of a company set up with a view to licensing the device in the United States, said the technology shattered preconceived laws of science.

''It's a giant leap forward. The uses of this are almost beyond imagination.''

RED HOT WITH CONTROVERSY

Not surprisingly, this topic is red hot with controversy -- sharply dividing a world scientific community still on its guard after the ''Cold Fusion'' [reality was crushed by U.S. state, corporate, and university funding politics.]
...

Undaunted, the inventor says that once powered-up, his device can run indefinitely -- or at least until the parts wear out, adding that he has supplied all his own domestic power needs free for 17 months.
...

THE SIZE OF A DISHWASHER

In a demonstration for Reuters, a prototype -- roughly the size of a dishwasher -- was run for around 10 minutes using four 12-volt car batteries as an initial power source.

Emitting a steady motorized hum, the machine powered three 100-watt light bulbs for the duration.

A multimeter reading of the batteries' voltage before the device started up showed a total of 48.9 volts. When it was switched off, a second reading showed 51.2 volts, indicating that, somehow, they had been reimbursed.

The machine went on to run for around two hours while photographs were taken, with no diminution in the brightness of the light bulbs, which remained lit during a short power cut.

''The draw on the batteries was estimated at more than 4.5 kilowatts. With any existing technology the batteries would have been drained flat in one and a half minutes,'' the inventor said.

Modern theories of zero point energy have their roots in quantum physics and encompass the fraught areas of ''anti-gravity machines'' and ''advanced propulsion'' research.

Contributors to the debate range from serious exponents of quantum science to those who insist free energy secrets have been imparted to them by aliens. Still others seem convinced the U.S. government is conspiring to suppress such discoveries. [Look up the text of the 'Dear John' national security technological repression letter, a form in use since 1951 I think and printed in the back of Jeanne Manning's book the New Energy Revolution.]

Nick Cook, aerospace consultant to Janes Defense Weekly and author of ''The Hunt for Zero Point'' is not as quick as some to dismiss the possibilities.

''Zero point energy has been proven to exist,'' he told Reuters. ''The question is whether it can be tapped to provide usable energy. And to that end, I think it's possible, yes. There are a lot of eminent scientists now involved in this field and they wouldn't be if there wasn't anything to it.''

''In my experience opinion in this field is extremely polarized ... people either go with this area of investigation in their minds or they don't, and if they don't they tend to pooh-pooh it vehemently. It's very difficult to get an objective assessment,'' he said.

''Basically, no one wants to be the first to stick his head above the parapet.''

... Jasker's makers see the first practical application of their technology as a stand-alone generator for home use, although the automotive industry could also be a near-term target given the huge investment in developing substitutes for gasoline-fueled engines.

With world oil reserves running down [or it's just the lie of justifying higher prices and artificial scarcity created by the oil majors themselves in refusing to pump it to raise the price], there is mounting urgency in the quest for alternatives.

If the Jasker men really are onto something, it could be the most important Irish invention since Guinness.

REUTERS 10:22 01-22-02
www.cyberspaceorbit.com/frengyx.htm
http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1465

Mark said...

IAUS Pushing Solar to Within Competitive Range of Grid Power

There are two key factors in the IAUS technology that enable a cost-effective conversion of solar energy into usable power: their thin-film solar collectors, and their bladeless turbines, which have a much wider application than just converting solar thermal energy to electricity.

The company also will be combining this new development with existing catalytic technology to generate methanol fuel cleanly from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

All this can be done at a price comparable to gasoline, if not even a little less expensive, considering the present high price of gasoline.

The solar collectors do not operate as photovoltaic cells.

Rather, the sun's rays focus onto a heat exchanger which then transfers the heat to a highly efficient turbine, which in turn hooks directly to a regular AC electricity generator.


Solar panels resemble magnifying glass lenses. Approximately 1/8-inch thick, resilient material, withstands strong winds.

Though the panels resemble a magnifying glass, they are in fact composed of thousands of microscopic refracting lenses on a thin substrate that is only about 1/8th of an inch thick, and held in place by a frame. The "thin film" manufacturing process is far less expensive than the photovoltaic cell manufacturing process.

The prototype is rectangular in shape, with 15 panels on each half, each focusing on a separate heat exchanger that will reach around 1000 degrees Fahrenheit, driving the turbine.

However, the manufactured product will be shaped like an octagon, about 22 feet in diameter; and will focus all the rays on a larger heat exchanger, which could get as hot as 4000 ºF. That unit will put out about 6-10 kilowatts of AC power, enough to power a few homes.


The technology seems simple.

The part hardest for me to grasp is the hydration-dehydration process that creates electricity when the sun is hiding.

With the efficiency at only 20-30%, this thing will become even more powerful as they hone the technology.

It sucks that they're rolling it out exclusively for the power companies. If they'd roll it out for the people the big power companies would disappear.:D Yay! Imagine that! One corner of your backyard devoted to something like this that would furnish enough power for 3 homes, and clean!

---
http://pesn.com/2005/08/02/9600142_IAUS_Solar/
http://rigorousintuition.ca/board/viewtopic.php?t=1443

Mark said...

Energy
Suppression

An Invisible
Galaxy of
Inventions

by Christopher Bird




In its July 17, 1995, Australia edition, Time magazine rounded up a list of future technologies that would change the world as we know it. In doing so, they made the following prediction: "The first company to design an affordable car that doesn't foul the atmosphere will race past its competitors."

Not only was Time totally wrong in saying this, but it's quite probable that their misstatement was an intentional lie. The simple fact is that the technology to create an "affordable car that doesn't foul the atmosphere" has been known for most of the last century. It's just that the oil companies, who cannot make money from such vehicles, will not allow the public to have them.

My First Experience: The Game Is Afoot
My own story began late one night as I was driving home listening to talk radio. Somebody piped up that they'd been working on a solar-powered car out at the local airport. They said that it was as cheap and safe as an average family car, and that it was all ready to go. All you needed was about $5 worth of fuel per year to get it started.

The startled DJ asked when we were likely to see this car in the marketplace, and the caller coolly replied, "Probably never. I'd say that the oil companies will buy us out in a flash."

I nearly crashed my car! What on earth was going on here?

The next day, I rang the airport to find out who was doing the testing, only to find out from an assertive voice, "There are no automobiles being tested here, and there never have been."

Fine.

This dead end provided the spark of determination to send me on my investigative way.

A Water-Powered Lawnmower Bites the Dust
My next encounter with the suppression phenomenon happened about a year later. It involved a female friend of mine who said that a man she knew had invented a lawnmower that ran on water.

Skeptical but excited, I said I wanted to meet this man.

My friend got back to me a few days later, very upset. It turns out that the water-powered lawnmower's inventor had recently opened his front door to a shotgun blast in the face.

For the six months prior to his death, this inventor had been solidly drinking, ever since he'd come home to his family one day with a million or so dollars and the announcement that he didn't want to discuss his engines again.

The Demise of a Little Black Box
More information came in the form of an article in the Melbourne Age (July 13, 1993, p. 5) introducing an "ozone safe induction" system — a little black box that was added to your engine and would cut fuel usage by up to two-thirds, with a corresponding reduction in pollution.

Oz Smart Technologies was the name of the firm, and Mike Holland was the inventor. I talked to Mike about his supposed breakthrough. "Yeah," he told me, "the U.S. military just flew in some generals and stuff, and they want to buy it. And Nissan just offered me five million dollars. But I want to develop it in Australia."

Did it work? Apparently so. The Environmental Protection Agency, along with scientists from Swinburne University who'd done the testing, told Mike off the record that it was the best design of its kind that they'd ever seen.

But the media continued to consider the device a bit of a hoax. And Mike Holland's company simply does not exist anymore. Yep. They just disappeared.

My research today tells me that Mike Holland's invention was probably of the improved-fuel-efficiency variety, simply burning fuel in a more efficient manner — nothing terribly difficult.

Other well-known developments are of the "car running on water" kind, usually involving electrical current running through the water to extract and then burn the hydrogen.

Some of the more interesting of these involve the use of magnets, sometimes tuned to exact frequencies that take energy from the ambient atmosphere.

More Energy Inventions That
They Don't Want Us to Know About
Since meeting Mike Holland, I have managed to collect quite a list of energy inventions that have somehow avoided being utilized in the marketplace.

You may not believe that all of them work — but it would be very difficult to claim that none of them do.

Here is the evidence. You decide for yourself.

Hydrogen power

In 1978, Yull Brown of Sydney, Australia, developed a method of extracting hydrogen from water and utilizing it as car fuel and as fuel for welders.

After much publicity (see Australia's The Bulletin, August 22, 1989), he had managed to raise over $2 million, but has failed to fully develop his invention.

Francisco Pacheco, an inventor from Bolivia, created the "Pacheco Bi-Polar Autoelectric Hydrogen Generator" (U.S. Patent No. 5,089,107), which separates hydrogen from seawater. He has built successful prototypes that have fueled a car, a motorcycle, a lawnmower, a flashlight, and a boat. And most recently, in 1990, he energized an entire home in West Milford with the device.

After many conferences (including at the United Nations) and public exhibitions proving the invention's worth, the wider community is still unable to utilize this technology.

Edward Estevel of Spain developed a classic "water to auto engine" system in the late 1960s, extracting hydrogen out of water to use as fuel.

This system was highly heralded — then, amid rumors of foul play, like many other "high hope" hydrogen systems.

During the mid-1970s, Sam Leach of Los Angeles developed a revolutionary hydrogen extraction process. The unit easily extracted free hydrogen from water and was small enough to fit under the hood of an automobile.

In 1976, two independent labs in LA tested this generator with perfect results.

M.J. Mirkin, who began the Budget car rental system, purchased the rights to the device from the inventor, who was said to be very concerned about his personal security.

Rodger Billings of Provo, Utah, headed a group of inventors that developed a system converting ordinary cars to run on hydrogen. Instead of using heavy hydrogen tanks, he used metal alloys called hydrides to store vast amounts of hydrogen. When hot exhaust gases passed through these hydride containers they released the gas to burn in standard engines.

Billings estimated the conversion would cost around $500 (US) and would provide greatly improved fuel consumption.

Archie Blue, an inventor from Christchurch, New Zealand, developed a car that runs purely on water by the extraction of hydrogen. An alleged offer of $500 million from "Arab interests" was not enough to convince him to sell, but nevertheless he has been unable to take his engine to the marketplace.

Electric Engines

In 1976, Wayne Henthron of Los Angeles built an Electromatic Auto that managed to regenerate its own electricity. In normal stop-and-go driving, it gave several hundred miles of service between recharges.

The system worked by wiring the batteries to act as capacitors once the car was moving along, with four standard alternators acting to keep the batteries charged. With little official interest in his system, the inventor resolved to make the car available to the public. To do so, he is now involved with the World Federation of Science and Engineering, 15532 Computer Lane, Huntington Beach, CA 92649.

In 1969, Joseph R. Zubris developed an electric car circuit design (U.S. Patent No. 3,809,978) that he estimated cost him $100 a year to operate. Using an old 10-horsepower electric truck motor, he worked out a unique system to get peak performance from his old 1961 Mercury engine that he ran from this power plant.

The device actually cut energy drain on the electricity, starting at 75 percent. And by weakening excitation after getting started, it produced a 100 percent mileage gain over conventional electric motors.

The inventor was shocked to find the lack of reaction from larger business interests, and so, in the early 1970s, began selling licenses to interested smaller concerns for $500. His last known address was Zubris Electrical Company, 1320 Dorchester Ave, Boston, MA 02122.

At I.W. International, an inventor's workshop, Richard Diggs developed a Liquid Electricity Engine that he believed could power a large truck for 25,000 miles from a single portable unit of his electrical fuel.

The inventor pointed out that liquid electricity violated a number of the well-known physical laws. He also was aware of the profound impact the invention could have upon the world's economy if it were developed.

B. Von Platen, a 65-year-old Swedish inventor, made a major breakthrough in the field of thermo-electric engines with his Hot and Cold Engine. The inventor's secret breakthrough was based on the fact that wires of different metals produce electricity if they are joined and heated. This technique is said to give more than a percent increase of efficiency over regular motors, and with a radioactive isotope for power it could be operated completely without fossil fuels.

Volvo of Sweden bought the rights to this in 1975.

Steam Engines

In 1970, Oliver Yunick developed a super-efficient steam engine (see Popular Science magazine, December 1970). It was able to compete admirably with combustion engines.

In 1971, DuPont Laboratories built an advanced steam engine utilizing a recyclable fluid of the Freon family. It is assumed to contain no need for an external condenser, valves, or tubes (Popular Science January 1972).

Also in 1971, William Bolon of Rialto, California, developed an unusual steam engine design that was said to get up to 50 miles to the gallon. The engine used only 17 moving parts, weighed less than 50 pounds, and in automatics eliminated the usual transmission and drive-train.

After much publicity, the inventor's factory was fire-bombed, with damages totaling $600,000. Letters to the White House were ignored. The inventor finally gave up and let Indonesian interests have the design.

Air Power

In 1931, Roy J. Meyers of Los Angeles built an air-powered car (air has been used for years to power localized underground mine engines). Myers, an engineer, built a 114-lb., 6-cylinder radial air engine that produced over 180 hp. Newspaper articles at the time reported that the vehicle could cruise several hundred miles at low speeds.

In the 1970s, Vittorio Sorgato of Milan, Italy, also created a very impressive air-powered vehicle, using compressed air stored as a liquid. After a great deal of initial interest from Italian sources, his invention is now all but forgotten.

Robert Alexander of Montebello, California, spent 45 days and around $500 to put together a car (U.S. Patent No. 3913004), using a small 7/8ths 12-volt motor to provide initial power. Once going, a hydraulic-and-air system took over and recharged the small electric energy drain.

The inventor and his partner were determined that the auto industry would not bury their "super power" system. To no avail.

Joseph P Troyan designed an air-powered flywheel that could propel an automobile using the principle of "ratio amplification of motion in a closed system." The Troyan motor (U.S. Patent No. 040011) was easily attached to electrical generators to create a pollution-free, variable-power system.

David McClintock created a free energy device known as the McClintock Air Motor (U.S. Patent No. 2,982,26100) which is a cross between a diesel engine with three cylinders and a compression ratio of 27-to-1, and a rotary engine with solar and plenary gears. It burns no fuel, but becomes self-running by driving its own air compressor.

Magnetic Energy

In the 1920s, John W. Keeley developed a car using principles similar to Nikola Tesla's, drawing harmonic magnetic energies from the planet itself. The electric car ran from high-frequency electricity that was received when he simply broadcast the re-radiated atmospheric energy from a unit on his house roof.

General Motors and the other Detroit oil powers offered the inventor $35 million, which he turned down when they would not guarantee to market the engine. Henry Ford later bought and successfully shelved the invention.

Harold Adams of Lake Isabella, California, worked out a motor thought to be similar to Keeley's. It was demonstrated to many persons, including Naval scientists, around the late 1940s, before it, too, "disappeared" from history.

In the early 1970s, Dr. Keith E. Kenyon of Van Nuys, California, discovered a discrepancy in long-accepted laws relating to electrical motor magnets. Based upon this discovery, he built a radically different motor that could theoretically run a car on a very small amount of current.

When this was demonstrated to scientists and engineers in 1976, those present admitted that it worked remarkably well. But because it defied the "accepted" laws of physics, they chose to ignore it.

Bob Teal of Madison, Florida, a retired electronics engineer, invented what he called a Magna-Pulsion Engine. It ran by means of six tiny electromagnets and a secret timing device. Requiring no fuel, the engine emitted no gases. It was so simple in design that it required very little maintenance. A small motorcycle battery provided enough power to get it started. The engine was met with little but skepticism.

In the late 1920s, Lester J. Hendershot built his Hendershot Generator, largely through simple trial and error. He wove together a number of flat coils of wire, and placed stainless steel rings and sticks of carbon, and experimented with permanent magnets in various positions. To his surprise, the device actually produced current. The generator raised considerable attention at the time.

Howard Johnson developed a motor whose power was generated purely by magnetism. It took six years of legal hassles to patent his design (U.S. Patent No. 4,151,431). More information is available from the Permanent Magnet Research Institute, P.O. Box 199, Blacksburg, Virginia 24063. He is currently offering licensing rights.

In the early 1970s Edwin V. Gray developed an engine that uses no fuel and produces no waste. This engine that runs itself is U.S. Patent 3,890,548.

Petroleum Additives

In the mid-1970s, Guido Franch of Michigan began demonstrating in his "water-to-gas miracle" — a fuel he created by adding to water a small quantity of "conversion powder" which was easily processed from coal. He claimed it could be processed for a few cents per gallon if mass-produced.

The fuel was tested by chemists at Havoline Chemical of Michigan and at the local university, and both concluded that the new substance worked more efficiently than gasoline. Franch continued to put on demonstrations for years, but said the auto manufacturers, government, and private companies just weren't interested in his revolutionary fuel.

Around the mid-1970s, Dr. Alfred R. Globus, working for United International Research, developed a hydro-fuel mixture of 45 percent gasoline, 50 percent or more of water, and small percentages of United's "Hydrelate," which acted as a bonding agent. It was estimated that a hundred million gallons of fuel could be saved per day if this fuel were utilized. But, alas, nobody seemed interested.

In 1974, John Andrews, a Portuguese chemist, developed a fuel additive that enabled ordinary gasoline to be mixed with water, reducing fuel costs to 2 cents per gallon. After he had successfully demonstrated the substance, impressed Navy officials went to negotiate for the formula and found the inventor missing and his lab ransacked.

Jean Chambrin, a mechanical engineer in Paris, developed a water-and-alcohol motor, which he used to run his own private cars on denatured alcohol and water. The inventor claimed that his motor's design could be mass-produced at a fraction of the cost of present engines. He received nothing but publicity — of the type that forced him to take great precautions in regard to his personal safety.

In 1977, Marvin D. Martin of the University of Arizona developed a "fuel reformer" catalytic reactor that was estimated to double mileage. The device was designed to cut exhaust emissions by mixing water with hydrocarbon fuels to produce an efficient hydrogen-methane-carbon monoxide fuel.

Improving Fuel Efficiency

In the early 1970s, Edward La Force of Vermont and his brother, Robert, designed a highly efficient engine that utilized the usually wasted heavier gasoline molecules. The Los Angeles Examiner on December 29, 1974, reported that efficiency was produced by altering the cams, timing, and so on, of stock Detroit engines. These modifications not only eliminated most of the pollution from the motor, but — by completely burning all the fuel — produced double the usual mileage.

After much publicity, the Environmental Protection Agency examined the cars and found that the motor designs were not good enough. Few people believed the EPA, including a number of senators, who brought the matter up in a Congressional hearing in March 1975. The result was still silence.

Eric Cottell was one of the pioneers of ultrasonic fuel systems. These involve using sonic transducers to "vibrate" existing fuels down to much smaller particles, making them burn with up to 20 percent more efficiency. Cottell then went on to discover that superfine S-ionized water could be mixed perfectly with up to 70 percent oil or gas in these systems. This discovery was followed by much publicity (e.g. Newsweek, June 17, 1974). Then, once again — silence.

L. Mills Beam had his super-mileage carburetor bought out in the 1920s. In the late 1960s, he worked out a catalytic vegetable compound that produced the same super-mileage results. In principle, it was nothing more than a method of using the hot exhaust gases of an engine to vaporize the liquid gas being burned. By rearranging the molecules of gas and diesel, he was able to triple mileage rates, while obtaining better combustion, mileage and emission control.

He was refused and rejected by state and federal air pollution and environmental pollution agencies, and was finally forced to sell his formula abroad in the mid-1970s just to survive.

John W. Gulley, of Gratz, Kentucky, managed 115 mpg from his 8-cylinder Buick by using a similar vaporizing method as that employed by L.M. Beam. "Detroit interests" bought and suppressed the device in 1950.

Shell Research of London produced a "Vapipe" unit in the early 1970s that also vaporized petroleum at around 40 degrees centigrade, and used a sophisticated pressure-loss reduction system. But, alas, it was not marketed because it allegedly did not meet Federal emission standards.

In 1932, Russell Bourke designed an engine with only two moving parts. He connected two pistons to a refined "Scotch Yoke" crankshaft and came up with an engine that was superior in most respects to any competitive engine. His design burned any cheap carbon-based fuel, and delivered great mileage and performance. Article after article was published acclaiming his engine, but once again, to no avail. The Bourke Engine Documentary is the revealing book the inventor assembled just before his death.

New Fuels

Clayton J. Querles of Lucerne Valley, California, took a 10,000-mile trip across the country in his 1949 Buick on $10 worth of carbide by building a simple carbide generator which worked somewhat like a miner's lamp. He claimed that half a pound of acetylene pressure was sufficient to keep his car running. But because acetylene was dangerous, he put a safety valve on his generator and ran the outlet gas through water to ensure there would be no "blow back." The inventor also toyed successfully with methods of fuel vaporization (see Sun-Telegram, November 2, 1974).

In the 1960s, Joseph Papp built the highly regarded Papp engine. It could run on a 15-cents-an-hour secret combination of expandable gases. Instead of burning fuel, this engine used electricity to expand the gas in hermetically sealed cylinders. The first prototype was a simple ninety-horsepower Volvo engine with upper end modifications, with Volvo pistons attached to pistons fitting the sealed cylinders.

The engine worked perfectly, with an output of three-hundred horsepower. The inventor claimed it would cost about $25 to charge each cylinder every sixty thousand miles. Amid his accusations of media suppression, the idea has gotten nowhere.

Carburetors

G.A. Moore, one of the most productive inventors of carburetors, held some 17,000 patents, of which 250 were related to the automobile and its carburation. Industry today relies on his air brakes and fuel injection systems, but continues to completely ignore his systems for reducing pollution, gaining more mileage, and improving overall engine efficiency. More information is available from The Works of George Arlington Moore, published by the Madison Company (see U.S. Patents Nos. 1,633,791 to 2,123,485 for 17 more interesting developments).

In the mid-1950s, Joseph Bascle created the Bascle carburetor. The carburetor raised mileage by 25 percent and reduced pollution by 45 percent. Its inventor, a well-known Baton Rouge researcher, modified every carburetor in the local Yellow Cab fleet shortly after his arrival there.

In the early 1970s, Kendig Carburetors, under the title of Variable Venture Carburetors, were hand-made for racing cars by a small group of mechanics in Los Angeles. Eventually, a young college student bought one of their less sophisticated prototypes for his old Mercury "gas hog." When he entered his Mercury in a California air pollution run, he won easily. Not only did the carburetor reduce pollution, but also it gave almost twice the mileage of a comparable unmodified engine. Within a week, the student was told to remove the carburetor, as it was not approved by the Air Resources Board.

The simpler Kendig model was due for production in 1975, but has yet to be produced.

In the late 1930s, C.N. Pogue of Winnipeg, Canada, developed a carburetor (U.S. Patent No. 2,026,789) that used superheated steam in its system and managed at least 200 miles per gallon. Much local interest, including threats from professional thieves, was not enough publicity to see this invention through to the marketplace.

In the 1940s, John R. Fish developed his "Fish" carburetor. It was tested by Ford, who admitted that the invention was a third more efficient than theirs. The design also could be easily switched to alcohol. Nevertheless, the inventor was hindered from manufacture and distribution in almost every possible way. He once even resorted to selling it by mail order, only to be stopped by the Post Office.

The device can currently be purchased from Fuel Systems of America, Box 9333, Tacoma, Washington 98401, phone 206-922-2228 (U.S. Patents Nos. 2,214,273, 2,236,595, 2,775,818)

The Dresserator was created around the early 1970s in Santa Ana, California, by Lester Berriman. It was based on a super-accurate mixture control using greatly enhanced airflow, and could run a car on up to a 22-to-1-fuel mixture. Test cars passed the pollution control standards with ease and managed up to an 18 percent mileage gain.

Although Holley Carburetor and Ford signed agreements to manufacture the design in 1974, nothing has been heard of it since.

On March 11, 1969, Mark J. Meierbachtol of San Bernardino, California, obtained the patent (U.S. Patent No. 3,432,281) for a carburetor that managed significantly greater mileage than usual.

This article was edited lightly from an email circulated by Christopher Bird and published on the web as And You Say There Ain't No Conspiracy?....

Bird notes that his list of inventions borrows heavily from the book Suppressed Inventions and Other Inventions by Bird, Brian O'Leary, Jeane Manning, and Barry Lynes, Auckland Institute of Technology Press, Private Bag 92006, Auckland, New Zealand, ISBN No. 0-9583334-7-5.

Christopher Bird asked that this message be published "as widely as possible," and the Spirit of Ma'at was glad to comply.

---
http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/feb2/bird.htm

Mark said...

Alternative energy
A new sort of wind power

Sep 29th 2005
From The Economist print edition

WEATHER systems, as the world has recently been reminded, have awesome power. The energy released by a large hurricane can exceed the energy consumption of the human race for a whole year, and even an average tornado has a power similar to that of a large power station. If only mankind could harness that energy, rather than being at its mercy. Louis Michaud, a Canadian engineer who works at a large oil company, believes he has devised a way to do just that, by generating artificial whirlwinds that can be controlled and harnessed. He calls his invention the “atmospheric vortex engine”.

His idea works on a similar principle to a solar chimney, which consists of a tall, hollow cylinder surrounded by a large greenhouse.

The sun heats the air in the greenhouse, and the hot air rises.

But its only escape route is via the chimney. A turbine at the base of the chimney generates electricity as the air rushes by. A small solar chimney was operated successfully in Spain in the 1980s, and EnviroMission, an Australian firm, is planning to build a 1,000-metre-high example in New South Wales.…

http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=4455446

Mark said...

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---
http://www.knowledgepublications.com/sunshine_to_dollars_google_adwords2b.htm

Mark said...

Coming in out of the cold: Cold fusion, for real

By Michelle Thaller | csmonitor.com
PASADENA, CALIF. – For the last few years, mentioning cold fusion around scientists (myself included) has been a little like mentioning Bigfoot or UFO sightings.

After the 1989 announcement of fusion in a bottle, so to speak, and the subsequent retraction, the whole idea of cold fusion seemed a bit beyond the pale. But that's all about to change.


A very reputable, very careful group of scientists at the University of California at Los Angeles (Brian Naranjo, Jim Gimzewski, Seth Putterman) has initiated a fusion reaction using a laboratory device that's not much bigger than a breadbox, and works at roughly room temperature. This time, it looks like the real thing. [it was always the 'real thing.'] [ Editor's note: The original version misnamed the scientists' institution.]

Before going into their specific experiment, it's probably a good idea to define exactly what nuclear fusion is, and why we're so interested in understanding the process. This also gives me an excuse to talk about how things work deep inside the nuclei of atoms, a topic near and dear to most astronomers (more on that later).

Simply put, nuclear fusion means ramming protons and neutrons together so hard that they stick, and form a single, larger nucleus. When this happens with small nuclei (like hydrogen, which has only one proton or helium, which has two), you get a lot of energy out of the reaction. This specific reaction, fusing two hydrogen nuclei together to get helium, famously powers our sun (good), as well as hydrogen bombs (bad).

Fusion is a tremendous source of energy; the reason we're not using it to meet our everyday energy needs is that it's very hard to get a fusion reaction going. The reason is simple: protons don't want to get close to other protons.

Do you remember learning about electricity in high school? I sure do - I dreaded it whenever that topic came around. I had a series of well-meaning science teachers that thought it would be fun for everyone to hold hands and feel a mild electric shock pass their arms. Every time my fists clenched and jerked and I had nothing consciously do with it, my stomach turned.

In addition, I have long, fine hair, and was often made a victim of the Van de Graf generator - the little metal ball with a rubber belt inside it that creates enough static electricity to make your hair stand on end. Yeesh.

Anyway, hopefully you remember the lesson that two objects having different electrical charges (positive and negative) attract one another, while those with the same charge repel. It's a basic law of electricity, and it definitely holds true when two protons try to get close together. Protons have positive charges, and they repel each other. Somehow, in order for fusion to work, you've got to overcome this repulsive electrical force and get the things to stick together.

Here's where an amazing and mysterious force comes in that, although we don't think about it in our day-to-day lives, literally holds our matter together. There are four universal forces of nature, two of which you're probably familiar with: gravity and electromagnetism.

But there are two other forces that really only come in to play inside atomic nuclei: the strong and weak nuclear forces (and yes, the strong force is the stronger of the two, the weak is weaker. Scientists really have a way with names, dont they?) I'm going to focus on the strong force, as that's the one responsible for nuclear fusion.

The strong force is an attractive force between protons and neutrons - it wants to stick them together. If the strong force had its way, the entire universe would be one big super-dense ball of protons and neutrons, one big atomic nucleus, in fact.

Fortunately, the strong force only becomes strong at very small scales: about one millionth billionth of a meter. Yes, that's 0.000000000000001 meters. Any farther away, and the strong force loses its grip. But if you can get protons and neutrons that close together, the strong force becomes stronger than any other force in nature, including electricity.

That's important- all protons have the same charge, so they'd like to fly away from each other. But if you can get them close together, inside the volume of an atomic nucleus, the strong force will bind them together.

The whole trick with fusion is you've got to get protons close enough together for the strong force to overcome their electrical repulsion and merge them together into a nucleus. The sun does this pretty much by brute force. The sun has over 300,000 times the mass of the Earth, which means there's a lot of gravity weighing down on its core.

That pressure gets the sun's internal temperature up to several millions of degrees, which means that particles inside the sun's core are flying around at huge velocities. Everything is moving around so fast that protons sometimes get slammed together before their charges have a chance to repel. The strong force takes hold, and a new atom (helium) is born.

In this process, some of the mass of the protons is converted into energy, powering the sun and producing the light that will eventually reach the Earth as sunlight.

Scientists have gotten fusion to occur in the laboratory before, but for the most part, they've tried to mimic conditions inside the sun by whipping hydrogen gas up to extreme temperatures or slamming atoms together in particle accelerators. Both of those options require huge energies and gigantic equipment, not the sort of stuff easily available to build a generator. Is there any way of getting protons close enough together for fusion to occur that doesnt require the energy output of a large city to make it happen?

The answer, it turns out, is yes.

Instead of using high temperatures and incredible densities to ram protons together, the scientists at UCLA cleverly used the structure of an unusual crystal.

Crystals are fascinating things; the atoms inside are all lined up in a tightly ordered lattice, which creates the beautiful structure we associate with crystals. Sometimes those orderly atoms create neat side-effects, like piezoelectricity, which is the effect of creating an electrical charge in a crystal by compressing it. Stressing the bonds between the atoms of some crystals causes electrons to build up on one side, creating a charge difference over the body of the crystal. Other crystals do this when you heat or cool them; these are called pyroelectric crystals.

The new cold fusion experiment went something like this: scientists inserted a small pyroelectric crystal (lithium tantalite) inside a chamber filled with hydrogen. Warming the crystal by about 100 degrees (from -30 F to 45F) produced a huge electrical field of about 100,000 volts across the small crystal.

The tip of a metal wire was inserted near the crystal, which concentrated the charge to a single, powerful point. Remember, hydrogen nuclei have a positive charge, so they feel the force of an electric field, and this one packed quite a wallop! The huge electric field sent the nuclei careening away, smacking into other hydrogen nuclei on their way out. Instead of using intense heat or pressure to get nuclei close enough together to fuse, this new experiment used a very powerful electric field to slam atoms together.

Unlike some previous claims of room-temperature fusion, this one makes intuitive sense: its just another way to get atoms close enough together for the strong force to take over and do the rest. Once the reaction got going, the scientists observed not only the production of helium nuclei, but other tell-tale signs of fusion such as free neutrons and high energy radiation.

This experiment has been repeated successfully and other scientists have reviewed the results: it looks like the real thing this time.

For the time being, don't expect fusion to become a readily available energy option. The current cold fusion apparatus still takes much more energy to start up than you get back out, and it may never end up breaking even. In the mean time, the crystal-fusion device might be used as a compact source of neutrons and X-rays, something that could turn out to be useful making small scanning machines. But it really may not be long until we have the first nuclear fusion-powered devices in common use.

So cold fusion is back, perhaps to stay. After many fits and starts, its finally time for everyday fusion to come in out of the cold.

---
http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0606/p25s01-stss.html?s=u

Mark said...

[algae energy and sequestration of carbon and fodder; energy and sequestration, if required for sequestration, is a win-win situation, though of course any form of thermodynamics based burning energy is hardly optimal...when there are other options that entirely remove the thermodynamic dependencies on energy (like air car, water car, the videos in the original post above as well, etc.]

Possible Fix For Global Warming?
Environmental Engineers Use Algae To Capture Carbon Dioxide

April 1, 2007 — Engineers have designed a simple, sustainable and natural carbon sequestration solution using algae. A team at Ohio University created a photo bioreactor that uses photosynthesis to grow algae, passing carbon dioxide over large membranes, placed vertically to save space. The carbon dioxide produced by the algae is harvested by dissolving into the surrounding water. The algae can be harvested and made into biodiesel fuel and feed for animals. A reactor with 1.25 million square meters of algae screens could be up and running by 2010.

Global warming's effects can be seen worldwide, and many experts believe it's only going to get worse. In fact, America is by far the largest contributor to global warming than any other country -- releasing a quarter of the world's carbon dioxide -- the primary cause of global warming. But now engineers have found a natural way to eliminate one of the worst contributors to our environment's decay.

What's coming from power plants, traffic jams and industrial smog is causing our ozone to disappear, ice caps to melt, and temperatures to rise. The latest international report says carbon dioxide responsible for 60 percent of the greenhouse gases.

Now engineers say a simple, sustainable and natural solution may come from algae. "If this sort of technology can be developed, it can be deployed anywhere there's sunlight," David Bayless, a professor of mechanical engineering at Ohio University in Athens, tells DBIS.

Bayless, with a team at Ohio University, created a photo bioreactor that uses photosynthesis to grow algae just like a plant would take carbon dioxide up and, through the energy of the sun, convert that into oxygen.

"That passes the carbon dioxide over these membranes," Ben Stuart, an Ohio University environmental engineer, tells DBIS. "These membranes are fabric just like your shirt. It's a woven material, and as the carbon dioxide pass by them, that carbon dioxide dissolves into the water."

That carbon dioxide is broken down by the algae.

Nitrogen and clean oxygen are released back into the atmosphere.

But to capture the CO2 created from a power plant, algae would have to fill a building the size of Wal-Mart.

"The size of these things would be enormous, about an acre worth of land space. And so the flu gases would run through this huge building and the algae would be growing on the suspended vertical surfaces." Stuart says.

But what makes it cost effective? The algae can be harvested and made into biodiesel fuel and feed for animals.

Bayless says, "You are talking about definitely home-grown fuel, a win-win thing. You know, you are taking a potentially very negative thing in carbon emissions and turning it into a fuel that we can use domestically." He says a full-scale reactor with 1.25 million square meters of algae screens could be up and running by 2010.

There are already some test facilities working right now -- and just in time! In the past 50 years, the U.S. carbon dioxide emissions have almost doubled. Texas ranks first in the nation for the highest emissions ... And just remember, once carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, it stays there for about 100 years.

The American Geophysical Union, American Society for Microbiology, and the Optical Society of America contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.

---
http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/0407-possible_fix_for_global_warming.htm

Mark said...

[First? It's been known for a long while, just politically repressed. See movies at the beginning of the thread. Interesting that this is getting some media play though.]

Physicist Claims First Real Demonstration of Cold Fusion
by Lisa Zyga


On May 22 researchers at Osaka University presented the first demonstration of cold fusion since an unsuccessful attempt in 1989 that has clouded the field to this day. [it was a successful attempt in 1989 all the time, there was just even more successful repression from the MIT group and others that led to the resignation of Eugene Mallove for instance in protest against scientific fraud of 'debunking' cold fusion--even though it worked all the time.]




To many people, cold fusion sounds too good to be true. The idea is that, by creating nuclear fusion at room temperature, researchers can generate a nearly unlimited source of power that uses water as fuel and produces almost zero waste. Essentially, cold fusion would make oil obsolete. [along with a triple dozen other choices already available!]

However, many experts debate whether money should be spent on cold fusion research or applied to more realistic alternative energy solutions.

For decades, researchers around the world have been simply trying to show that cold fusion is indeed possible, but they´ve yet to take that important first step.

Now, esteemed Physics Professor Yoshiaki Arata of Osaka University in Japan claims to have made the first successful demonstration of cold fusion [that is avoiding the media attack from the USA energy regime hegemonies...yet?].

Last Thursday, May 22, Arata and his colleague Yue-Chang Zhang of Shianghai Jiotong University presented the cold fusion demonstration to 60 onlookers, including other physicists, as well as reporters from six major newspapers and two TV studios.

If Arata and Zhang´s demonstration is real, it could lead to a future of new, clean, and cheap energy generation.

In their experiment, the physicists forced deuterium gas into a cell containing a mixture of palladium and zirconium oxide, which absorbed the deuterium to produce a dense "pynco" deuterium.

In this dense state, the deuterium nuclei from different atoms were so close together that they fused to produce helium nuclei.

Evidence for the occurrence of this fusion came from measuring the temperature inside the cell. When Arata first injected the deuterium gas, the temperature rose to about 70° C (158° F), which Arata explained was due to nuclear and chemical reactions.

When he turned the gas off, the temperature inside the cell remained warmer than the cell wall for 50 hours, which Arata said was an effect of nuclear fusion.

While Arata´s demonstration looked promising to his audience, the real test is still to come: duplication.

Many scientists and others are now recalling the infamous [actually famous and workable] 1989 demonstration by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, who claimed to produce controlled nuclear fusion in a glass jar at room temperature. However, no one - including Fleischmann and Pons [THIS IS A MEDIA LIE, LOOK IT UP!] - could duplicate the experiment, leading many people to consider cold fusion a pseudoscience to this day.

But one witness at the recent demonstration, physicist Akito Takahashi of Osaka University, thought that the experiment should be able to be repeated.

"Arata and Zhang demonstrated very successfully the generation of continuous excess energy [heat] from ZrO2-nano-Pd sample powders under D2 gas charging and generation of helium-4," Takahashi told New Energy Times. "The demonstrated live data looked just like data they reported in their published papers [J. High Temp. Soc. Jpn, Feb. and March issues, 2008]. This demonstration showed that the method is highly reproducible."

In addition, researchers will have to repeat the experiment with larger amounts of the palladium and zirconium oxide mixture in order to generate larger quantities of energy.

---
http://www.physorg.com/news131101595.html

Mark said...

June 24, 2008
MIT Solar Dish Could Revolutionize Global Energy Production, Inexpensive, Unsubsidizied, Small Scale

"A team led by MIT students this week successfully tested a prototype of what may be the most cost-efficient solar power system in the world, which has the potential to revolutionize global energy production.

The system consists of a 12-foot-wide mirrored dish that team members have spent the last several weeks assembling.

The dish, made from a lightweight frame of thin, inexpensive aluminum tubing and strips of mirror, concentrates sunlight by a factor of 1,000--creating heat so intense it could melt a bar of steel.

To demonstrate the system's power, MIT's Spencer Ahrens stood in a grassy field on the edge of the campus this week holding a long plank. Slowly, he eased it into position in front of the dish. Almost instantly there was a big puff of smoke, and flames erupted from the wood. Harry Potter wizardry? No. MIT engineering genius? Yes.

Attached to the end of a 12-foot-long aluminum tube rising from the center of the dish is a black-painted coil of tubing that has water running through it. When the dish is pointing directly at the sun, the water in the coil flashes immediately into steam.

The company the team has have founded, RawSolar, may soon produce such dishes by the thousands. They could be set up in huge arrays to provide steam for industrial processing, or for heating or cooling buildings, as well as to hook up to steam turbines and generate electricity. Once in mass production, such arrays should pay for themselves within a couple of years with the energy they produce.

"This is actually the most efficient solar collector in existence, and it was just completed," says Doug Wood, an inventor based in Washington state who patented key parts of the dish's design--the rights to which he has signed over to the student team.

Wood credits the students who built this dish, as an independent project that started in January, with making significant improvements to his original design to make it a practical and competitive energy producer. "They really have simplified this and made it user-friendly, so anybody can build it," he says.

One of the keys to making an inexpensive design was something Wood discovered by accident as he built a variety of solar dishes over the years: Smaller really is better. Unlike many technologies where economies of scale dictate large sizes, a smaller dish requires so much less support structure that it ends up costing only a third as much, for a given collecting area.

MIT Sloan School of Management lecturer David Pelly, in whose class this project first took shape last fall, says that, "I've looked for years at a variety of solar approaches, and this is the cheapest I've seen. And the key thing in scaling it globally is that all of the materials are inexpensive and accessible anywhere in the world."

Pelly adds that "I've looked all over for solar technology that could scale without subsidies. Almost nothing I've looked at has that potential. This does."

---
http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2008/06/mit-solar-dish.html#more

Mark said...

[several articles on algae-based biodiesel]

From: Reuters
Published December 11, 2007 05:34 AM

Shell seeks to make diesel fuel from algae

RELATED ARTICLES

* Galp launches plan to make diesel from algae
* Shell, Virent work on green gasoline alternative
* Better Than Corn? Algae Set to Beat Out Other Biofuel Feedstocks
* Vertigro Algae Research and Development Center Begins Operation

/top_stories/article/27014/print

By Tom Bergin

LONDON (Reuters) - Royal Dutch Shell is to fund a project that aims to produce transport fuel from algae, as biofuel production from palm oil and crops are increasingly criticized for causing deforestation and higher food prices.

Oil major Shell said on Tuesday it would build a pilot facility in Hawaii to grow marine algae from which it would extract vegetable oil that would be converted into a form of diesel for use in trucks and cars.

The Anglo-Dutch company said the research plant, which is being built with Hawaii-headquartered HR Biopetroleum Inc, would only use non-genetically modified algae. [good, we should institutionalize current ecology and insert ourselves within it instead of inventing novel extraneous things with potentially disasterous second order effects as well as displacement effects of us from ecological dependencies at large]

Climate change and oil prices that almost reached $100 per barrel are driving strong interest in biofuels.

Scientists are excited about algae as a feedstock because they overcome the key shortcomings associated with the current generation of biofuels such as ethanol.

Palm oil or sugar cane plantations, cornfields and other feedstocks require land that would otherwise be used for food crops or left as forest.

However, algae grow rapidly, at any time of year, are rich in vegetable oil and can be cultivated in waste or sea water.

Shell has said it wants to develop one significant business in renewable energy, and in addition to advanced biofuels, it is also researching solar and wind power.

Although the company continues to make almost all its multi-billion dollar profits from producing and refining oil and gas, high oil prices in recent years have improved the economics of alternative fuels, which generally remain more expensive than hydrocarbons.

Shell is also motivated by government mandates in the United States and Europe that will require a small percentage of road fuels to be derived from renewable sources in coming years.

Environmentalists are cynical about such investments by oil companies, describing them as a fig leaf aimed more at greening a company's image than solving the world's energy needs in a ecologically responsible manner.

Despite the attractions of algae as a feedstock, no one has yet proven it as an economic proposition, although a number of other companies including private-equity-backed Massachusetts-based GreenFuel Technologies Corp. are also conducting research.

In the late 1980s the U.S. government-funded National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researched the use of algae to produce biodiesel.

However in the mid 1990s, the Department of Energy cut funding to the research, choosing to focus resources on researching production of ethanol, which [inefficiently and immorally] is produced from sugars in crops such as corn or cane.

In October, NREL said it was to collaborate with U.S. major oil company Chevron on research into producing road fuel from algae.

(Editing by Quentin Bryar)

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/27014

2.

From: Reuters
Published March 13, 2008 07:14 PM

Oil Company Galp launches plan to make diesel from algae
RELATED ARTICLES

* Shell seeks to make diesel fuel from algae
* Better Than Corn? Algae Set to Beat Out Other Biofuel Feedstocks
* Vertigro Algae Research and Development Center Begins Operation
* Mexico to issue permits for biofuel production

/top_stories/article/32917/print

LISBON (Reuters) - Oil company Galp entered into an agreement on Thursday with the Portuguese Engineering, Technology and Innovation Institute in order to research and produce biofuel from algae.

Galp said the venture would establish a pilot plant at its refinery in the coastal town of Sines, where it would produce microalgae-based biomass and vegetable oil using combustion gases captured at the refinery.

Algae has been identified by scientists as a potentially far more efficient source of biodiesel than land crops.

Its production into fuel could address the problems associated with crops for biodiesel, which require land that could be used for food crops.

"The project will attract the participation of internationally renowned scientists and may lead to the establishment of a cluster for the production of sustainable biofuel on internationally competitive terms," Galp said in a statement.

It said the project should give Galp a "front-running" position in the commercial exploitation of a new source of renewable energy.

Algae can grow in waste or sea water.

Using algae to produce diesel has attracted attention from several companies. In December Royal Dutch Shell Plc announced a plan to produce diesel from algae.

(Reporting by Axel Bugge; editing by Rory Channing)

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/32917

3.

From: , Green Progress, More from this Affiliate
Published October 8, 2007 10:33 AM

Vertigro Algae Research and Development Center Begins Operation

RELATED ARTICLES

* China algae outbreak threatens fish stock: report
* Galp launches plan to make diesel from algae
* Shell seeks to make diesel fuel from algae
* Good news for coral reefs in the age of climate change

/top_stories/article/23701/print

The bioreactors reflect the bright green of the algae growing within them and the state-of-the art laboratory is up and running at the Vertigro algae technology research and development center in El Paso, Texas.

The Vertigro process, a joint venture between Global Green Solutions Inc. and Valcent Products Inc., is now mass producing rapidly-growing algae to be used as biofuel feedstock and ingredients in food, pharmaceutical and health and beauty products.

Requiring minimal water and land usage, Vertigro algae is the ultimate renewable energy.

Since commencing operation, results from bioreactor tests have been extremely positive, noted Glen Kertz, principal scientist for the Vertigro project. "We have proven that our closed loop bioreactor system can successfully produce algae over an extended period," Kertz said.

The venture's technical achievements are evident throughout the six-acre facility.

Within the revolutionary new laboratory, high speed algae screening equipment determines the premier strains of algae and the optimum growth conditions for the multiplicity of potential applications. "As our research progresses, we believe we will be able to target the exact species of algae most perfectly suited to the end product for which it is used," said Kertz. "With this knowledge, we will be able to grow specific species in virtually any environment and maximize the algal oil and biomass produced."

As testament to worldwide interest, letters of agreement to commercialize the Vertigro process have been signed with production partners in Portugal and South Africa.

Additional agreements are pending with U.S. companies.

"Our accomplishments reinforce our commitment to be a leader in the renewable energy market," said Kertz. "We are very excited about the future of Vertigro and the attention that it is receiving worldwide."

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/23701

4.

From: Alana Herro, Worldwatch Institute, More from this Affiliate
Published October 8, 2007 11:26 AM

Better Than Corn? Algae Set to Beat Out Other Biofuel Feedstocks

RELATED ARTICLES

* Galp launches plan to make diesel from algae
* Shell seeks to make diesel fuel from algae
* A Better, Cheaper Way To Make Biofuels: Algae
* Flying High on Algae - KLM Tests Algae-Based Kerosene for Airplane Fuel

/top_stories/article/23706/print

Forget corn, sugar cane, and even switchgrass. Some experts believe that algae is set to eclipse all other biofuel feedstocks as the cheapest, easiest, and most environmentally friendly way to produce liquid fuel, reports Kiplinger’s Biofuels Market Alert.

“It is easy to get excited about algae,” says Worldwatch Institute biofuels expert Raya Widenoja. “It looks like such a promising fuel source, especially if it’s combined with advances in biodiesel processing.”

The inputs for algae are simple: the single-celled organisms only need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to grow.

They can quadruple in biomass in just one day, and they help remove carbon from the air and nitrogen from wastewater, another environmental benefit.

Some types of algae comprise more than 50 percent oil, and an average acre of algae grown today for pharmaceutical industries can produce 5,000 gallons (19,000 liters) of biodiesel each year. By comparison, an average acre of corn produces 420 gallons (1,600 liters) of ethanol per year, and an acre of soybeans yields just 70 gallons (265 liters) of biodiesel per year.

“Your bang for your buck is just bigger because you can really do this on a much smaller amount of land and yet yield much, much higher biomass,” said Michael S. Atkins, CEO of San Francisco area-based Ocean Technology & Environmental Consulting (OTEC).

Douglas Henston, CEO of Solix Biofuels, a company that grows algae for biofuels, has estimated that replacing all current U.S. diesel fuel use with algae biodiesel would require using only about one half of 1 percent of the farmland in production today.

Algae can also grow on marginal lands, such as in desert areas where the groundwater is saline.

But creating an optimal environment for algae can be difficult—and costly. [hardly so, this article ignores the Valcent rather low tech arrangement?] Open ponds are often host to a wide range of other species, including invasives, and balancing temperature needs, light levels, fluid circulation, and other factors can raise the price tag quickly. [Valcent already solved both these issues, so these claims can be dismissed.]

According to a recent Worldwatch report on biofuels, in the near term, algae production for fuel is only likely to be economical in cases where the organisms are grown near power plants, where they can also help soak up the pollution. [That ignores Valcent as well.]

A Massachusetts company, GreenFuel Technologies, is building such systems in Arizona, Louisiana, and Germany, and hopes to capture as much as 80 percent of the carbon dioxide emitted from the plants during daylight hours.

On its Web site, Solix Biofuels notes that rising gas prices are making algae-based biofuel more attractive. With it and other companies now investing in the technology, experts estimate that large-scale commercial production of algae fuel could be just five years away, Kiplinger’s reports.

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/23706


5.

From: , Triple Pundit, More from this Affiliate
Published June 5, 2008 09:07 AM

Flying High on Algae - KLM Tests Algae-Based Kerosene for Airplane Fuel

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* Better Than Corn? Algae Set to Beat Out Other Biofuel Feedstocks
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* Kite-Driven Beluga Skysail Completes 12,000 Mile Journey and Proves Concept

/top_stories/article/37312/print

Dovetailing nicely into my post last week about the work GreenFuel is doing with algae and their emissions-to-fuel process, air carrier KLM reported last week their intention to begin testing airplanes that run on an algae-based fuel.

In a pilot program with AlgaeLink, a Netherlands-based global manufacturer of algae growing equipment and “earth-to-engine” technology, KLM expects to conduct test flights this fall. AlgaeLink will also open two plants this year in the Netherlands and Spain.

KLM hopes to have 12 of their Fokker-50 planes (7% of their air fleet) running on the fuel by 2010, with the eventual goal of running their entire fleet of airplanes on fuel made from algae.

The cost of fuel is an increasing burden on the bottom line for airlines all over the world.

In 2012 airlines in Europe will be required to pay for their CO2 emissions.

At $100 a barrel, algae will then become not only the carbon neutral choice, but the most cost effective one as well.

Looking for Alternatives

Other airlines looking into algae as a potential fuel source include JetBlue who, in partnership with Honeywell, Airbus, and International Aero Engines, are developing plans to develop fuels using vegetation and algae-based oils that “do not compete with existing food production or water resources”, according to a report in BusinessWeek.com.

Other technologies to ease fuel costs and lighten the carbon footprint of commercial aviation are planes that run on batteries and hydrogen fuel cells.

It’s unlikely that we’ll be climbing aboard an airliner powered only with batteries and fuel cells anytime soon, but Airbus demonstrated a version of their A320 airliner that used fuel cells to power steering systems aboard the aircraft at the Berlin Air Show last week.

The times are changing for the airlines (as well as the rest of us). With the ever rising cost of [petroleum] oil, it makes both environmental as well as economic sense to seek alternatives to fossil [and abiotic petroleum] fuel, and to put those projects on the fast-track.

You think your gas bill is high? Ever fill the tank of a 757?

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/37312

Mark said...

From: Tom Schueneman, Triple Pundit, More from this Affiliate

Published November 28, 2007 08:47 AM

Willie Wonka and the Chocolate (biodiesel) Truck

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* Digital Audio and the Hydrogen Economy: My Personal Journey
* Costa Rica and New Zealand on Path to Carbon Neutrality

/top_stories/article/26046/print

SOURCE: http://www.triplepundit.com


Two men left England last Friday on their way to Timbuktu in a truck powered by chocolate.

For the sake of accuracy, the truck is powered with biodiesel fuel made from “waste chocolate” (I never knew there was such a thing as waste chocolate!).

Leaving from England on a ferry across the English channel, the team of Andy Pag and John Grimshaw plan to make their 4.500 mile journey in approximately three weeks.

Using cocoa butter extracted from a confectioner’s misshapen chocolate “rejects”, the truck will carry 454 gallons of biodiesel fuel.

The Ford Iveco Cargo truck is carrying two smaller vehicles for the final hard slog across the Sahara desert, all powered with standard engines fueled with biodiesel. The final cost of the fuel is calculated at about $1.16 per gallon.


Carbon Neutral All the Way to Timbuktu

The trip is billed as the first carbon neutral journey across the Sahara desert.

To achieve that neutrality, the pair will offset the carbon produced from the journey by delivering a biofuel processing unit built upon their arrival in Mali.

The device is built by Ecotek in the UK, the same company that designed the process to convert the chocolate bits to biofuel.

The processing unit will be delivered directly to Mali-Folkecenter (MFC), a charity organization that works with developing enterprise in rural and under served communities through environmental and renewable energy projects.

The biodiesel processor will be used by local woman to convert waste cooking oil into fuel, bring in some supplemental income, employ two technicians, and provide low carbon fuel for local vehicles.

Ostensibly, the purpose of the trip is to encourage Peg and Grimshaw’s fellow Britons to use biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuel.

I don’t believe all biofuels are “created equal” or are a panacea or total solution to our dependence on fossil fuel (see my earlier post on the subject), but developing a process that converts waste chocolate into fuel serves as another example of how innovative thinking can help pave the way to viable alternative solutions to fossil fuel use.

The road to good ideas sometimes leads to unexpected places, powered by creative thinking and, well, chocolate!

Follow the team’s progress at biotruck.co.uk

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/26046

Mark said...

From: , Triple Pundit, More from this Affiliate
Published January 23, 2008 08:57 AM

Wind Energy Grows 45% in 2007
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* U.S. wind power grew 45 percent in 2007: AWEA
* MagLev Wind Turbine

/top_stories/article/29840/print

The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) reported last week record growth in wind power generation with 5,244 megawatts of capacity installed in 2007 — a 45% increase reflecting $9 billion in investment and 30% of all new power generating capacity in 2007.

2008, however, will likely show growing pains as there is a current shortage of wind turbines, a situation that the AWEA sees as a big opportunity for manufacturers and entrepreneurs wishing to get in on a growing market.

There’s always a better mouse trap — wind energy technology is ripe for imaginative innovators to not only fill the current need for parts, but to continually make those parts better.

It is also time for government to step up to the plate and push forward in support of alternative energy in a big way. Congress is debating this week the future of alternative energy tax credits set to expire this year with no current provision for renewal.

While the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 recently signed in Congress does provide $2 billion dollars in research for alternative energy, it still pales in comparison to subsidies given the fossil [coal and abiotic oil] fuel industry.

Farmers also have a great opportunity to capitalize on wind power generation, “growing” energy from wind and leaving their corn for food instead of ethanol. After all, not all alternative energy is created equal.

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/29840

Mark said...

1.

From: Janet Sawin, Worldwatch Institute, More from this Affiliate
Published November 7, 2007 10:11 AM
Costa Rica and New Zealand on Path to Carbon Neutrality
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/top_stories/article/24307

While some of the world’s largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) hem and haw about how to—or even if to—limit their contributions to climate change, at least two small countries are blazing trails for the world to follow. Both Costa Rica and New Zealand have declared over the past several months their intentions to become carbon neutral. Together, they accounted for about 0.15 percent of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions in 2005, according to the World Bank.

In May 2007, Costa Rica’s government announced it was drawing up plans to reduce net GHG emissions to zero before 2030. The country aims to reduce emissions from transport, farming, and industry, and to clean up its fossil fuel power plants, which account for 4 percent of the country’s electricity (of the rest, 78 percent comes from hydropower and 18 percent from wind and geothermal power). In addition, through an innovative program begun in 1997 and funded by a gas tax, the government compensates landowners for growing trees to absorb carbon while protecting watersheds and wildlife habitat. Costa Rica aims to be the first country to become carbon neutral.

But Costa Rica could be in a race with New Zealand, which last month set the target of becoming “the first truly sustainable nation on earth.” Prime Minister Helen Clark announced in a speech on September 20 that her country will adopt an economy-wide program to reduce all GHG emissions, with different economic sectors being gradually introduced into a national emissions trading program that should be in effect fully by 2013. [Emissions trading is well known not to work; it delays actual change by subsidizing the polluters; changing materials works.]

Other commitments include an increase in renewable electricity to 90 percent by 2025 (up from 70 percent today) [that's better...], a major net increase in forest area, widespread introduction of electric vehicles, and a 50 percent reduction in transport-related emissions by 2040.

These two nations represent only a small share of the world’s emissions.

But as New Zealand’s Clark said last month, “We are neither an economic giant nor a global superpower…. If we want to influence other countries and the responses they take in coming years and decades, then we must take action ourselves. Taking action is not only the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do.”

Janet L. Sawin is a senior researcher and the director of the Energy and Climate Change Program at the Worldwatch Institute.


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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/24307

2.

From: , Green Energy News, More from this Affiliate
Published October 14, 2007 10:02 AM

Green New Zealand to get Greener

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/top_stories/article/23851

Al Gore and the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change were headline news Friday, October 12, 2007 for winning, and sharing, the Nobel Peace Prize. But for energy, greenhouse gases and climate change equally significant news came from about as far away from Nobel headquarters in Norway as you can get: New Zealand.

There, in a new energy strategy set by the government, the construction of new fossil [coal and abiotic oil and abiotic natural gas] fueled powerplants would be banned for a decade.

Though not binding (yet) by law, the New Zealand Energy Strategy is one that lawmakers will follow in the coming months.

Prime Minister Helen Clark said, “The New Zealand Energy Strategy puts our country on an ambitious but achievable pathway towards greater sustainability, and a secure energy future."

"It's important that New Zealand plays its part in tackling climate change. We need to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions from energy use. This strategy, and its companion document, the New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy, help us do that."

Aside from halting conventional power plant construction, the Strategy sets a bold target of 90 percent of electricity from renewable sources by 2025, from less than 70 percent now. (Of course 70 percent is quite high compared with most nations.)

Together the plans go beyond power plants. New rules would ensure that by 2015 new and used imported cars would be 25 percent more fuel efficient than those imported now. More diesels are expected to be sold there.

Beyond 2015 the target for transport is halving emissions per capita by 2040. The use of renewable energy from biofuels will increase, and New Zealand aims to be a world leader in electrically powered vehicles, according to Energy Minister David Parker

The government would also focus on better cycling and walking facilities as well as more emphasis on public transportation. The goal would be to find ways to reduce car use with a target of cutting single occupant journeys by 10 percent. [With air and solar cars, this is a superfluous practice; concentrate on demoting the large scale coal and abiotic oil plants instead.]

On the home front there would be a focus on energy efficiency and conservation. Upgraded insulation and energy efficiency improvements in 180,000 homes, such as the use of more efficient appliances, are part of the plan.


Links:

New Zealand Energy Strategy
http://www.med.govt.nz/templates/ContentTopicSummary____19431.aspx

New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy
http://www.eeca.govt.nz/about/national-strategy/nzeecs-index.html

Nobel Peace Prize
http://nobelpeaceprize.org/

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/23851

3.

From: Reuters
Published December 12, 2007 08:33 AM

U.N. aims to provide carbon neutral example

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* Costa Rica Aims To Win Carbon Neutral Nation Race
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/top_stories/article/27139

NUSA DUA, Indonesia (Reuters) - More countries should follow the examples of Costa Rica, Norway and New Zealand and aim to wipe out their contribution to [carbon emissions and potentially the anthropogenic] climate change altogether, the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) said on Wednesday.

"This is not peanuts, it's whole countries," UNEP chief Achim Steiner told a news conference.

The United Nations aims to go completely carbon neutral starting with the "small step" of offsetting the carbon footprints of U.N. officials attending December 3-14 climate talks in a luxury Indonesian island resort in Bali.

The U.N., which reckons it emits about 1 million tonnes of greenhouse gases a year mainly by burning fossil fuels for travel and running offices, could show how it can be done.

"It's important that the U.N. takes the lead ... how to achieve it," said Erik Solheim, environment minister for Norway, which aims to be climate neutral by 2050.

Among nations, Costa Rica is set to win the carbon neutral race by a mile, aiming to wipe all its emissions by 2021 in time for a 200th independence anniversary party, by planting trees and relying more on its brimming hydropower.

"Costa Rica will plant 5 million trees in 2007 and in 2008 the goal will be doubled," said Paulo Manso, head of the Costa Rica's negotiating team attending the climate talks.

About 190 nations are meeting in Bali to try and launch negotiations on a global climate pact to replace the Kyoto Protocol from 2013.

Going carbon or climate neutral involves as far as possible cutting your emissions of the greenhouse gases blamed for global warming, for example by switching from high carbon-emitting fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy such as wind and water.

For all the rest you pay someone else to cut emissions on your behalf. The trend has taken off among U.S. and European corporates ranging from Google to HSBC bank.

But such goals have drawn slurs of tokenism from some skeptics who point out that volunteers often have very low carbon emissions to start with, in contrast to heavy industry.

Costa Rica, Norway and New Zealand, which wants a carbon neutral energy sector by 2040, all have small populations and plentiful renewable energy resources, especially hydropower.

Several environmental groups have questioned the quality of carbon offsets available for sale under the U.N.-run Kyoto Protocol. It can be difficult to prove, for example, that sellers weren't planning to cut their emissions anyway.

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/27139

4.

From: John McPhaul, Reuters
Published May 25, 2007 12:00 AM

Costa Rica Aims To Win Carbon Neutral Nation Race

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/top_stories/article/6630

SAN JOSE -- Green trail-blazer Costa Rica is drawing up plans to cut its net greenhouse gas emissions to zero before 2030, the government said Thursday, and aims to be the first nation to offset all its carbon.

Environment Minister Roberto Dobles said the tiny, jungle-cloaked Central American nation would clean up its fossil fuel-fired power plants, promote hybrid vehicles and increase tree planting to balance its emissions.

"The goal is to be carbon neutral," Dobles told Reuters. "We'd like to do it in the next 20 years." He said Costa Rica would also eliminate net emissions of other greenhouse gases.

Costa Rica is a leader on green issues, with protected areas like national parks and biological reserves covering more than a quarter of its territory.

The country generates 78 percent of its energy with hydroelectric power and another 18 percent by wind or geothermally. It now plans to cut emissions from transport, farming and industry.

Faced with mounting evidence [or propaganda to introduce a global police state?] that burning fossil fuels is the main cause of global warming, many nations and companies are looking at ways to reduce their net carbon output. [We are unrequired to have a police state methods to be green.]

In April, world number five oil exporter Norway said it was aiming to get rid of its net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

The EU says it will cut emissions 20-30 percent by 2020. California aims to cut emissions by 80 percent by 2050.

But Costa Rica believes it can still become a voluntarily carbon neutral country before anyone else.

"We think we can get there first," said Dobles.

Costa Rica has a headstart. According to the United Nations, in 2003 the country produced roughly 1.5 tons of carbon per person, compared to close to 10 tons in Norway.

At the heart of the Costa Rica's anti-carbon efforts are payments that compensate landowners for growing trees to capture carbon and protect watersheds. The government also plans payments to protect wildlife habitat and scenic beauty.

The program, launched in 1997 and funded by a 3.5 percent tax on gasoline and by loans and grants, now pays out about $15 million a year to nearly 8,000 property owners.

"The fact that Costa Rica has applied (payments) on a national scale is what's innovative," said Esteban Brenes, a conservation finance expert at the World Wildlife Fund.

Not all environmentalists have good things to say about the idea of capturing carbon to offset emissions.

"It's a deception to allow polluters to continue to pollute with makeup to mask it," said Juan Figuerola, forestry coordinator for the Costa Rican Conservation Federation.

Some other countries in the world, mainly in Africa, are virtually carbon-neutral, because poverty prevents them from emitting more greenhouse gases. [You are unrequired to emit carbon to develop more though.]

Source: Reuters

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/6630

5.

From: Reuters
Published December 6, 2007 04:59 AM
Costa Rica plants 5 million trees
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* Costa Rica Aims To Win Carbon Neutral Nation Race
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/top_stories/article/26660

SAN JOSE, Costa Rica (Reuters) - Costa Rica, a leader in eco-tourism and home to some of the world's rarest species, planted its 5 millionth tree of 2007 on Wednesday as it tries to put a brake on global warming.

President Oscar Arias shoveled dirt onto the roots of an oak tree planted in the grounds of his offices, reaching the milestone in the Central American nation's efforts to ward off what some experts say are the first signs of climate change.

By the end of the year, Costa Rica will have planted nearly 6.5 million trees, which should absorb 111,000 tons of carbon dioxide a year, Environment Minister Roberto Dobles said.

The country aims to plant 7 million trees in 2008 as part of the newly launched program.

Along with other green-minded nations like Norway and New Zealand, Costa Rica is aiming to reduce its net carbon emissions to zero, and has set a target date of 2021.

"I don't know if we will end up being carbon neutral in 2021 as we have proposed, but the important thing is the audacity of the goal and the work we have to do," Arias said.

Costa Rica is a magnet for ecology-minded tourists who come to visit the lush national parks and reserves that cover more than a quarter of the country and are home to almost 5 percent of the world's plant and animal species including exotic birds and frogs.

Over the last 20 years forest cover in Costa Rica has grown from 26 percent of the national territory to 51 percent, though environmentalists complain that loggers continue to cut down old trees and that the national park system is under funded.

Costa Rican authorities have blamed the loss of more than a dozen amphibian species, including the shiny yellow "golden toad," on higher temperatures caused by global warming.

Experts also say climate change is behind a spike in mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever at high elevations where they were once rare.

The number of dengue fever cases so far this year in Costa Rica's high-altitude central valley stands at 3,487 -- 86 percent higher than in the whole of 2006.

(Reporting by John McPhaul, editing by Eric Walsh)

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/26660

Mark said...

From: Shannon Arvizu, Triple Pundit, More from this Affiliate

Published May 8, 2008 08:12 AM

Offshore Wind: How Europe Plans to Meet Clean Energy Goals

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/top_stories/article/35985

The E.U. is serious about getting clean energy on the grid. The European Parliament has set a 25% target for renewable energy by 2020. About half of that target is projected to come from wind energy. A new report, "Pure Power - Wind Energy Scenarios up to 2030," put out by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), shows that this is a feasible scenario, given current trends in the field.

As of 2007, five E.U. countries (Denmark, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Germany) have more than 5% of their electricity demand supplied by wind energy.

If the 2020 goal is met, wind energy could equal 38% of the EU-15's Kyoto Protocol obligation, avoid 133 mega-tons of C02, and save billions in fuel costs. Future wind production is dependent, however, on continued government/private capital investments in the offshore wind energy market.

As of 2007, there are currently 80 GW of installed wind capacity in the E.U., of which [only] 3.5 GW derives from offshore wind.

To meet the 2020 goal, EWEA’s reference scenario assumes 180 GW in 2020 and 300 GW in 2030. "The EU will have 350 GW (including 150 GW offshore) in the high scenario and 200 GW (including 40 GW offshore) in the low scenario," says the report.

Either way, it appears that there is a threshold of about 200 GW of wind power that can be produced on the actual European continent itself.

Offshore wind farms have significant potential in Europe, "where there is limited space on land and relatively large offshore areas with shallow water." As the video above demonstrates, offshore wind has additional engineering and cost challenges. An EU Action Plan for Offshore Wind Energy, which will detail the feasibility of such projects on a large scale, is expected to be published in the second half of 2008.

As for the potential of offshore wind here in the U.S., a couple of innovative companies, including BluewaterWind, are in the midst of developing projects in the NorthEast.

I highly recommend the BluewaterWind site for well-produced informational videos on offshore wind production in the U.S.

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/35985

Eon, which generates 10% of UK energy it says and as such a leading UK power firm, has announced plans to build a major multi-million pound offshore wind farm off north-eastern England capable of powering some 200-thousand houses.
3 min.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9_7Eonc_xY

more:
http://www.awea.org/faq/wwt_offshore.html


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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/35985

Mark said...

From: , Green Energy News, More from this Affiliate
Published September 30, 2007 09:42 AM

Gutsy Ecuador proposes to put a lid on oil.

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/top_stories/article/23511

Little countries can find the strength to do big things that big countries fear to do.

For the good of itself, for the good of the planet, the South American country of Ecuador has proposed to keep the lid on nearly one billion barrels of oil under its Yasuni National Park.

Despite the fact that Ecuador depends on one-third of its budget from oil exports, there will be no oil extraction, no oil exploration from the ITT oil field under Yasuni. Under the YasunÌ-ITT Initiative the country will forgo the stream of revenues the oil would provide. Ecuador will be the first country in the world to deliberately leave significant oil reserves underground - and those revenues - for the betterment of the planet while seeking to build a sustainable green economy.

There is of course mention of compensation by other nations for its efforts to keep potential greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere. By leaving the oil underground Ecuador would, in effect, be sequestering the equivalent of 436 million tons of carbon dioxide.

To date global carbon dioxide emissions from Ecuador amount to less than a half-percent of the existing rise in emissions from pre-industrial levels. Highly industrialized countries have contributed over fifty percent of the atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions.

Ecuador thinks those industrialized countries should step forward, show some strength, and assume stronger targets for greenhouse gas reductions and greater commitments of support to initiatives that combat additional increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

Yasuni National Park is home to at least two indigenous tribes that live in voluntary isolation in one of the most biodiverse places on earth. It is a unique and treasured place that Ecuador wants to leave just as it is.

Compare Yasuni with another treasured place, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), while comparing the attitudes of the Ecuadorian government and the US toward oil.

A few votes in Washington could lead to drilling in ANWR even though the eventual greenhouse gas emissions will contribute to the flooding of some of the nation’s own cities. Leadership in Quito would rather leave Yasuni’s oil in the ground, continue to build its nation with less dependence on oil and do its part to keep other nations’ cities from being inundated by rising oceans.

Ecuador’s long term vision is that the YasunÌ-ITT Initiative, which could include Ecuador accepting fair compensation for its efforts, will underwrite the implementation of its National Development Plan.

Under that Plan the nation will prioritize the use of renewable energy, build efficient transportation systems, attempt to eradicate poverty and provide universal access to quality healthcare and education. The Plan also includes promotion of ecotourism and sustainable development for Ecuador’s Amazonian region.

Ecuador is also the home of the Galapagos Islands.

Ecuador's President Rafael Correa presented the Yasuni-ITT Initiative at a United Nations meeting of world leaders on global climate change.



Links:

National Government of Ecuador (Spanish)
http://www.presidencia.gov.ec

Yasuni National Park
http://www.ecuador-travel.net/biodiversity.parks.yasuni.htm

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/23511

Mark said...

From: , Triple Pundit, More from this Affiliate
Published November 29, 2007 09:01 AM

MagLev Wind Turbine

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/top_stories/article/26124

Source: Triple Pundit

MagLev wind turbines, the next generation of wind turbines is capable of generating power from wind speeds as low as 1.5 m/s and reported to operate in winds reaching 40 m/s.

This large wind turbine from maglev industries will also increase generation capacity by 20% at the same time decreasing operational costs by 50% over the traditional wind turbine.

Maglev also claims that this particular turbine will be operational for 500 years, a staggering claim.

The MagLev wind turbine was first unveiled at the Wind Power Asia exhibition in Beijing. The unique operating principle behind this design is through magnetic levitation. Magnetic levitation is supposedly an extremely efficient system for wind energy. The vertically oriented blades of the wind turbine are suspended in the air replacing any need for ball bearings. The turbine operates via “full-permanent” magnets, electromagnets eliminating the need for electricity to run the machine.

These full-permanent magnets consist of neodymium magnets of the rare earth metals which lose no energy through friction.

This combination of magnetic components and reduction of moving parts should reduce maintenance costs and increase the life of the turbine.

Maglev wind turbines have advantages and some claim disadvantages over conventional wind turbines. The first thing worth mentioning next to the wide range of operating wind speeds is the manufacturer claims that one MagLev could generate one gigawatt of power compared to the miniscule 5 megawatts of power that conventional turbines are capable of producing.

One turbine could provide power for as many as 750,000 homes!

Critics dispute many of these claims, instead, believing that this vertical axis wind turbine has some serious design flaws.

Even suggesting that it will perform far below the fore mentioned figures. The opposing experts believe that it has too many blades leaving the turbine to look "solid" to the wind as it speeds up in strong winds. [huh?]

Stators are also lacking in the design to direct the flow more effectively onto the blades. There are many other flaws that leave industry experts to wonder about this innovative concept and its true capacity but that is open to debate for the time being.

In Arizona MagLev Wind Turbine Technologies will be manufacturing the turbines. The company is claiming that is will be able to deliver clean green-power for less than one cent per kilowatt hour given this new technology, remarkably cheap.

Here is the kicker though, just one massive turbine will cost an estimated $53 million to construct.

In November of 2007 construction began on the world’s largest production site for maglev wind turbines in China.

Zhongke Hengyuan Energy Technology has invested 400 million yuan into building the facility that is set to produce maglev wind turbines with capacities ranging from 400 to 5,000 Watts. [what happened to the gigawatt version idea? More consolidated would drastically reduce eyesore issues, as well as assuredly maintenance in the long term as well as production cost?]

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http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/26124

Mark said...

China makes huge breakthrough in wind power technology

Wednesday, 05 July 2006

Chinese developers unveiled the world’s first full-permanent magnetic levitation (Maglev) wind power generator at the Wind Power Asia Exhibition 2006 held June 28 in Beijing.

Regarded as a key breakthrough in the evolution of global wind power technology—and a notable advance in independent intellectual property rights in China—the generator was jointly developed by Guangzhou Energy Research Institute under China’s Academy of Sciences and by Guangzhou Zhongke Hengyuan Energy Science & Technology Co., Ltd. The Maglev generator is expected to boost wind energy generating capacity by as much as 20 percent over traditional wind turbines.

This would effectively cut the operational expenses of wind farms by up to half, keeping the overall cost of wind power under 0.4 yuan ($US 5 cents), according to Guokun Li, the chief scientific developer of the new technology.

Further, the Maglev is able to utilize winds with starting speeds as low as 1.5 meters per second (m/s), and cut-in speeds of 3 m/s, the chief of Zhongke Energy was quoted as saying at the exhibition.

When compared with the operational hours of existing wind turbines, the new technology will add an additional 1,000 hours of operation annually to wind power plants in areas with an average wind speed of 3 m/s.

Source: http://news.xinhuanet.com

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http://www.windtech-international.com/content/view/661/2/

Mark said...

From: Associated Press
Published November 7, 2005 12:00 AM

New Turbine Design May Boost Wind Energy

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* MagLev Wind Turbine
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/top_stories/article/16729

CHEYENNE, Wyo. — Recent howling winds have been like sweet music to one local company, which says its new vertical wind turbine is substantially more efficient than traditional propeller designs.

Officials at Terra Moya Aqua Inc. unveiled their new turbine Friday, saying the design already had attracted interest from both domestic and foreign buyers.

"We have people nationally and internationally who want to buy this turbine now," said Ron Taylor, TMA's founder and chief executive officer.

Company officials said traditional propeller-driven turbines are able to convert 25 percent to 40 percent of wind power into transmittable energy. But TMA's design is 43 percent to 45 percent efficient, creating up to 80 percent more power from the same wind.

That power is generated even though the blades are moving slower than on traditional propeller models, meaning the turbines are less noisy and less dangerous to birds, the company said. And since they stand no taller than 96 feet, the turbines can be used in industrial areas where taller propeller-driven models are not allowed.

Former Gov. Jim Geringer, who serves on TMA's board of directors, said the design improvements could help persuade doubters of wind's potential.

"To some people, wind is a four-letter word," Geringer said. "With what we're talking about here, it's anything but a four-letter word."

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/16729

2.

From: , MetaEfficient, More from this Affiliate
Published May 16, 2008 09:04 AM

$2 Billion Wind Turbine Order Is Largest Ever

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* Pickens' Mesa Power orders GE wind turbines
* T. Boone Pickens orders 667 GE wind turbines: report
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* Texas Plans Nation's Largest Offshore Wind Farm

/top_stories/article/36422

Texas oilman T. Boone Pickens has placed an the largest ever order for wind turbines: he ordered 667 wind turbines from GE, each costing $3 million dollars, making the total order $2 billion. Picken plans to develop the world’s largest wind farm in the panhandle of Texas.

The $2 billion order is just one quarter of the total amount he plans to purchase. Once built, the wind farm would have the capacity to supply power to over 1,200,000 homes in North Texas. Each turbine can produce 1.5 megawatts of electricity. The first phase of the project will produce 1,000 megawatts, enough energy to power 300,000 homes.

GE will begin delivering the turbines in 2010, and current plans call for the project to start producing power in 2011.

Ultimately, Picken’s company, Mesa Power, plans to have enough turbines to produce 4,000 megawatts of energy, the overall project is expected to cost $10 billion and be completed in 2014.

Mesa Power has leased sparsely populated land in the Texas panhandle, where the wind often blows during daylight hours when energy needs are highest.

Texas’ Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) transmission lines will deliver what Pickens hopes will be “cost effective and reliable electricity generated by renewable energy power projects.”

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/36422

Mark said...

[same principle as Dennis Lee's permanent magnet based Hummingbird Motor arrangement]

From: , The Alternative Consumer , More from this Affiliate

Published April 16, 2008 08:46 AM
Inexpensive residential wind turbine

RELATED ARTICLES

* Harness the Sun to Save Money, Save the Earth
* Solar 101 | The Info You Need To Get Going
* 'Small Wind' Power Plants Are Blowing Strong
* New Trend - The First Wind Turbine On The Block

/top_stories/article/34768

Don’t look now but it appears residential renewable energy systems and wind power technology are getting cheaper. California based Freetricity’s E2D Windmaster is a roof-mounted small residential wind turbine that comes with an affordable price tag.

Though it sports a small propeller that could prove hazardous to hummingbirds and the like (though its size and roof mounting will reduce bird and animal interactions) and doesn’t look like it could withstand hurricane-force winds, the price and benefits may make it worth exploring.

From their press release (via: newswire)

“Freetricity introduces the all-new WindMaster, a roof mounted micro wind turbine that can generate enough energy to turn your electric meter backwards. Reasonably priced the WindMaster is small enough to be used in urban areas yet powerful enough to lower electric bills 25%-50%, or more.

WindMaster is available in four different power packages. The Grid Connects unique design is the most convenient system and supplies the most kilowatt-hours of power of all the packages. Simply mount the wind turbine to your roof, wire it to the grid connect inverter, and wire the inverter into the supply panel.

The power generated by the WindMaster is supplied to your homes supply panel first; however, if it generates more power than you are currently using it will spin your meter backwards. Your electric company will then give you credit or cash for the power you generate.

The 12-Volt, 24 and 48-Volt packages are battery-based systems. They charge the battery first then supply the users home with the stored voltage and current through a DC to AC inverter. The 12-Volt Basic package is the starter system and because it is easy to regulate the output of the WindMaster, it can be upgraded to any other E2D system. This upgrade ability applies to all system packages and is unique to the renewable industry.

The WindMaster is weather-resistant and constructed of high-impact, powder-coated steel and comes with a five-year warranty.

This unique system can also be used as a stand-alone backup system for electrical blackout and /or brownouts.”

The larger 48volt model produces 300 to 400 kwh per month with 6 hours of 12mph wind a day. Models range in price from $1,399 (12v) to $2,299 (48V) @ freetricity.com

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/34768

Mark said...

[The pricier "Sky Stream" one. There is a Storm Blade" one as well that I think is cheaper than this?]

From: Paul Schaefer, ENN
Published September 3, 2007 12:16 PM

New Trend - The First Wind Turbine On The Block

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* Turning Grey Into Green: Greywater Recycling Systems
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* Scientists Conduct Wind Energy Projects

Photo by Roger Cone
/top_stories/article/22628

MARIETTA, GEORGIA - It may be the first in this Atlanta neighborhood, but definitely isn't the last. Not in Georgia or elsewhere. That's because the small-scale residential wind generator installed last week in the side yard of Christine and Curt Mann, in one of Atlanta's oldest neighborhoods, will generate between 200 to 400 kWh a month on average, helping power the Mann home and eliminate as much CO2 from the atmosphere as an acre of mature, healthy trees. That kind of savings has, as marketers like to say, 'viral' appeal.

The wind turbine, called a "Skystream", was developed by Arizona-based Southwest Windpower in collaboration with the US Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Lab. The blades are curved and shaped for quiet operation. It is the first backyard-sized wind turbine that includes a built-in inverter and requires no external components. It's a fully-integrated wind generator designed specifically for the grid-connected residential market.

Mounted on a 35 to 100 foot tower, the turbine costs approximately $12,000 to $15,000 installed. Depending on the wind resource, it generates between 30-80% of the power required by a typical home.

The Skystream 3.7 was awarded a 2006 Best of What’s New award from the editors of Popular Science and included in TIME magazine’s 2006 Best Inventions.

The Mann’s indeed are including other sustainable energy alternatives in their 1920’s-era home that is undergoing major renovations. "I would just encourage people to reach out and look at different alternatives. This is one of many things out there," he said.

Their suburban push to sustainability includes a Brac Greywater Recycling System that takes in household bath, shower and laundry water and then filters and treats it, and re-uses it for toilet flushing. That system potentially saves the Mann family 30% or more on their potable water consumption.

The Mann home is in the Grant Park neighborhood of Atlanta, near Zoo Atlanta and Turner Field, an area not known for high winds. When asked about installation of the wind turbine in this urban setting with relatively low wind speeds, Roger Cone, founder of Southern Energy Solutions, said, “We all went into this project knowing that this was not an ideal placement of the Skystream. Our target markets for the Skystream wind turbine are those areas of Georgia with greater average wind speeds, such as the mountains of north Georgia and the coastal areas of southeast Georgia.”

Marietta, Georgia, based Southern Energy Solutions is a dealer of sustainable building products including “green” HVAC systems, greywater recycling systems, LED lighting, solar heating, solar PV, solar thermal and wind turbines. Southern Energy Solutions serves all of Georgia.

For more information:

www.soenso.com

www.skystreamenergy.com

www.bracsystems.com

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/22628

Mark said...

'Small wind' power plants are blowing strong

Climate concerns, rising utility costs, better technology, and new laws are making home units more attractive.

By Mark Clayton | Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor

from the April 30, 2008 edition

DOVER, Mass. - On a recent sunny afternoon Bob Loebelenz pauses to gaze 72 feet into the air at the spinning blades of his wind turbine, a small "clean, free electricity" smile creasing the corners of his mouth.

While giant wind turbines that supply power to utilities sprout along ridgelines across the United States, far smaller residential wind generators, like the one Mr. Loebelenz erected in 2003 to power his suburban Boston home, are still unusual in densely populated places.

That may be changing. Across the country signs are growing that "small wind" (a category that includes wind generators geared to supply a single home) is catching on in suburban and even urban settings.

"My phone has been ringing off the hook," says Mark Durrenberger, president and founder of New England Breeze, a Hudson, Mass., wind and solar power installer.

Improved generator technology, more financial incentives, rising electric rates, and energy-security concerns have opened the way for small-wind power to bloom in unlikely places.

"Small wind really seems to be taking off for residential, small business, and farm use," says Trudy Forsyth, leader of the distributed wind program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo.

The installed capacity of "on grid" small-wind residential generators has almost tripled, from 1,300 kilowatts nationwide in 2006 to 3,000 kilowatts last year, says the American Wind En­­­ergy Association (AWEA), a Washington-based trade organization.

The number of residential installations rose from 400 to 1,200 units in the same period.

Supplying that tiny but red-hot market are dozens of new companies that have popped up since 2000.

Though a half-dozen companies dominate the market, AWEA tracks about 45 US manufacturers.

With demand strong overseas, too, the US is the world leader in small-wind power, exporting more than half of what it sells.

"The growth we're now seeing in small-wind residential in the US is impressive," says Ron Stimmel, who tracks the small-wind market for AWEA. "Advanced technology and electronics have made these units more reliable, and more states are now offering incentives to build them."

At least 26 [U.S.] states have tax or productivity incentives or other subsidies to support wind energy, Ms. Forsyth says. But strong growth is happening even without the federal tax incentives enjoyed by solar panels and big utility-scale wind turbines, she notes.

Countervailing breezes are blowing.

Long held down by high up-front costs, lack of federal subsidies, and neighborhood opposition on aesthetic and noise grounds, small residential wind-power use continues to grow far more slowly than solar photovoltaic "panels," experts say.

Some also oppose small-wind units claiming they are "bird Cuisinarts," Loebelenz says, though he has never found dead birds by his unit.

Another major hurdle is zoning laws. While few states or the 25,000 local zoning authorities have laws specific to wind power, that's changing, Mr. Stimmel says. Five states – Wisconsin, California, Michigan, Vermont, and New York – now prohibit local zoning laws from blanket small-wind prohibitions.

"Zoning is always an issue, it's something we understand now and we go in prepared to show the benefits," says Don Mosher, president of Southern New England Wind Power, based in Portsmouth, R.I.

Even so, zoning battles over wind power are increasing. Loebelenz had to hire a lawyer. Even then, he might have lost the fight had not an octogenarian neighbor, Beverly Ryburn, not come to his rescue by rallying others to help.

Pointing to a plaque on his tower that reads: "The Beverly," Loebelenz notes: "I named my wind generator after her because, without her, it probably would not have been built."

Wind power can be expensive. Small wind turbines for homes run in the 2- to 10-kilowatt range. A smaller machine can cost from $12,000 to $60,000, installed. A rule of thumb: Turbine systems cost about $6 to $8 per watt (1 kilowatt = 1,000 watts), installed. [However, there is one above for about 2,500 dollars.]

Loebelenz also has a big solar array on his barn roof next to the wind turbine. On many days, when the wind generator is humming and solar panels are cooking, he's generating far more energy than he uses, so he sells the overage to the power company.

It's that link to the power grid that's been key to small-wind growth. While wind power has long been popular for "off the grid" homes miles from power lines, growth in residential "grid tied" homes lagged until "net metering" laws were passed. Net metering means a utility must buy back extra power.

Better wind technology has helped, too. Lighter magnets in the generators, blades that adjust to wind conditions, and units that wirelessly report how much power they're making – along with global-warming concerns – are creating a "perfect storm" of interest in suburban, even urban residential wind power.

"Everything we had done historically was off-grid and international, but ... about six, seven years ago really, things started percolating," says Andy Kruse, vice president of Southwest Windpower, the nation's largest small-wind manufacturer, in Flagstaff, Ariz.

The company's newest small turbine – the 1.8-kilowatt "Skystream" – is aimed at the residential market. In February, the company said a Skystream would be erected at the Maine home of former President George H.W. Bush.

But Robin Wilson already has a Skystream wind generator atop a 45-foot pole sticking out of her new zero-energy home in San Francisco's Mission District. Hers may be the first such "urban residential turbine," though she can't be quite sure.

Ms. Wilson may have started something because San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom visited her home recently and says he's forming a group to study the idea of expanding residential wind throughout the city.

"I love the idea of being a zero-energy home and wind is helping me get there," says Wilson, whose neighbors "just love it" she says. The "scimitar-style" high-tech blades emit little noise, she says, "just a little hum."

Find this article at:
http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0430/p16s01-sten.html

Mark said...

From: Paul Schaefer, ENN
Published September 26, 2007 04:25 PM

Pay-As-You-Go Solar

RELATED ARTICLES

* SunPower Bring Solar Energy to Low-income Families in California
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* California Town Goes Solar, Collectively

/top_stories/article/23407LONG

BEACH, Calif. - You want solar but can't afford it? Purchase the power, not the panels. That's what the solar energy company Sun Run Generation is doing. The company announced a partnership with REC Solar, a company providing residential and commercial solar electric systems, to offer homeowners in California a discounted way to buy solar power.

Homeowners have the option of purchasing solar energy the same way businesses have for years, by purchasing power instead of panels.

Unlike traditional avenues of financing home solar systems, which rely on obtaining home equity loans or additional lines of credit, the Sun Run Electricity plan requires no upfront credit or additional loans.

Instead, homeowners lock-in their low electricity rate with a one-time installation fee and simply pay for their new Sun Run solar service as they would with any other monthly service.

REC Solar will supply the reliable residential solar energy systems from which Sun Run will sell discounted electricity to the homeowner. Customers are guaranteed performance and save more than 50 percent off the upfront cost and 15 percent over the 20-year life of the solar electric system.

"As utility rates continue to rise, residential energy consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for a secure, clean, fixed-cost alternative to utility power. The Sun Run Electricity Package assures customers a continued, clean energy source with the safety of our money-back performance guarantee," explained Sun Run COO, Nat Kreamer. "With partners like REC Solar, the largest solar contractor in the U.S., we're working with highly-qualified installers to maximize the value of every solar power system."

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/23407


2.

From: Paul Schaefer, ENN
Published December 15, 2007 02:52 PM

California Town Goes Solar, Collectively

RELATED ARTICLES

* Pay-As-You-Go Solar
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* SunPower Bring Solar Energy to Low-income Families in California

/top_stories/article/27442

FOSTER CITY, Calif. - Thirty-six families in Clovis California joined together in a group-based purchase program, which raised 215 total kilowatts of solar power. As a result of the bulk purchase, the Clovis community will save 20 percent on the market rate for solar installations, and make a positive contribution to the air quality in the Fresno area by offsetting at least 4.3 million pounds of carbon over the next 30 years -- the equivalent of 4,536 barrels of oil.

Of the fourteen such programs SolarCity has operated in California, the average system size in Clovis was comparatively large, averaging at 5.8 kW, reinforcing the desire for these homeowners to completely eliminate household electric bills.

"By forming this collective, we're gaining enough leverage to really lower solar's barrier of entry, making it finally affordable to invest in systems large enough to pay for our electric bills and significantly increase property values," said Wellman Shew, a Clovis resident who helped lead the program.

SolarCity is the most popular installer in the Fresno area, with nearly double the number of 2007 solar projects as its nearest competitor.

The company credits its success to superior technology and service, and an ability to ensure that systems provide long-term energy security in a region faced with rising electric rates.

"In Fresno, bringing financial benefits home and saving money from day one is essential to making solar succeed," said Lyndon Rive, CEO of SolarCity. "By structuring programs to take advantage of group purchasing, we're able to fully provide the economic and environmental advantages that come with the switch to solar electric power."

About SolarCity

Headquartered in Foster City, CA, SolarCity matches advanced solar power technology with a suite of installation services.

The company's comprehensive offering removes the technical, regulatory, and financing barriers to solar power, helping customers make smart renewable energy choices that save money.

Boasting the industry's most experienced team in solar systems design and installation and a proven track record of bringing new technologies to market, SolarCity is uniquely positioned to make solar power a practical choice for home owners and businesses.

Source: SolarCity

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/27442

Mark said...

[nice mixed land use idea: shade, parking, and solar energy]

Solar Parking Lot Will Deliver 1-Megawatt To Santa Rosa, California

RELATED ARTICLES

* Pay-As-You-Go Solar
* SunPower Bring Solar Energy to Low-income Families in California
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/top_stories/article/23489

SAN JOSE and SANTA CLARA, Calif., - SunPower Corporation, a manufacturer of high-efficiency solar cells, solar panels and solar systems, and Agilent Technologies today announced they'll install a 1-megawatt solar tracking system at Agilent's Santa Rosa, Calif., campus on top of a canopy structure in the campus parking lot, providing both shade in the lot and solar electric power for the facility. A lot of power.

The SunPower Tracker, which follows the sun's movement throughout the day. Using SunPower solar panels, the highest efficiency panels on the market today, the system is expected to generate an estimated 1.8 million kilowatt-hours per year, offsetting more than 33 million pounds of carbon dioxide over the next 30 years. This is equivalent to planting more than 4,700 acres of trees or removing 3,300 cars from California's roadways.

The tracking solar system design will generate up to 25 percent more energy for Agilent than a similarly sized flat, roof-top system. As a result, Agilent's solar parking canopy will be the largest solar power generator in Sonoma County.

"As the world's premier measurement company, Agilent recognizes the path to a sustainable future includes protecting the environment and being a responsible corporate citizen," said Ron Nersesian, vice president of Agilent's Wireless Business Unit and general manager of the company's Santa Rosa facility. "We are working to reduce the impact of our operations, suppliers, products and services on the environment, and generating our own clean, renewable solar power is a step in the right direction to accomplish those important goals."
Agilent will purchase solar-generated electricity for a period of 20 years under the SunPower Access program, a financing option that allows customers to purchase solar power under a highly flexible power-purchase contract as an alternative to outright system purchase. At the end of the term, Agilent will have the option to renew the agreement, transfer the equipment to a new site, or buy the system.

"Forward-thinking companies like Agilent are turning to solar power because it supports their environmental initiatives and makes good business sense," said Tom Werner, chief executive officer of SunPower. "We're very pleased to offer Agilent the highest efficiency solar technology on the market today to maximize both their environmental and financial savings."

---
http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/23489

Mark said...

Wood gas generator

Wood gas generator schematic
Wood gasifier on a Ford truck converted to a tractor (an EPA tractor).

Saab 99 running on wood gas. Gas generator on trailer.


A wood gas generator is a wood-fueled gasification reactor mounted on an internal combustion engine, to provide a wood gas, a form of syngas. These devices are also known as gas producers.

Shortages of petroleum-based fuels during World War II resulted in very large numbers of such generators, often improvised.

Commercial generators were in production before and after the war, for use in special circumstances or in distressed economies. Production skyrocketed during the war.

Gasification was an important and familiar 19th century technology, and its potential and practical applicability to internal combustion engines were well-understood from the earliest days of their development. Town gas [coal gas] was produced as a local business, and experience in the trade was very widespread; most practicing technical people would know a good deal about it.

When stationary internal combustion engines became available, they were commonly fueled by town gas during the early 20th century.

By the time World War II arrived, town gas production had been displaced by petroleum gas, but older people remembered both town gas and gas-fueled engines, and wood gas generators were in active production.

World War II era wood gas generators were of the "Imbert" type.

Usually, wood gas generators burn wood, but improvements to efficiency and energy-density are possible, by using charcoal instead.

The disadvantages of wood gas generators are: large size, slow to start (build a fire), and the batch-burn operation (of some designs). When not carefully designed and used, deaths have occurred because wood gas contains a large percentage of deadly carbon monoxide (CO) gas.

* 1 Modern wood gas generators
* 2 In TV Documentary
* 3 See also
* 4 External links

Modern wood gas generators

With rising oil prices, wood gas generators are coming back. The US Federal Emergency Management Administration published a book, "Construction of a Simplified Wood Gas Generator for Fueling Internal Combustion Engines in a Petroleum Emergency", in March 1989, describing a different design called the "stratified downdraft gasifier".

It solves several drawbacks of earlier types, and should be used to guide contemporary projects instead of the earlier designs.

A project about the energy future of Europe was begun in 2005 in Güssing, Austria with contribution of European Union research furtherance.

The project consisted of a power plant with a wood gas generator and a gas engine to convert the wood gas into 2 MW electric power and 4.5 MW heat.

At the wood gas power plant are also two containers for experiments with wood gas.

In one container is an experiment to convert wood gas, using the Fischer-Tropsch process, to a diesel fuel-like liquid.

By October 2005, it was possible to convert 5 kg wood into 1 litre fuel.

In TV Documentary

In 2008 - An example of designing and constructing of working Wood Gas Generator powered truck is dedicated in the National Geographic Channel's 45 Minutes English TV programme 'Planet Mechanics' 8th Episode named 'Tree Powered Car'.

See also

* "Holzbrenner Strength through Joy Wagon" (Volkswagen Beetle, 1940-1945)

External links

* Intro of the Planet Mechanics episode 'Tree Powered Car' on You tube describing how to make wood gas generator
* Wood gas generator power plant in Güssing Austria
* Experiment to make a Diesel like liquid fuel out of wood gas

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_gas_generator"
Categories: Engine technology | Fuels | Fuel gas

---
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_gasifier

Mark said...

How a Man-Made Tornado Could Power the Future

By Michael Schirber, Special to LiveScience

posted: 25 June 2008 09:11 am ET
Buzz up!

Louis Michaud looks over one of his small man-made vortices.

An illustration of the Atmospheric Vortex Engine. Input air is warmed by the waste heat from a power plant. Credit: Charles Floyd

The basic principle of the Atmospheric Vortex Engine. Credit: Louis Michaud

Coiled up in a tornado is as much energy as an entire power plant. So a Canadian engineer has a plan to spin up his own twister and extract energy from its tethered tail.

It all depends on heating the air near the surface so that it is much warmer than the air above.

"You can generate energy whenever you have a temperature gradient," said Louis Michaud. "The source of the energy here is the natural movement of warm and cold air currents."

These so-called convective air currents are only useful if they can be channeled in some way. That is why Michaud proposes using a tornado as a kind of drinking straw between the warm ground below and the cold sky above.

Wind turbines placed at the bottom could generate electricity from the sucked-up air.

Whirlwind tour

Tornadoes and hurricanes form when sun-heated air near the surface rises and displaces cooler air above. As outside air rushes in to replace the rising air, the whole mass begins to rotate.

Michaud got the notion of a man-made tornado — what he calls the Atmospheric Vortex Engine (AVE) — while working as an engineer on gas turbines.

"When I looked further into it, I didn't run into anything that was impossible," Michaud told LiveScience.

The AVE structure is a 200-meter-wide arena with 100-meter-high walls.

Warm humid air enters at the sides, directed to flow in a circular fashion. As the air whirls around at speeds up to 200 mph, a vacuum forms in the center, which holds the vortex together as it extends several miles into the sky.

The concept is similar to a solar chimney with the swirling walls of the vortex replacing the brick walls of the tower.

But the AVE can reach much higher into the sky where the air is colder.

With wind turbines at the inlets to the arena, Michaud calculates that as much as 200 megawatts of electricity (enough for a small city) could be extracted without draining the vortex of its power.

"Look at natural tornadoes that destroy a house or carry off a car and still have plenty of energy left over," he said.

Waste heat

Michaud imagines the AVE could get its warm air from the exhaust of a power plant.

"Most power plants reject more than half of the heat that they make," he said.

The AVE could generate energy from this waste heat because it connects the ground to the upper atmosphere where the temperature gets as low as negative 60 degrees Celsius (80 degrees below zero Fahrenheit).

This cold reservoir draws the warm air up fast enough to turn turbines.

"All you have to do is send the heat up there," Michaud said, and the extra energy from the AVE could increase the output of a power plant by 40 percent.

Making the tornado dependent on a waste heat supply would also be a built-in safety feature. "If it came off the base, there would be nothing to sustain the vortex," Michaud said.

He said the vortex might produce a little extra precipitation in the surrounding area.

To build a 200 megawatt AVE facility would cost $60 million, Michaud estimates. This implies a cost per megawatt that is lower than all existing power generation technologies.

Michaud has tested many small prototypes and is currently working on a 4-meter wide AVE near his home in Ontario. The research comes mostly out his own pocket book, as he has not found an investor yet.

"Utility companies are risk-adverse," he said. "They prefer to buy from established vendors."

---
http://www.livescience.com/environment/080625-pf-vortex-engine.html

Mark said...

The Water Car of the Late Stan Meyers
Schuyler Ebbets

There are not words to describe the magnitude of this tragedy. It is the greatest injustice in history as it effects all of humanity and the earth. This catastrophe exceeds the burning of the Royal Library of Alexandria in the fourth century A.D., which set back the industrial revolution by a thousand years.

This scientific advancement is greater than the discovery of electricity by Benjamin Franklin, greater than the day Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system changing our world forever. It surpasses the achievements of Nikola Tesla who's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current and helped usher in the second industrial revolution.

This one invention dwarfs all preceding achievements because it undoes all of the evil and destruction and human enslavement, which has resulted from man's past relationship with science and technology. It would have completely eliminated global warming as it relates to the burning of fossil fuels. It would have ended the destruction of pristine environments in the quest for oil, like those in southern Africa, South America, and Alaska. It would have made dirty, dangerous, and inefficient nuclear power even more obsolete and ridiculous than it already is.

More energy is required to produce nuclear fuel rods than they produce when a nuclear power plant is in operation.

This new technology produces infinitely more power than it uses because it's fuel is water.

Imagine a world where wars fought over oil are no longer necessary.

The mass killing of millions of men, women, and children by America in it's quest for oil would no longer be necessary. It would not be necessary to buy expensive gasoline, purchased with your labor and the blood of innocents. An ordinary car converted to run on water would be virtually free to operate except for the cost of mechanically maintaining the car.

This one invention by a gifted soul would have saved our ecosystem and turned our genocidal civilization into a utopia. But tragically and unjustly it is not to be. In order for humanity to climb out of their self imposed pit of pollution and war, the wealthiest among us must overcome their greed and lust for power.

The people who are raping and murdering our planet will not suddenly awaken and realize that water is a far superior fuel source. It is easier and more profitable for them to attack country after country, killing and enslaving the people, and stealing their oil. [or rather, keeping everyone from using it and raising the price and creating the dislocation they want to introduce to dominate us via artificial scarcity.]

After all this has been the barbaric behavior of human kind since we first emerged from the caves.

The corporate elite who now hold a noose around the collective neck of humanity tell us to accept our fate and not struggle, the noose will only grow tighter. More people die, our planet's atmosphere heats up and the destroyers of life become richer and more powerful. It can only end with a damaged ecosystem and millions of dead human beings. It will end with melted ice caps, coastlines under water, and weather so cold and erratic that food is extremely difficult to grow, and in America as with the rest of the world, people will starve to death.

This is what awaits you and your children. You have given over your destiny and your planet to corrupt corporations and the people who own them. The ruling elite have decided that the earth's population has become too large and now threatens the quality of life for them and their offspring. Disruption of the eco system will aid them in culling the herd. Of paramount importance is their power and wealth, and the survival of their self serving dynasties. Half of humanity will die so that a privileged few can continue their homicidal reign on earth. For them it is better to rule in a hell of their own making than to live as ordinary men on a peaceful and beautiful planet.

Stan Meyer was our technological savior. He said that America had become too dependent on oil and he wanted to change that. Although he had no formal education having quit high school, Stan Meyer was an inventive genius and his ideas were revolutionary. Using his amazing intellect for good rather than personal gain, he intended to help humanity. He wanted to free us from our enslavement to the Oil companies. He wanted to stop global warming. He was bound for the greatest glory that any person has ever known. He would have been the man who shattered humanity's oil dependency forever, ushering in a new dawn of prosperity, freedom, and hope for all except the greedy maniacal few who profit from selling oil and war.

His water powered car was better than an electric car because without numerous solar panels and plenty of sunlight they too must be charged by electricity produced ultimately from fossil fuels.

Stan's car was far ahead of General Motors hydrogen car, which simply burned hydrogen stored in a fuel tank which had also been produced with power generated by fossil fuels.

Stan found a way of using only half an amp of electricity to fracture water molecules separating the oxygen and hydrogen on demand. As the hydrogen was produced it was burned creating combustion more powerful than gasoline, and water was the only significant exhaust emission. Stan Meyer's water engine technology could easily have been developed to power planes, ships, trains, and spacecraft, completely eliminating our need for oil.

Stan Meyer said he trusted in angels to protect him, but in March 1998, Stan was poisoned and died in the parking lot of a restaurant in his home town of Grove City, Ohio. According to his brother Steve, the U.S. Government came to Stan's home a week after his murder and confiscated his car, which got 100 miles per gallon of water, and they stole all of his research equipment which he had used to develop the new technology.

Stan had been threatened many times and would not sell out to Arab Oil Corp. Stan said he was offered a billion dollars from an Arab to basically shelve his idea but he said, "No, this technology is for the people."

-----------------------

► These two videos prove that the present wars being fought over oil never needed to happen. The million killed Iraqi men, women, and children never needed to happen. It's all been a gigantic mass murdering fraud for the profits of oil and war. http://www.waterfuelcell.org/WFCprojects/Video/NewsReport.wmv /
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3333992194168790800&hl=en

Read more about this world class tragedy and watch more excellent videos about this subject at this site: http://waterpoweredcar.com/stanmeyer.html

-###-

© Copyright April 4, 2007 by Schuyler Ebbets. This article is posted on http://www.thepeoplesvoice.org Permission is granted for reprint in print, email, blog, or web media if this credit is attached and the title remains unchanged.
Permalink 2 Voices
Comments, Pingbacks:
Comment from: Jim Glover [Member]
Maybe a Japanese company got the patent of maybe ohters were workin on it too.

This was on Fox news about a new Japanese car that runs on water converting it to hydrogen with some new kind of generator… If this is true why not for power plants too?.
http://video.aol.com/video-detail/water-fuel-car-unveiled-in-japan/3934702477
Permalink 06/18/08 @ 13:14
Comment from: sandybb [Member]
This is sad and so typical of the sickness that plagues those in power.
Every thing you have stated in this story is so true.I just wish the whole world could see what sickness rules this planet.We are actually supposed to respect people who do such evil?I pray One day perhaps by the time those in charge have all the oil they think they need ,it will become useless except to grease parts in tiny amounts and those who did such evil to pursue it will be stuck with a product that is about as useful as paper shoes in a forest fire.No wonder they want to take away our protection.There guilt must be phenomenal.Imagen having to one day have a good long look at the pain and suffering they have caused from a divine perspective.This alone would be enough to make them completely dysfunctional for the rest of their lives .There are saints and masters who could show them their wrong doing and help straighten their paths.If not but for the life of us all I sure wish some divine intervention would intercede and show them their evil paths.Honestly, I do not understand why this has not happened yet.Where are all the enlightened ones when we need them?

---
http://www.thepeoplesvoice.org/cgi-bin/blogs/voices.php/2007/04/04/the_water_car

Mark said...

From: , MetaEfficient, More from this Affiliate
Published July 18, 2008 09:32 AM

Windows That Double As Solar Panels

http://www.enn.com/energy/article/37693

RELATED ARTICLES

* Researchers develop efficient solar power devices
* The future of solar-powered houses is clear
* New Solar Technology Sets World Record
* New Solar Panel Technology Stylish and Sustainable

/energy/article/37693/print

MIT researchers have announced that they have created “organic solar concentrators” that could make windows become powerful solar panels in as little as three years.

The concentrator is mixture of two or more dyes painted onto a pane of glass or plastic. The dyes absorb light across a range of wavelengths, re-emit it at a different wavelength and transport it across the pane to the solar cells at the edges. Focusing the light like this increases the electrical power generated by each solar cell by a factor of 10.

The advantages are twofold: the dyes greatly increase the power of solar cells, and homeowner are much more likely to incorporate solar glass into their homes.

The work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

Scientists had tried using similar solar concentrators in the 1970s, but abandoned the idea when not enough of the collected light reached the edges of the concentrator. The MIT engineers revamped the idea by using a mixture of dyes in specific ratios, which allows some level of control over how the light is transmitted.

More details can be found here:

Science 11 July 2008:
Vol. 321. no. 5886, pp. 226 - 228
DOI: 10.1126/science.1158342

Prev | Table of Contents | Next
Reports
High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics
Michael J. Currie,* Jonathan K. Mapel,* Timothy D. Heidel, Shalom Goffri, Marc A. Baldo{dagger}

The cost of photovoltaic power can be reduced with organic solar concentrators. These are planar waveguides with a thin-film organic coating on the face and inorganic solar cells attached to the edges. Light is absorbed by the coating and reemitted into waveguide modes for collection by the solar cells. We report single- and tandem-waveguide organic solar concentrators with quantum efficiencies exceeding 50% and projected power conversion efficiencies as high as 6.8%. The exploitation of near-field energy transfer, solid-state solvation, and phosphorescence enables 10-fold increases in the power obtained from photovoltaic cells, without the need for solar tracking.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

{dagger} To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: baldo@mit.edu

Read the Full Text

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/321/5886/226

Mark said...

Published July 17, 2008 11:09 AM

New Exchange For Trading Home-Brewed Biofuels

RELATED ARTICLES

* The Backroom Biofuel Processors Are Meeting Online On A Professional Exchange
* Willie Wonka and the Chocolate (biodiesel) Truck
* Better Than Corn? Algae Set to Beat Out Other Biofuel Feedstocks
* Mexico to issue permits for biofuel production

/business/article/37682/print

by Angelique van Engelen

Industrially produced biofuels are wildly controversial but it’s very easy to produce good stuff yourself.

Small businesses and even individuals are getting into producing their own biodiesel en masse.

There’s even a new exchange now on which producers can sell their surplus diesel to interested parties.

With petrol prices showing no signs of ending their steep hike, the business logic for producing your own diesel is strong.

That’s what people at the newly created US Biofuels Exchange (US-BX) have also realized.

Since they announced the launch of the exchange last month, they’ve been inundated with calls from parties interested in finding buyers or sellers of smaller or bigger quantities of biofuels.

The US-BX is accessible for everybody and operates just like eBay. There’s a ratings system to track bids until deals are completed with prices displayed real time. One of the founding members of the exchange told Ethanol Producer Magazine he’s sure the efficiency of the biofuels market place will now improve. Similarly to the reasons for the launch of the US-BX, biodiesel processors are selling like hot cakes. So what do you need to look out for if you want to purchase a machine like this? There are various biofuel production kits on the market and most people use old cooking oils to produce their own biodiesel. Oil that has been used in the kitchen would otherwise end up in the gutter, so there’s no ethical issue about turning it into biofuel, unlike in the industrial biofuels sector, where food crops are often used.

Biofuels processors for home use vary from testing kits that allow you to make just one gallon of diesel to processors churning out 300 gallons of biodiesel, according to Muna wa Wanjiru of Merpet Sales, who has been advising people about biodiesel processors for over ten years.

A biodiesel processor comes ready made, so it won’t need installation or complicated construction work before you can start building your oil empire. The very small processors are starter kits and they’re perfect to try out biodiesel manufacturing to see if you can handle it. If you feel happy about creating your own brew, you can always progress to better equipment. It’s probably very easy to sell your starter kit to another novice given the current mania.

In the larger biofuels equipment class, Wanjiru recommends the Freedom Fueler biodiesel kit. This kit is specifically designed to produce biodiesel from any waste vegetable oil. It requires only one hour of work to create 40 gallons of fuel. Wanjiru has detailed recipes on what ingredients to use. Aside from large quantities of used cooking oils, you need a blender with a glass jar, a scale which weighs from 0 to 50 gm to the nearest 0.1 gm., one quart jar, a hand pump, a liquid measuring cup, methanol, sodium hydroxide.

The ingredients are listed for people that work without even a starter kit. Wanjiru says that Evolution biodiesel kits are also recommendable. They come in either semi or fully automated format and are great for cooking oils as well as for using other base ingredients. The fully automated equipment does all the mixing automatically and also cleans and washes the equipment and is rather more expensive than the semi-automated equipment.

If you’re serious about making large quantities of biodiesel you should think about investing in a testing kit too. Such equipment will help you to check the reactions. For a complete guide on how to produce biofuels including algae based biofuels, check out Wanjiru’s website.

---
http://www.enn.com/business/article/37682/print

Sounds a lot like the commodity ecology institutional ideas, though only for biofuel so far...

Mark said...

[Sustainable centralization is a contradiction of terms. It is unrequired, self-defeating, and superfluous a strategy. I particularly distrust a "President" who won via vote fraud assuredly (Sarkozy) and his centralization plans and EU plans associated with this.

If we continue to perpetuate centralized frameworks we repeat political corruptions of material dependencies of the past that have only contributed to future corruptions and lack of democratization and material optimalization in particular areas.

Still, worth posting as a current event.]


£37bn plan to power EU with the Saharan sun

* Alok Jha
* The Guardian,
* Wednesday July 23, 2008

Vast farms of solar panels in the Sahara could provide clean electricity for the whole of Europe, according to EU scientists working on a plan to pool the region's renewable energy.

Harnessing the power of the desert sun is at the centre of an ambitious scheme to build a €45bn (£35.7bn) European supergrid that would allow countries across the continent to share electricity from abundant green sources such as wind energy in the UK and Denmark, and geothermal energy from Iceland and Italy.

The idea is gaining political support in Europe, with [suspicious allies] Gordon Brown and Nicolas Sarkozy, the French president, recently backing the north African solar plan.

Because the sunlight is more intense, solar photovoltaic panels in north Africa could generate up to three times the electricity compared with similar panels in northern Europe.

Arnulf Jaeger-Walden of the European commission's Institute for Energy explained how electricity produced in solar farms in Africa, each generating around 50-200 megawatts of power, could be fed thousands of miles to European countries. [That is a waste of energy and materials in itself to transfer 'green' energy thousands of miles?! Nonsense of a strategy. There's enough sun that falls anywhere in the world for solar.]

The proposed grid would use high-voltage direct current (DC) transmission lines, which lose less energy over distance than conventional alternating current (AC) lines. [?] [That's REALLY dangerous.]

The idea of developing solar farms in the Mediterranean region and north Africa was given a boost by Sarkozy earlier this month when he highlighted solar farms in north Africa as central to the work of his newly formed [neo-fascist corporatist, de-democratized] Mediterranean Union.

Depending on the size of the grid, building the necessary high-voltage lines across Europe could cost up to €1bn a year every year till 2050, but Jaeger-Walden pointed out that the figure was small when compared to a recent prediction by the International Energy Agency that the world needs to invest more than $45tn (£22.5tn) in energy systems over the next 30 years.

---
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/23/solarpower.windpower1

Mark said...

[Synthetic chlorophyll was discovered/invented several years ago at University of Pittsburg several years ago as well, I think.]

'Major discovery' from MIT primed to unleash solar revolution
Scientists mimic essence of plants' energy storage system

Anne Trafton, News Office
July 31, 2008

In a revolutionary leap that could transform solar power from a marginal, boutique alternative into a mainstream energy source, MIT researchers have overcome a major barrier to large-scale solar power: storing energy for use when the sun doesn't shine.

Daniel Nocera describes new process for storing solar energy

View video post on MIT TechTV

Until now, solar power has been a daytime-only energy source, because storing extra solar energy for later use is prohibitively expensive and grossly inefficient. [huh? au contraire on some technologies, this article of course is written by the publicity department of MIT...]

With today's announcement, MIT researchers have hit upon a simple, inexpensive, highly efficient process for storing solar energy.

Requiring nothing but abundant, non-toxic natural materials, [which is different than the Pittsburg synthetic chlorophyll I remember] this discovery could unlock the most potent, carbon-free energy source of all: the sun.

"This is the nirvana of what we've been talking about for years," said MIT's Daniel Nocera, the Henry Dreyfus Professor of Energy at MIT and senior author of a paper describing the work in the July 31 issue of Science. "Solar power has always been a limited, far-off solution. Now we can seriously think about solar power as unlimited and soon."

Inspired by the photosynthesis performed by plants, Nocera and Matthew Kanan, a postdoctoral fellow in Nocera's lab, have developed an unprecedented process that will allow the sun's energy to be used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Later, the oxygen and hydrogen may be recombined inside a fuel cell, creating carbon-free electricity to power your house or your electric car, day or night.

The key component in Nocera and Kanan's new process is a new catalyst that produces oxygen gas from water; another catalyst produces valuable hydrogen gas.

[so hydrogen gas from a solar panel arrangement?]

The new catalyst consists of cobalt metal [er, cobalt is toxic], phosphate and an electrode, placed in water. When electricity -- whether from a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine or any other source -- runs through the electrode, the cobalt and phosphate form a thin film on the electrode, and oxygen gas is produced.

Combined with another catalyst, such as platinum [platinum?! you call this a CHEAP alternative?!], that can produce hydrogen gas from water, the system can duplicate the water splitting reaction that occurs during photosynthesis.

The new catalyst works at room temperature [that is a huge limitation if it only works in this general range], in neutral pH water, and it's easy to set up, Nocera said. "That's why I know this is going to work. It's so easy to implement," he said.

'Giant leap' for clean energy

Sunlight has the greatest potential of any power source to solve the world's energy problems, said Nocera. In one hour, enough sunlight strikes the Earth to provide the entire planet's energy needs for one year.

James Barber, a leader in the study of photosynthesis who was not involved in this research, called the discovery by Nocera and Kanan a "giant leap" toward generating clean, carbon-free energy on a massive scale.

"This is a major discovery with enormous implications for the future prosperity of humankind," said Barber, the Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College London. "The importance of their discovery cannot be overstated since it opens up the door for developing new technologies for energy production thus reducing our dependence for fossil fuels and addressing the global climate change problem."

'Just the beginning'

Currently available electrolyzers, which split water with electricity and are often used industrially, are not suited for artificial photosynthesis because they are very expensive and require a highly basic (non-benign) environment that has little to do with the conditions under which photosynthesis operates.

More engineering work needs to be done to integrate the new scientific discovery into existing photovoltaic systems, but Nocera said he is confident that such systems will become a reality.

"This is just the beginning," said Nocera, principal investigator for the Solar Revolution Project funded by the Chesonis Family Foundation and co-Director of the Eni-MIT Solar Frontiers Center.

"The scientific community is really going to run with this." [he says.]

Nocera hopes that within 10 years, homeowners will be able to power their homes in daylight through photovoltaic cells, while using excess solar energy to produce hydrogen and oxygen to power their own household fuel cell. [the split water arrangement from that Canadian company is far superior to this]

Electricity-by-wire from a central source could be a thing of the past.

The project is part of the MIT Energy Initiative, a program designed to help transform the global energy system to meet the needs of the future and to help build a bridge to that future by improving today's energy systems.

MITEI Director Ernest Moniz, Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems, noted that "this discovery in the Nocera lab demonstrates that moving up the transformation of our energy supply system to one based on renewables will depend heavily on frontier basic science."

The success of the Nocera lab shows the impact of a mixture of funding sources - governments, philanthropy, and industry. This project was funded by the National Science Foundation and by the Chesonis Family Foundation, which gave MIT $10 million this spring to launch the Solar Revolution Project, with a goal to make the large scale deployment of solar energy within 10 years.

---
http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/oxygen-0731.html

Mark said...

Bubble Fusion Vindicated in Flagship Nuclear Journal

Adapted by Joy Cernac and Sterling D. Allan
for Pure Energy Systems News

Bubble fusion, also known as sonofusion, is the non-technical name for a nuclear fusion reaction hypothesized to occur during sonoluminescence, an extreme form of acoustic cavitation. Officially, this reaction is termed acoustic inertial confinement fusion (AICF) since the inertia of the collapsing bubble wall confines the energy, causing an extreme rise in temperature. The high temperatures sonoluminescence can produce raises the possibility that it might be a means to achieve thermonuclear fusion. At temperatures hot enough, atoms can literally fuse and release even more energy than when they split in nuclear fission, now used in nuclear power plants and weapons. Furthermore, fusion is clean in that it does not produce long-lived nuclear waste. (Wikipedia)


Bubble fusion, which in the last couple of years has come to be viewed with a jaundiced eye, has been cleared by a new peer-reviewed report that examines the faulty basis for the negative assessment.

A new scientific paper* on bubble fusion has been published by the multi-institutional team of Taleyarkhan, Lapinskas, Xu, Cho, Lahey and Nigmatulin under the international publishing house, Elsevier B.V., in the nuclear industry’s premier scientific journal, Nuclear Engineering and Design (NED).

The purpose of this new seminal paper is to undo misconceptions generated by University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) researcher’s webposting, which was assumed as technically accurate and reported by Nature magazine in March of 2006.

Over the past two years, a methodical and systematic study was undertaken with the intense efforts of researchers from Purdue University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, FNC Tech. of S. Korea together with input from Dr. West (retd. ORNL).

This study was documented, using time-honored traditions, then offered for anonymous peer review, acceptance and publication in Nuclear Engineering and Design*.

The results of the new archival publication* confirm for the record that the confusion and controversies caused from past reports have resulted from neglect of important details within bubble fusion experiments. The new results demonstrate that neutron pulse pileup due to picosecond duration neutron pulse emission during bubble fusion events, ice-pack shielding between the detector and the fusion source, and gamma photon leakage all play important roles in affecting the spectra of neutrons from acoustic inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion experiments.

The new paper presents a comprehensive study that takes into account all six of the reported successful bubble fusion studies, including those associated with successful confirmations by groups unaffiliated with the original Taleyarkhan et al. research team. Two, unique, calibrated, validated and cross-checked methods were employed. Notably, in some of these successful bubble fusion experimental programs, ice-pack shielding was present between the reactor and detector. The goal was to address the confusion resulting from simulations conducted under incorrect experimental configurations and omission of key physics behind the bubble fusion phenomenon.

---
http://pesn.com/2008/08/27/9501491_BubbleFusion_vindicated/

Mark said...

Another Alternative Energy Inventor Killed?
By Benjamin Fulford
9-3-8

A man by the name of Stefan Nystrom invented a way to generate energy from ocean waves that he claims would cost 5% of what coal energy does.

He set up a proto-type in Ghana and, initially, claims to have found many potential investors.

However, suddenly problems started to pop up.

The investors, originally extremely enthusiastic, started to back off.

He was offered bribes in order to quit.

Finally, he began to be harassed by Ghanaian police and mercenaries.

He contacted me in hopes of getting protection. I told him to come to Japan. He told me he was not allowed to leave the country. He said they had taken parts from his prototype. I said I would see what I could do. Before I could do anything, yesterday I received a disturbing set of phone calls from a very scared sounding Mr. Nystrom. "They tried to kill me three times today," he screamed into the phone. Then I lost contact with him, and his phone has been switched off.

In his last call, he asked me to make his technology public. So, here below is a description of his technology. Would people please pass it on and would as many people, in a tribute to a man who has probably been killed by mercenaries hired by the oil industry, and make sure that prototypes are developed.

http://www.wavepartner.eu/page_1219330357093.html

Benjamin Fulford

Wavereaper™ the Technology
author: Stefan Nystrom

Waves work in a constant movement up and down, forth and back, and we can with the WaveReaper™, a simple mechanical device take advantage of this in a cheap way. The technology is available for home use.
http://www.wavepartner.eu/page_1219330357093.html
Wavereaper™ the Technology.

As we said, the wave move up and down, but most generators, rotate around an axle, and the wave size varies a lot, and creates problems, when you want to utilize the energy content of them. The current technologies regarding wave energy today, is very costly, which brings that can't compete with other ways of making energy.



Another factor, water, and generators, yes almost any technology, is having problem, when it comes to the oceans salt water without more expensive design and material. Water can leak inside equipment and ruin electrical circuits, and must therefore be safeguarded against corrosion, and in those cases it is under water, against leakage, and pressure. Also water-depth, and the special environment, which crave divers, and other expensive equipment, has made wave energy costly.

With other words, underwater technology is not cheap, with these problems to solve, which means high costs, and therefore more expensive energy for the consumer. This is not what we would like, so it's needed to solve the wave generation concept, to go around these problems. And the solution is simple, we can use basic items, as wire, plastic barrels, one way bearings, pulley, an axle, flywheel and generator.



That is the main components, in what up to day, is the cheapest wave energy technology in the world. It can even be built in wood or by choice bicycle parts! This is very good, in countries which have limited access to expensive metals, and heavy machining tools. Most of the parts in a generator, except wiring, can be made of wood or plastics.




WaveReapers plastic barrels in the waves.

We will use a set of plastic barrels as boys, cost is low, and Pvc isn't affected by salty ocean water. The barrels are placed near shore or longer out in deeper water, depending on amount of energy needed in particular wave plant.



Each barrel has a lifting force of approx 100 Kg. A wire is connected to the barrel, which goes to a brass block on the bottom, which is weighted down, with a big stone, and connected to another wire. The location of choice is the main parameter for the size of the barrels, smaller waves, smaller barrels, and vice verse. Wave heights can possible catch range from 2 foot and up.





Powertransmitting wires, and seafloor based blocks.



The number of barrels, can be larger, but i think, for practical reasons, a number of 100 on each plant, would be good, and reasonable, this amount, can in the shore line version, give up to 500 kW of energy, or even more if special locations, and in a plant that covers 100 meter of shoreline, that makes it, 3 mw per kilometer shoreline.



The barrels are on 2 meters distance from each other, and connected to the on mainland placed WaveReaper generator, via the "power transmitting wire" it is also is connected with a thinner wire, between them, so, if the power wire should break, the barrels, don't get to drift away, in the sea. This will also even out the possibility that the barrels, would smash into each other, when the sea is rougher.



The lifting capacity is also setting a maximum power input into the device, since if it is to large/fast waves, the barrels would not lift more than it can, and forces is kept within the range, chosen when constructing the WaveReaper plant.





Power out put of waves kW per meter of WaveReaper, approx 30% energy after conversion.

Example, number of barrels in each row 10, and rows 10, the plant would be 20 x 20 meters of area, 400m2, and will have 100 connected wires, which transfer the mechanical energy, to the generator. This type of plants, give 100 to 300 kW every hour, which generates profits, of 6500 to 20 000 dollars of revenue monthly, building cost of the plant is estimated to 20 000 dollars only.

This give that the WaveReaper earns itself, in a few months, instead of years.



Reverse Half-Pipes makes it possible to haul gear without divers.

I have chosen to use cheap materials only, in this demonstration, because the need to bring down production costs, and make it possible to build this type of wave generation device, any where in the world, and with local materials, as car parts etc, which doesn't needs to be imported.

Other materials could of course be used, and the schematics for its design of course, be different. Simple is better, it is said, and fewer parts, and bearings, will bring lower cost of building, and also repair.



We can here see energy content in waves, The numbers means kW per hour, and meters of wave. South America, 97 kW per meter of wave, for example, that means, a Wavereaper™ device, which is 100 meters broad, would generate 9.7 mw, cost would be around 1200 000 Dollar, for that device. However, the revenue would be over 400 000 dollars monthly with current energy price.



This is a simple schematic, showing buoys, wire and one-way bearing, connected together.In case of storm and rough waves, it is a problem, for all wave energy constructions, however, the Wavereaper™, has a built in safety feature in its construction, that would avoid damage on the equipment, its due to the max lifting force of the barrels, since the will sink under the surface, if the force is to great. this will make the Wavereaper™ possible to work in any weather, however it should be constructed, to take advantage, of the medium wave, that is present at all time, for best cost benefit of the plant.






The wire is connected to a chain in the end, which works on a gearwheel sitting on a one-way bearing, mounted on an axle. This translates the pulling force of the wire, to an circular movement which is good for cheap generators. The wire is for this case 4 mm stainless steel, which give a lifting ability of approx 300 Kg before it brakes. Also plastic can be used as Pvc band, which today is commonly used for packaging goods on pallets, this type of Pvc band has high strength, and is also light, and cost-effective, of course the UV light from the sun is affecting it in the long run, but the part that is in the water, should be somewhat guarded from the UV rays.


Flywheels are also mounted on the axle, to collect, even out/store the momentum which is produced by the lifting barrel, this will even out and, smooth the turnings of the axle, to the generator, which is driven by a pulley, who will give it correct rpm. A simple brake, which can never wear down, is also planned, in those cases, constant current generators, or a special electronical device is not used.





Pipes mounted on the wire, which means we can haul in and out the device, without leaving the shoreline. With this configuration, if one set of barrels malfunction, only 10% of the plants output is lost, it can be hauled in to the shore and serviced, with ease, and without complicated offshore operations. When the wire coming to the generator housing, a chain is mounted to the wire, which drive the Gear wheel, and the one way bearing, which makes the chain draw, when the waves raises the barrel, but let it spin freely back, when the wave height is going down again, also a small weight is connected to the chain, to make it even out slack of the wire. A flywheel is mounted, and a pulley drives the generator, evenly.



One-way bearing, with pulley and wire, with bigger loads, chain and gearwheel, is an option. One-way bearings can be seen in ex. bicycles, the rotate freely in one direction, but in the other direction, they grip, and transfer force, this is used in the Wave reaper, and makes it simple, and cost effective. The waves up and down, movement is translated to rotating movement, suited for a generator, of choice.





Benefits of the One-way bearing.

The barrels will of course jump up and down in random patterns; this will add to an even movement of the generator axle, and its flywheel, as soon as a wave has energy to contribute, it will transmit its force to the wire, and to the axle. The flywheel is storing the momentum gained from the waves temporarily.


Because of its design, the WaveReaper, is always self adjusting regarding wave height, and tidal shifts, and higher or lower water levels due to shifting weather patterns, no adjustment needed, the Wavereaper™ is always balancing itself out, to optimal level in the ocean.




No computer monitoring is needed and that also brings costs down, and no complicated technology, which would need delicate conditions, or a lot of service. This technology, is in as private, non commercial, or company, 15Kw max output, offered globally for free, however, an voluntary size of donation, to www.o2gruppen.se is gladly accepted to get an "free" license.

Anyone can now build his very own, generator.

License should be acquired for selling generators, the inventions name "WaveReaper" must be honored, as the inventors name Stefan Nystrom. Max 1 generator per kilometer shoreline. Account information, for donors/license takers, can be seen at start page www.o2gruppen.se later

Please, mail me a photo of your device, for educational purposes, and to help others get ideas, pictures will be promoted on this site!


Let everyone know, friend and foe, its time for things to change in the worlds energy sector. Oil based economy, is gone, lets all accept it, and build a better world, feed the hungry, cure the sick, and of course, stop polluting the environment, with the oil based stone age technology.

WavePartner®, gives out free* licenses for 15 Kw Onshore WaveReaper®.

In the times when need for energy is great, and prices are spiking, Wavepartner introduces, an unique offer, to the global community.

Any private person, can for his own consumption, build you own 15 Kw Onshore WaveReaper, wave generator.

In return, an small donation to our sister organisation O2gruppen® is required only. Donation minimum size is set to 60 Euro.

Building cost estimated at this point to 3500 Euro wich in return would be gained back in three months only. Account information is Swedish Bankgiro number 5894-9199 Build it yourself, with parts found in scrapyards, in wood or by bicycle parts! Max 1 generator per household, and maximum 15 Kwrper kilometer shoreline. If you wish to sell energy to others, or produce WaveReaper generators for others to use, contact us, and a generous contract offer, can be signed. The name of inventor Mr Stefan Nystrom, and the product name WaveReaper®, must always be honored. As developments take place, updated versions of the building plans and photographs and video will be announced on this site.

Visit O2gruppen webpage

contribute to this article

Thinks 05.Sep.2008 01:40
simple link

This is incredibly simple technology! Anyone can do it!

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http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2008/09/379199.shtml

Mark said...

EERC Creates First 100% Renewable Jet Fuel

[Interesting renewable fuel project, though there are many other better options in my opinion. The issue of being flexible enough to utilize DIFFERENT inputs of bio-waste greases is interesting since they made enough octane-kick to power airplanes WITHOUT CONVERSION OF THE AIRPLANES with their recipe instead of only powering bio-fuel cars that require lots of physical conversion. This is just something that is identical to gasoline, jet fuel, or a host of different portions--without rock oil based origins.

The points are it was unrequired to convert the airplane to run on this biofuel, and that it was possible to be flexible in the inputs with the same bio-fuel process to create the same physical standards of jet fuel (instead of having a product that freezes at different temperatures than accustomed, etc.].]


GRAND FORKS, N.D. — The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota has achieved a major technical milestone in creating a 100% renewable domestic fuel that meets the JP-8 aviation fuel screening criteria, proving a pathway to providing energy security to the U.S. military and the entire nation.

EERC fuel samples created from multiple renewable feedstocks were tested at a U.S. government facility to evaluate key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based fuel widely used by the U.S. military.

JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, energy content, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel samples.

The EERC fuel was produced under a $4.7 million contract with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

The Department of Defense is the largest consumer of petroleum in America, and securing a domestic fuel source is a key operational challenge for the military.

Production is now under way to produce a large fuel sample for engine testing this fall.

“This builds on a solid foundation of expertise at the EERC in the area of alternative fuel production,” said EERC Director Gerald Groenewold.

“The EERC is now uniquely positioned to provide drop-in-compatible JP-8 fuel from both fossil and renewable feedstocks, providing critical strategic opportunities for the U.S. military as well as commercial aviation.”

The technology takes advantage of feedstock chemistry to reduce capital and operating expenses.

The feedstock-flexible process can use various crop oils and waste greases.

The process can be tailored to produce combinations of propane, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel that are identical to petroleum-derived fuels, enabling direct substitution with existing fuels and providing renewable options across the spectrum of fuel needs.

The EERC is actively exploring partnerships with the private sector to move into full-scale production of the fuel.

Preliminary negotiations are under way with feedstock suppliers and oil refineries.

Talks of building a large-scale Advanced Tactical Fuels Production Complex are ongoing.

About the EERC

The EERC is recognized as one of the world’s leading developers of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies as well as environmental technologies to protect and clean our air, water, and soil.

The EERC, a high-tech, nonprofit division of the University of North Dakota (UND), operates like a business and pursues an entrepreneurial, market-driven approach to research and development in order to successfully demonstrate and commercialize innovative technologies. Since 1987, the EERC has had over 1000 clients in all 50 states and 50 countries. In FY2008, more than 80 percent of its contracts were funded by nonfederal entities.

The EERC’s current contract portfolio is more than $227 million. www.undeerc.org.

The above project is sponsored by the U.S. Army Research Office and is financially supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Disclaimer: The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressly or implied, of the U.S. Army, DARPA, or the U.S. Government

Contact Info: Derek Walters,
Communications Manager
(701) 777-5113, dwalters@undeerc.org

Website : Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)

---
http://www.enn.com/press_releases/2663

Mark said...

Solar paint on steel could generate renewable energy - Report

It is reported that, in three years, buildings covered in steel sheets could be generating large amounts of solar electricity, thanks to a new photovoltaic paint that is being developed in a commercial partnership between UK university researchers and the steel industry.

As per report, these new solar cells also have the advantage of being able to absorb across the visible spectrum.

That makes them more efficient at capturing low radiation light than conventional solar cells, and so well suited to the British climate with its many cloudy days.

The photovoltaic paint is made up of a layer of dye and a layer of electrolytes and can be applied as a liquid paste.

Altogether, the sheets of steel get four coats of solar paint namely an undercoat, a layer of dye-sensitized solar cells, a layer of electrolyte or titanium dioxide as white paint pigment and, finally, a protective film.

The paste is applied to steel sheets when they are passed through the rollers during the manufacturing process.

The four layers of the solar cell system are built up one after the other in rapid succession.

Light hits the dye sensitized solar cells, exciting the molecules that act as a light absorber or sensitizer. The excited molecules release an electron into the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide layer, which acts as an electron collector and a circuit.

The electrons finally move back into the dye, attracted by positively charged iodide particles in a liquid electrolyte. The solar electricity that the area covered with paint generates is collected and provides power for whatever application it is connected to.

A laboratory built to develop the new solar technology that replicates plant's photosynthesis is due to start work on October 30th 2008 in Shotton, North Wales.

Mr Steve Fisher spokesperson of the Corus Group, that is believed to be pouring tens of millions of euros into the venture, said that "If the solar cell paint can be successfully brought to the market, it could spell big changes when it comes to the future production of electricity."

Mr Stephen Fisher said that Corus was developing the photovoltaic paint as part of its commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

He added that "Although typical CO2 emissions per tonne of steel are now around 50% lower than they were 40 years ago, the steel industry is still a significant contributor to global CO2 emissions. We invest significant amounts every year reducing the environmental impact of our processes and work hard to ensure we continuously improve our performance beyond mere compliance."

---
http://steelguru.com/news/index/2008/10/05/NjU0MTU%3D/Solar_paint_on_steel_could_generate_renewable_energy_-_Report.html

domer said...

Galp Energia Petrobras JV to set up bio fuel
http://www.varthagam.com/?p=556

domer said...

http://www.varthagam.com/?p=556
Galp Energia SGPSSA, Portugal’s biggest oil company and Petroleum Brasileiro SA, Brazils state controlled oil company signed to set up bio fuel venture. The agreement follows a MoU signed by both companies. The company plans to produce 600,000 tones of vegetables oil each year in Brazil to make bio diesel.

Mark said...

Forget Corn: Mushrooms May Hold Key to Energy Crisis (Update2)

By Frances Schwartzkopff
More Photos/Details

Nov. 7 (Bloomberg) -- A solution to the world's energy problems may lie in a Chinese mushroom growing in Novozymes A/S laboratories.

The Danish company's scientists in China, Brazil, Denmark and the U.S. are testing mushrooms and lichen to find one that will turn [waste] corn cobs and sugarcane stalks into biofuel.

An affordable alternative to gasoline made from plant waste would end concerns that global hunger for energy is driving up food prices worldwide.

Novozymes said it will find the answer by 2010, getting to the market before its closest rival, Danisco A/S.

``We're not going to solve today's energy shortage with food,'' said Per-Henrik Graesberg, a DnB NOR ASA fund manager who directs almost $200 million in renewable energy investments. Graesberg is considering buying Novozymes shares after selling off earlier this year. Second-generation biofuel ``is one of the main reasons'' to invest in the sector, he said.

Fungi like mushrooms and lichen make enzymes to eat rotting logs and decaying leaves. Biofuel producers use the proteins to break down the complex carbohydrates in plant cells into a soup- like mixture of simple sugars that yeast can eat. In a process much like making beer, yeast ferments the mixture, producing ethanol. Enzymes now on the market can't break down the tougher parts of plants effectively enough to be affordable.

Record Prices

Earlier this year, record-high prices for corn and wheat undermined government support for biofuel, which depends on subsidies, and caused shares of enzyme makers to drop.

Novozymes, the world's largest maker of enzyme products, lost almost half its value from August 2007 to mid-April in Copenhagen trading. The shares are down about 30 percent for the year.

Finding the right enzymes is ``the major bottleneck'' in developing fuel from non-food sources, the Paris-based Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development said in July.

Novozymes stock pared its loss earlier this year after DuPont Co., the third-largest U.S. chemical company, said it planned to build a pilot plant with Danisco to make second- generation biofuel.

Since then, a European Union panel has approved new biofuel standards and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations called for more research into the energy source. The shares rose 3.5 kroner, or 0.9 percent, to 409.50 kroner today.

``In 2010, we will have enzymes commercially available and a process that will allow our customers to produce at around $2.50 per gallon, [! still ridiculous, just built a water engine, folks] '' Novozymes Chief Executive Officer Steen Riisgaard said in a September interview in Copenhagen.

Research Increased

The company increased its research department by 13 percent last year, and now almost one in 10 of its 900 scientists and assistants are seeking the right enzyme product that can work in an industrial setting.

Last May, Novozymes microbiologist Wenping Wu led scientists from farm to farm in northeast China, searching through piles of decaying corn stalks for new kinds of fungi.

The search is daunting because of the sheer number of fungi. Researchers have amassed 480,264 different kinds and say as many as 1.5 million species may exist. Each specializes in feeding at specific points in the cycle of decay, and can have anywhere from two to 100 different enzymes. Some fungi grow worldwide, while factors such as temperature, soil type and altitude limit others.

The perfect enzyme ``is not so easy to find in nature,'' said Wenping, director of Novozymes's department of microbial discovery. ``They survive in nature and do what they need to do, but they don't do what we need.''

Ethanol Production

The amount of ethanol used worldwide for transportation will climb sixfold in a decade, to 12 percent in 2017, the Rome-based FAO said in an October report. Novozymes supplied more than half the enzymes needed last year to convert food into 33 billion liters (8.7 billion gallons) of bio-ethanol. About 62 billion liters was produced overall, the OECD said.

``The No. 1 producer of first-generation biofuel enzymes is Novozymes and will be Novozymes,'' Rune Dahl, an analyst at Sydbank, said. ``Danisco is still the little brother in all aspects.''

In one day scavenging compost outside the city of Changchun, Wenping found 53 different fungi. Only one may turn out to have enzymes that will convert corn waste, said Wenping, who is based at Novozymes's headquarters in Bagsvaerd, Denmark. Scientists tested the fungi's enzymes to measure how long they took to break down coarse, brown plant matter the size of coffee granules, and what sugars were produced.

Novozymes also maps each fungus's genes to locate the instructions for enzyme production. Once found, a process that could take up to six months, researchers will insert the genes into bacteria that are genetically engineered to mass-produce enzymes for even finer testing.

Natural Defenses

The scientists are running up against plants' natural defenses. Lignin, found in corn's stalks and leaves, is made up of the toughest tight-knit cells in the plant, because it's designed to protect the seeds for reproduction and to resist invasion from, among other things, fungi.

Novozymes's researchers are trying to overcome that natural obstacle by tinkering with the enzymes' chemical makeup and mixing together different kinds to see if the combinations break down the sugars more quickly.

In addition to Danisco, the scientists are also racing against companies that are trying to develop biofuels using other methods such as turning biomass into gasoline using high temperatures. Novozymes executives say they have made it plain to the researchers the importance of getting the enzymes to the market before another method is shown to work.

``We put a lot of pressure on them to be out there first,'' said Peder Holk Nielsen, head of Novozymes's enzymes unit. ``This is one of our must-win battles.''

To contact the reporter on this story: Frances Schwartzkopff in Copenhagen at fschwartzkop@bloomberg.net
Last Updated: November 7, 2008 11:33 EST

---
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601109&refer=home&sid=az5PYSl7vUE4

Mark said...

Ocean currents can power the world, say scientists

A revolutionary device that can harness energy from slow-moving rivers and ocean currents could provide enough power for the entire world, scientists claim.


By Jasper Copping
Last Updated: 2:39PM GMT 29 Nov 2008

Ocean currents can power the world, say scientists

Existing technologies require an average current of five or six knots to operate efficiently, while most of the earth's currents are slower than three knots

The technology can generate electricity in water flowing at a rate of less than one knot - about one mile an hour - meaning it could operate on most waterways and sea beds around the globe.

[Earlier] [e]xisting technologies which use water power, relying on the action of waves, tides or faster currents created by dams, are far more limited in where they can be used, and also cause greater obstructions when they are built in rivers or the sea.

Turbines and water mills need an average current of five or six knots to operate efficiently, while most of the earth's currents are slower than three knots.

The new device, which has been inspired by the way fish swim, consists of a system of cylinders positioned horizontal to the water flow and attached to springs.

As water flows past, the cylinder creates vortices, which push and pull the cylinder up and down. The mechanical energy in the vibrations is then converted into electricity.


Cylinders arranged over a cubic metre of the sea or river bed in a flow of three knots can produce 51 watts.

This is more efficient than similar-sized turbines or wave generators, and the amount of power produced can increase sharply if the flow is faster or if more cylinders are added.

A "field" of cylinders built on the sea bed over a 1km by 1.5km area, and the height of a two-storey house, with a flow of just three knots, could generate enough power for around 100,000 homes.

Just a few of the cylinders, stacked in a short ladder, could power an anchored ship or a lighthouse.

Systems could be sited on river beds or suspended in the ocean. The scientists behind the technology, which has been developed in research funded by the US government, say that generating power in this way would potentially cost only around 3.5p per kilowatt hour, compared to about 4.5p for wind energy and between 10p and 31p for solar power.

They say the technology would require up to 50 times less ocean acreage than wave power generation.

The system, conceived by scientists at the University of Michigan, is called Vivace, or "vortex-induced vibrations for aquatic clean energy".

Michael Bernitsas, a professor of naval architecture at the university, said it was based on the changes in water speed that are caused when a current flows past an obstruction.

Eddies or vortices, formed in the water flow, can move objects up and down or left and right.

"This is a totally new method of extracting energy from water flow," said Mr Bernitsas. "Fish curve their bodies to glide between the vortices shed by the bodies of the fish in front of them. Their muscle power alone could not propel them through the water at the speed they go, so they ride in each other's wake."

Such vibrations, which were first observed 500 years ago by Leonardo DaVinci in the form of "Aeolian Tones", can cause damage to structures built in water, like docks and oil rigs. But Mr Bernitsas added: "We enhance the vibrations and harness this powerful and destructive force in nature.

"If we could harness 0.1 per cent of the energy in the ocean, we could support the energy needs of 15 billion people. In the English Channel, for example, there is a very strong current, so you produce a lot of power."

Because the parts only oscillate slowly, the technology is likely to be less harmful to aquatic wildlife than dams or water turbines. And as the installations can be positioned far below the surface of the sea, there would be less interference with shipping, recreational boat users, fishing and tourism.

The engineers are now deploying a prototype device in the Detroit River, which has a flow of less than two knots.

Their work, funded by the US Department of Energy and the US Office of Naval Research, is published in the current issue of the quarterly Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering.

---
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/renewableenergy/3535012/Ocean-currents-can-power-the-world-say-scientists.html

Mark said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Mark said...

"A little summary of the GEET device: It is a fairly simple modification that can be done on just about any gasoline engine, from lawn mowers to giant industrial power plants, that allows the engine to run on just about any kind of junk hydrocarbons as 80+% of it's fuel. It really is very close to the same concept as the car in the Back to the Future movie. I watched it run on seawater, urine, Windex, Mountain Dew, etc. and produce exhaust that was cleaner then the outside air. In other words, this exhaust belongs INSIDE the car where the people are. I can't even mention some of the suppression Paul was experiencing back then, and it has only gotten worse. If you just start watching some of the other videos on the GEET you can get an idea how bad it has been for him all these years. He is one of the true heros of our world..."



PAUL PANTONE, GIFTED INVENTOR, WRONGFULLY IMPRISONED IN UTAH MENTAL HOSPITAL *VID* PLEASE READ

[Paul Pantone's invention and story is is an example of the high level political corruption that the book Toward a Bioregional State notes is the cause of environmental problems through political corruption.]


Posted By: Sandollar Send E-Mail
Date: Saturday, 3 January 2009, 4:46 p.m.

I am a member of several Yahoo message boards and today, someone posted this information. Please take the time to watch the videos as this is how low we have stooped as a country. Warning some graphic pictures. This brought me to tears. If anyone can help, please do. Mr. Pantone is a true hero.

**********************************************
Paul Pantone Wrongfully Imprisoned

Hi,

I met an inventor named Paul Pantone in the late 90's at a Tesla convention where I saw his GEET device working and he told me many inside details about it. Even back then he was getting serious death threats and harassment on a regular basis. I just learned that he was set up by crooked attorneys and has been wrongfully imprisoned and tortured for 3+ years now in a Utah mental hospital. I've only watched the first of these 3 videos so
far. It's just 8:20 long and very well worth watching if you want to see what our government is doing to suppress working free energy technology:

A little summary of the GEET device: It is a fairly simple modification that can be done on just about any gasoline engine, from lawn mowers to giant industrial power plants, that allows the engine to run on just about any kind of junk hydrocarbons as 80+% of it's fuel. It really is very close to the same concept as the car in the Back to the Future movie. I watched it run on seawater, urine, Windex, Mountain Dew, etc. and produce exhaust
that was cleaner then the outside air. In other words, this exhaust belongs INSIDE the car where the people are. I can't even mention some of the suppression Paul was experiencing back then, and it has only gotten worse. If you just start watching some of the other videos on the GEET you can get
an idea how bad it has been for him all these years. He is one of the true heros of our world and he is probably going to die a horrible death in that so-called hospital if we don't get him out soon. Please watch the first video here and pass the word on. And find out what the GEET is and how it works, while you still can. We could be done with fossil fuels NOW if we
could just break this suppression so that manufacturers could start producing this modification on all the new engines being produced that are still getting pour mileage and polluting the air.

Thanks,
Daniel Moeck

http://au.youtube.com/watch?v=uoLFt_cUa_0

Part 1

http://au.youtube.com/watch?v=oD9htnk5iqo&feature=related

Part 2

http://au.youtube.com/watch?v=i1oE-zqdF9Q&feature=related

Part 3

---
http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/forum.cgi?read=138714

Mark said...

Salt solution: Cheap power from the river's mouth

* 25 February 2009 by Kate Ravilious
* Magazine issue 2697.

Video: See how estuaries could provide copious green energy

STAND on the banks of the Rhine where it flows into the North Sea, near the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, and you'll witness a vast, untapped source of energy swirling in the estuary. According to Dutch engineer Joost Veerman, it's possible to tap this energy without damaging the environment or disrupting the river's busy shipping. For rather than constructing a huge barrage or dotting the river bed with turbines, Veerman and his colleagues at Wetsus, the Dutch Centre for Sustainable Water Technology in Leeuwarden, believe they can tap energy locked up in the North Sea's saltwater by channelling it, along with fresh water from the Rhine, into a novel kind of battery. With a large enough array of these batteries, he says, the estuary could easily provide over a gigawatt of electricity by a process they've called Blue Energy - enough to supply about 650,000 homes.

"Salinity power" exploits the chemical differences between salt and fresh water, and this project only hints at the technology's potential: from the mouth of the Ganges to the Mississippi delta, almost every large estuary could produce a constant flow of green electricity, day and night, rain or shine, without damaging sensitive ecosystems or threatening fisheries (see map). One estimate has it that salinity power could eventually become a serious power player, supplying as much as 7 per cent of today's global energy needs.

In an attempt to prove that this isn't just a pipe dream, Veerman's team has done lab tests on a prototype salinity power generator, and are now planning to scale it up. Yet a group of Norwegian engineers have gone one stage further, with their own twist on salinity power.

In the next few months, engineers at Norwegian power company Statkraft plan to throw the switch on the world's first salinity power station. Though their prototype is small, its impact could be huge. So what are these rival technologies, how do they stack up, and what are the obstacles to making electricity wherever rivers meet the sea?

Salinity power emerged from a rather different use for sea water. In the late 1950s, Sidney Loeb and Srinivasa Sourirajan, then working at the University of California, Los Angeles, came up with a new trick to extract drinking water from the sea. Their idea was based on osmosis, a natural process in which water passes spontaneously from a dilute to a concentrated solution through a semipermeable membrane. The pair realised that by using a synthetic membrane and high pressure pumps, they could run osmosis in reverse and literally squeeze fresh water from sea water. This approach is now used in desalination plants worldwide.

About 15 years later, Loeb had another brain wave. He realised that their design could be exploited to generate power. Working at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, in Beer Sheva, Israel, he envisaged a tank with two chambers separated by a semipermeable membrane. With saltwater on one side and fresh on the other, osmosis would draw fresh water into the salty side, raising its pressure. This pressurised saltwater could then be piped through a turbine to generate electricity (see diagram). Loeb named this process pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and patented it in 1973.

His plan was to harvest power where rivers meet the ocean, close to the point where fresh water meets salt. Fresh water would be piped to a generating plant from upstream and saltwater from downstream. Inside the plant, the fresh and saltwater would be channelled along either side of a membrane. Osmosis would then provide sufficient water pressure on the salty side of the membrane - up to 12 atmospheres, Loeb reckoned - to make electricity generation profitable.

The key lay in finding the right membrane. It would have to be permeable to water but not salt, and very thin yet extremely durable. This proved too tall an order and Loeb retired in 1986, his dream unrealised.

The concept was revived in 1997, when Thor Thorsen and Torleif Holt, working in Trondheim at the Norwegian research organisation SINTEF, became convinced that membrane technology was finally advanced enough to make Loeb's idea feasible. With their enthusiasm, and detailed calculations, they convinced Statkraft that salinity power could pay off in Norway. Using a design much like Loeb's original, they now believe they are close to their goal.

Membrane development remains the biggest headache, says Stein Erik Skilhagen, manager of the PRO project at Statkraft. Unfortunately, membranes used in desalination plants are too thick, he says, and cannot draw enough water through. So Statkraft's engineers have been working with membrane developers to improve designs. While their first membranes generated about 100 milliwatts per square metre, the latest version generates over 3 watts per square metre, close to their target of 5 watts.

Skilhagen reckons these membranes are now efficient enough to be worth testing beyond the lab, and in the next few months the company plans to turn on the world's first prototype PRO plant at the Södra Cell paper pulp factory in Tofte, alongside a fjord 60 kilometres from Oslo.

The prototype will provide crucial experience in scaling up the system. The new plant fits inside a room no bigger than a tennis court. "In the lab, our membrane had the footprint of a coffee cup. At Tofte we will be using 2000 square metres of the stuff," says Holt. A full-scale plant will need millions of square metres of membrane, so maximising the surface area for exchange is crucial, he says. The team is testing two designs. In the first, a long membrane tube is rolled up lengthways into a spiral something like a Swiss roll. Fresh water is pumped through the tube, while saltwater is pumped around the tube on the outside. Each spiral roll is less than 1 millimetre in diameter, and hundreds are arranged in parallel inside a pipe about 20 centimetres across. In the alternative design, the membrane is made into straight tubes which run through a tank of saltwater. Fresh water is pumped along the membrane tubes.
Help from gravity

As well as finding the optimal way to pack the membranes together, the researchers must work out how to prevent the delicate pores from clogging with silt and algae in the water. They are looking at an anti-fouling coating to put on the membrane, and experimenting with reversing the flow periodically to flush silt out, says Holt.

The other challenge will be to minimise the energy used to bring the water into the plant. Lab tests show a fifth of the electricity generated was expended on pumping the water in. However, many of Norway's rivers drop steeply from the mountains, so in future it should be possible to pipe in the fresh water using gravity alone. Build the power plant underground or on the river bed and gravity will also bring in the saltwater, says Skilhagen.

The Tofte plant will generate about 4 kilowatts, though a fifth will be used for pumping the water. The rest - just over 3 kilowatts - is only enough to power a couple of kettles, but Statkraft hopes to construct a large scale salinity power plant by around 2015. This will be about the size of a football stadium, contain 5 million square metres of membrane and generate about 25 megawatts of electricity, they say, incorporating a new membrane and efficiencies of scale. It should power more than 15,000 households.

Statkraft calculates that salinity power could eventually provide Norway with up to 12 terrawatt-hours of electricity annually, roughly 10 per cent of the country's consumption. "We estimate the global potential to be 1600 to 1700 terrawatt-hours annually," says Skilhagen, about 1 per cent of the world's annual energy needs. This would mean using about half of the fresh water flowing through every large estuary.

There is some scepticism that Statkraft's technology can be rolled out globally. Norwegian rivers are relatively clear of mud and silt, says Veerman. "In other parts of the world such as the Netherlands and the UK there is lots of silt and bacteria in the rivers." The cost of cleaning up this water makes PRO a non-starter, he says.

So Veerman and his colleagues at Wetsus have devised a rival system - a salt-based battery. Dubbed Blue Energy, it generates electricity by moving ions rather than water molecules across membranes. Their membranes are along the same lines as those used in kidney dialysis machines. In fact, their system requires two kinds of membrane - one permeable to positive ions, the other to negative ions. Both are impermeable to water.

Typical sea water contains about 35 grams of salt per litre, so compared with fresh water it is packed with positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions. The team placed alternating layers of their two membranes in a stack to create separate chambers. When fresh water and saltwater flows simultaneously across alternate chambers, chloride ions flow spontaneously from the saltwater through one membrane into the fresh water, while sodium ions flow through the other membrane in the opposite direction (see diagram). This movement of ions generates a potential difference between a pair of electrodes, placed at either end of the cell.

Veerman and his colleagues have already switched on a small prototype Blue Energy generator in their lab. Though it only produces 20 watts of power, this convinced Pieter Hack, director of Dutch company Magneto, to form a new company called Redstack, which will commercialise the technology.

Now Redstack and Wetsus are collaborating on a pilot project, at a salt mine in Harlingen in the northern Netherlands. Salty waste water from the mine and fresh water from the local river are piped into the pilot plant, with each pipe feeding the rows of salt or fresh water channels inside the salt batteries. The unit - the size of three washing machines - is due to be switched on in weeks, and should produce several kilowatts of power. Unlike Statkraft's Tofte plant, this one isn't linked to the electricity grid, but will help the researchers assess how Blue Energy can be scaled up.

Membrane design is still an issue. The water-flow rate must also be optimised. But since only ions cross the membrane, there is less mass flowing across the membrane than with their rival's technology, and so silting problems are reduced, Veerman says.

Veerman and his colleagues calculate that if all the rivers of sufficient size in the Netherlands were utilised, Blue Energy could provide as much as 75 per cent of the country's electricity needs. By exploiting around half of the water flowing in the world's largest rivers, they estimate that Blue Energy could provide up to 7 per cent of the world's energy needs.
Blue Energy could provide up to 7 per cent of global energy needs by exploiting around half the flow in the world's largest rivers

Skilhagen thinks this figure is optimistic. "They haven't accounted for the seasonal variations in river flow, and environmental considerations." In theory, the Rhine can deliver 5 gigawatts of electricity. In practice, Skilhagen says, it would be impossible to block or divert the river's entire flow without doing serious environmental and economic damage. Yet Veerman estimates that using around one-fifth of its flow would be acceptable, providing around 7000 gigawatt-hours of electricity annually through Blue Energy.
Keep it clean

What of other impacts on the environment? The process generates brackish water, but this could simply be pumped or channelled into the sea. And each plant requires pipelines to collect and discharge water, as well as pylons to carry electricity to the grid. Large rivers often have industrial ports where they meet the coast and plants could be built in such areas, says Skilhagen. They already have much of the necessary infrastructure, too. "I'd be surprised if there are no environmental problems, but we are not aware of any right now," he says. "This is why it is important for us to build this prototype and ensure that it has minimal impact on the environment."

Both teams aim to learn these lessons quickly; though outwardly complimentary about each other's work, there is a clear element of competition. Both technologies are at a similar stage and the first to prove their design can be profitable without damaging the environment could have a serious advantage in the marketplace.

River estuaries are not the only place where salinity power can be set to work. Power could be generated at desalination plants using leftover brine, or with waste brine from industrial processes or salt mines. The Dutch team's master plan, though, is to use the Afsluitdijk dam which separates the Ijsselmeer from the North Sea in the central Netherlands.

The IJsselmeer is the largest lake in western Europe, covering an area of 1100 square kilometres. Fed by the river IJssel, its level rises by around 4 centimetres each day. This is insufficient for hydroelectric power, and the excess is currently emptied into the North Sea. However, the sluice gates on the Afsluitdijk dam are perfect for feeding water past ionic membranes in a salinity power plant, says Veerman. This could create perhaps hundreds of megawatts for short periods, at times of peak demand. "We could use this lake as an energy buffer, in combination with wind energy," says Veerman. The Dutch team are applying for permits to begin this project.

Compared to conventional energy generators, the capital cost of a salinity power plant is high, but likely to drop significantly once the technology is proven. Hack estimates that it would cost over $600 million to construct a 200-megawatt salinity power plant covering the area of two soccer pitches at the Afsluitdijk dam, and that this plant would produce electricity at a retail cost of $90 per megawatt-hour. Statkraft won't reveal detailed figures, but are aiming to produce electricity at a retail price of between $65 and $125 per megawatt hour by 2015. By comparison, modern fossil-fuel power stations churn out electricity at a cost of about $50 per MWh.

Roelof Schuiling, a geoengineer at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, believes that both types of salinity power projects are feasible and could play a valuable global role. "If realised, it is more dependable than wind energy and could have a big impact on our energy sources," he says. For example, a typical wind turbine is reckoned to generate electricity for an average of 3500 hours each year. A salinity power plant, on the other hand, could operate close to full capacity for more than 7000 hours a year.

Will salinity power ever pulse down the power lines? By May this year, when Statkraft flicks the switch at their pilot plant, the technology's true potential should become clearer. "We don't claim that salinity power will be the global energy solution," says Skilhagen, "but it could play an important role, and ensure that we hand over a better world to our children."

Unfortunately, Loeb won't be there to witness the event: he died in December 2008, aged 92. "He had a lot of interest in our work until his last days, and his wife still follows our efforts," says Skilhagen.

Kate Ravilious is a science writer based in York, UK

---
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126972.000-salt-solution-cheap-power-from-the-rivers-mouth.html?full=true

Mark said...

Amazing new [magnetic motor] energy invention confiscated: Could transform energy generation worldwide

April 3, 5:55 PM · 6 comments


Breakthrough magnetic motor
Could it transform our world? (Photo courtesy PESN)

A new energy revolution is brewing thanks to open source technology. A determined inventor just recently created a magnetic motor which appears to run without any energy input. Not only that, he has posted directions describing exactly how he made it on the Internet, with the hope that others will repeat and improve on his work.

Few in the general public are aware that an exciting new group called the New Energy Movement has developed and grown rapidly in recent years.

This pioneering movement is loosely comprised of thousands of inventors and scientists exploring energy generation techniques based on non-traditional physics, most notably something called zero point energy.

Mainstream science has confirmed the existence of the vast amounts of energy available through what is called the zero point, though scientists differ on whether or not it is possible to tap into this source of limitless energy.

This most recent invention could somehow be tapping into the zero point energy field, or it could be making use of a property of magnets not yet understood.

The inventor of this intriguing magnetic motor has chosen not to reveal his name at this point.

He goes by Mylow on the many YouTube demonstrations of his magnetic motor. Most impressive about this man is that he has chosen to release all details of his invention to the public, so that others can help rapidly develop this technology to make this cheap energy source widely available to the public.

Here is aYouTube video posted by Mylow on March 17th, showing how his magnetic motor works.




As a former White House insider (see links in right hand column) with key inside contacts, I have been following the new energy movement closely for seven years now. Several of the leaders of this pioneering movement have become my personal friends.

The man I most respect and appreciate in this movement is Sterling Allan. Sterling manages the best, most comprehensive open source project for new and alternative energy projects at http://peswiki.com.

He has been in regular phone contact with Mylow and even helped him to improve on his invention. I highly recommend reading the comprehensive web page about Mylow and his landmark work on Sterling's website at this link.

Suppression of new energy technologies

Will this amazing new invention receive the media attention and research dollars it deserves? Many similar inventions in the past have been suppressed, destroyed, or otherwise shut down.

Sterling received a phone call this morning from Mylow, who claims that an unknown man showed up at his house last night with Mylow's lawyer. The man allegedly made some threats and confiscated his device and papers.

Strangely, Mylow stated that the man then came back this morning and returned the motor in a slightly damaged state, telling him that it is just a toy and that he should keep it that way.

Sadly, money and greed often trump innovation in the politics of energy. When certain exceedingly wealthy members of the power elite stand to lose literally billions of dollars in oil revenue if a new energy technology threatens their profits, they will do everything in their power to stop it.

In Mylow's case, where did this strange, intimidating man come from? Why would he be threatening this inventor and damaging the device? And how often has this kind of thing happened before?

As another example, a friend of mine is an amazing genius who ran a $7 million company which was developing a new energy technology which would make oil obsolete.

Among many threats and intimidations my friend received, he had his home and offices ransacked, and a bullet hole put through his office window. I went to his home and personally witnessed the aftermath there.

They succeeded in stopping him.

I know of many other inventors who have had a similar fate. You can learn more along these lines in this article. [go to original link below for the internal links]

Yet we, as caring citizens can make a difference. First, any of you with the motivation and skills can use the information Mylow has provided to replicate his invention and then post your results on Sterling's open source project website.

Mylow has posted many videos with detailed descriptions and directions for any who want to replicate his work. You can find links to all of his video descriptions on this web page.

For those who are not so technically inclined, you can stand up and do your part to expose all that is going on.

You can fill the role at which the media is sadly failing. Using the powerful tool of the Internet, we can join together to break through the many impediments set up by big money and big business to keep inventions like this from succeeding.

We can become the new media which is not beholden to big business interests and build a brighter future for our children and generations to come.


Examiner.com represents the new, citizen-based media which is already making a big difference in our world. The fact that you are reading this article here would not have been possible without it. The box immediately below provides several more ideas on what you can do to inform yourself and make a difference on this vital topic. We also invite you to comment below and let us know what you think. How can we spread this news and break our dependence on foreign oil?



What you can do:

* To find and contact your political and media representatives, click here. Urge them to look at this amazing new invention, to report on it and fund development to break our dependence on foreign oil.
* Explore lots more about Mylow's amazing magnetic motor at this link.
* Read a powerfully revealing, two-page article on the cover-up of other amazing new energy inventions which could transform our world at this link.
* Read about a rich variety of new energy inventions reported in highly reliable sources which should be making top headlines at this link.
* Visit our New Energy Information Center at www.WantToKnow.info/newenergyinformation
* Spread this news to your friends and colleagues so that we can fill the role at which the major media is sadly failing.


Author: Fred Burks
Fred Burks is a National Examiner. You can see Fred's articles on Fred's Home Page.

---
http://www.examiner.com/x-6495-National-Intelligence-
Examiner~y2009m4d3-Amazing-
new-energy-invention-confiscated-
Could-transform-energy-generation-worldwide

Mark said...

Floating wind turbines [far offshore] poised to harness ocean winds

* David Adam
* guardian.co.uk, Wednesday 16 July 2008 11.05 BST


Blue H Floating Turbine Prototype floating in Brindisi harbour

Wind power: the floating wind turbine prototype in Brindisi harbour in December 2007




A British company is poised to construct the world's first floating wind turbine, in a move that could herald a new generation of cheaper, less problematic wind energy.

Blue H, a firm registered in the UK but based in Holland, aims to anchor its prototype device 12 miles off the coast of southern Italy later this month.

The company is one of several racing to build commercial-scale floating wind turbines that sit in deep water far from land. These turbines benefit from more powerful winds and avoid many of the issues that afflict existing wind farms.

Neal Bastick, head of Blue H, said the Italian prototype would be "virtually invisible" from the shore, and that the company plans to build a full scale floating 90 megawatt wind farm in the region.

Blue H also wants to build them off Scotland and the northeast US.

Bastick said the floating windmills would be more economic to install than existing offshore turbines, which sit on fixed foundations in the seabed.

They could minimise problems with planning, as well as having less impact on shipping, military radar and coastal seabird populations.

Electricity would be sent ashore using undersea cables.

The Blue H prototype will float a turbine platform on the sea surface and fix it in position using strong chains linked to heavy weights on the sea bed.

Changing the length of the chains could allow the turbine to operate in water depths between 50m and 300m, enough to take it far out into the deep ocean.

The Blue H prototype turbine platform was launched in December 2007 and needs to be towed out to sea and connected to its seabed counterweight.

Bastick said: "Within a few years I would very much like to be placing these off Britain." (Watch the company's film of the launch here.)

Britain is seen as a key market for such technology because of the consistent winds around its coast.

In June, the UK government said that it would need to build up to 7,000 wind turbines at sea to help meet EU renewable energy targets.

The Norwegian companies Statoil and Statkraft are also developing floating windmills.

Carl Erik Hillesund, vice president for offshore wind development for Statkraft, said: "We need some new industrial thinking on the technology. Up to now, people have just focused on taking onshore wind turbines and putting them offshore. That has caused a lot of hassle and mistakes."

He said the floating technology could be sited more than 200 miles from the coast. "You could put them between the UK and Norway. That would be no problem. They would be out of sight and much more flexible."

Statkraft is also bidding to build new wind farms in British waters, but Hillesund said it was too early to say if the floating wind turbines would be used. The company aims to build its first full scale prototype by 2011.

As part of a consortium called Windsea, it is developing a floating triangular platform, with a three to four-megawatt turbine mounted at each corner.

The platform would be anchored to the sea bed, but by a single chain so it could rotate as the wind changed direction.

Statoil takes a different approach: fixing a conventional turbine to a concrete buoy, anchored to the sea bed with three cables.

Called Hywind, the company aims to switch on a 2.3 megawatt prototype device in autumn 2009.

Perhaps the most elegant design is being worked on by another Norwegian company called Sway. It mounts its turbine on an elongated floating mast, the bulk of which sits below the water. Connected to the seabed by a metal tube, the turbine mast is designed to sway with the wind and waves, and can lean at an angle of up to 15 degrees. It could launch a prototype in 2010.

---
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/16/windpower.renewableenergy

Mark said...

[U.S. Television Does It's Job One Time out of Million: Contradicts U.S. Government and Corporate Energy Lies]

Cold Fusion Is A Reality
By James Jaeger
Jaeger Research Institute
4-20-2009


For those of you who know how critical I have been of the "mainstream media" down through the years, my commendation of 60-minutes (for their excellent and courageous show on COLD FUSION) may come as a shock.

60-Minute's report is a welcome breath of fresh air and gives me hope that the mainstream media, at least some of it, may be waking up to its greater responsibility to the public.

Apparently [of course it is] COLD FUSION is real.

The show, which just aired tonight at 7PM EST on NBC, gave a great overview of the COLD FUSION debate along with a rare interview of Dr. Fleishmann in Europe (who seemed to be quite saddened about the waste of time and the professional invalidation which ran him out of science).

Government and military labs, as well as countless commercial labs around the world, have now been able to confirm that the excess heat build up is real "WITHOUT A DOUBT". It is suspected that this is a low grade fusion process working in the lattice structure of the palladium atoms. The questions as to how it works, and why the reaction only happens about 75% of the time are still under unanswered.

Fleishmann said the technology could be deployed quite quickly. The technology would in essence provide a new type of battery that would never need to be discarded or recharged in many cases. Your laptop computer would just run for its lifetime. Your car would just run on electric motors powered by cold fusion power cells. Your house would have all the electricity it needed with NO connection to the grid -- just a large cold fusion cell sitting outside next to the heat-pump. Commercial power stations would simply replace palladium rods periodically.

Evey gallon of sea water will provide the energy content of 10 gallons of gasoline.

Coal, oil, natural gas, solar, wind, thermal and fission will eventually become obsolete technologies.

This IS going to change the world.

The Oil Establishment WILL fight back however, so expect a back lash. Even right after the 60-Minutes show concluded, Big Oil had a TV commercial talking about "increasing production for oil." What gall.

The current suppressive energy Establishment must be resisted and run out of business. You can thank Bush I for initiating the government cover-up of Cold Fusion. Unbelievable! I never thought there could have been a bigger criminal in the White House than Nixon. Then Bush II comes along and continues the cover-up for Big Oil . . . but so did Dem Clinton, proving that BOTH parties are in on the crimes.

Forget about the torture investigation, Bush I, Clinton and Bush II need to be hanged side by side in the public square for treason against humanity. Charge: knowingly suppressing technology vital to the human race. Can you imagine how many millions of people have needlessly died due to a lack of energy in the past 20 years since the Gov-Energy Establishment has thwarted important technology for the sake of the profit-motive and political power.

But REJOICE fellow posters! With COLD FUSION a reality, the Singularity is that much closer.

James Jaeger


P.S. If you missed the 60-Minutes show, you may be able to get it on the Net. If not, watch the doc called HEAVY WATERGATE at

http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=cold+fusion+
documentary&hl=en&emb=0&aq=4&oq=Cold+Fusion#

---
http://rense.com/general85/cold.htm

Mark said...

NSA Guy Apologizes to Mylow? [Magnetic] Motor Runs in Reverse [Gets Cold in Operation]

Mylow has posted yet another video showing his motor turning, this time in reverse as he swaps orientation of the stator magnets. Account of NSA agent coming back to his apartment to make amends.

by Sterling D. Allan
Pure Energy Systems News

One of Mylow's videos posted on April 30 shows the elements of his magnet motor assembly.




(WRITTEN ON APRIL 30)

Here's a review of today's correspondence with Mylow in this unfolding saga regarding the all-magnet motor he has been talking about and now demonstrating again in videos at YouTube.

He phoned me several times today, and each time he seemed less perturbed.

He was really upset this morning because of all the continued negativity and skepticism even after posting his videos last night. Though most people have been supportive and have been congratulating him and asking for more, some have continued to be rude and unimpressed that this guy seems to be breaking the ice in introducing a working magnet motor to the planet to replicate, improve, and reproduce -- all without the slightest interest on his part in receiving any compensation for what he's doing. [We do plan on including him and Howard Johnson's heirs in the recommended 3% royalty from all commercial ventures that arise from this open source project, even though he hasn't asked for it.]

He was going to scrape all the magnets off his disc and have nothing more to do with this stuff. He said, "people are not ready for this yet."

He said that Mother Earth, who has been on a course to bring some cleansing on the planet because of the pollutions, and could have benefitted from this change of course, mitigating some of the pending disasters, told him, "Hold off, Mylow; they don't deserve this." [Please don't deride Mylow for saying this. I find it completely plausible, as the earth is just as much a living being as a tree or animal that walks on its surface. Some people have a gift to communicate with animals or plants (think Doctor Dolittle). Why should anyone be surprised that someone as naturally gifted as Mylow is with magnets would also be able to communicate with Mother Earth. I think it's pretty cool. It certainly conforms to my world view.]

"This is such an utterly simple technology that could make a huge difference. I don't know why people haven't figured it out before now."

Near the end of our first conversation, he had arrived at work, and his boss/partner seemed to chime in. From what I could gather, Mylow was showing him a video of what he had done last night. The first thing out of his partner's mouth was: "You ought to patent it."

Mylow responded, "Can't, it's already been patented and the patent is expired."

His partner said, "Then how are you going to make money off it?"

Mylow responded, "I'm giving it away, open sourcing it."

I can only guess his partner's expressions, as 99% of humans seemed wired for greed.

Then he concluded his call with me.

With the two more calls through the day, Mylow seemed to be in a better mood, and more lightened.


More Videos

When I spoke with him around 6:00 pm Central, he said, "I'm so excited." He was telling me about his most recent video he posted and was still uploading at the time, which shows the motor running in reverse. He switched the direction of the stator magnets, and sure enough, it makes the motor spin in the opposite direction, as I had predicted (in the replication plans I'm preparing). I would also predict that the same would happen if he flipped the rotor magnets so they are S upward.

He said that he also made the stator magnets more rigid so they don't bounce each time they pass over a change in rotor contour (magnets v. blank disc). With that change, he said the motor runs even faster. "The field is more focused." He said that without proper assembly strength, the magnet device might tend to bust itself up. That's why he has the stator magnets as high as he does.
Here's a link to his video, where you can see some of the comments people have posted.

Around 3:00 pm today, he uploaded his fourth video in this series (last night being the second and third). This one was directed to the skeptics. He methodically pulled the assembly apart and described each part, showing that there is not room for a hidden motor inside the fairly large bearing assembly -- that it is mostly solid aluminum. I took screen shots and will be included them in the plans I'm preparing.
Here's a link to his video, where you can see some of the comments people have posted.

More Specifications

In the second call today, Mylow gave me quite a bit of information about the magnets and their parameters. I posed these to the discussion list.

* Correspondence >
Bar Manget Dimensions, etc. - I wanted to pass on some crucial information for those of you wanting to replication Version 2.0 shown last night. (Mylow_Magmo; Apr 30, 2009 9:55 am Mountain)

Additionally, as mentioned yesterday, he thinks that maybe the eddy currents that are taking place between the stator and aluminum rotor are important in facilitating pole shifting, creating the coldness in the stator magnet, which he measured at 20ºC. He wonders if maybe there isn't some super conductivity taking place.

I asked him what it was about the design that took three days to arrive at a working unit using these components. He said that the right spacing between the rotor magnets is not easy to find.

He said he doesn't think this motor configuration will make the magnets demagnetize, because it's working in attraction mode, rather than repulsion mode like his earlier designs.

He said that he tried lifting the stator off from over the rotor while the system was running, and the rotor started lifted up with the stator. I remember him describing a similar phenomenon with the earlier designs. As they got going, there was built up an increased attraction between the rotor and stator magnets. That's why the rotor crashed into the stator in that one glass table demo he did back around Apr. 5. The feet of the stator assembly were not fastened securely enough to the glass table, and the assembly moved over as the speed picked up and the attraction increased.


More on Last Monday's Interview with BlackOps

Mylow doesn't know for sure who he talked to last Monday in that guarded facility with a one-way glass wall. (See story) He wouldn't recognize Joe Biden's voice because he doesn't follow politics. He was told that the very important person he talked to "is close to Washington". He said that person did sound important, and interested, but that he didn't do very much of the talking. Most of the dialogue took place with people on his side of the glass wall. That's where the arguments and his defiance was primarily taking place.

The interview took 1-2 hours. "They already have this technology [specifically this HJ-related version]. I just happen to be the only one outside their realm who has this."

In their earlier meeting last week, "They told me they secretly took it away from Howard Johnson. HJ never told anyone."


MIB Stops By

I know there are a lot of things not just about the technology but about some of the story that has been going along with it that has been nearly impossible for most people to believe. The development reported by Mylow today is no less strange.

He said that he had a visitor today -- the first guy that showed up back on April 2, intimidating him, scaring him more than he's ever been scared in his life, taking photos and video, then taking his unit and all his drawings and notes, only to return them the next day, warning him to post no more videos, and telling him that his unit was "just a toy; keep it that way," and telling him that it was in the interest of national security that he comply. The badge he showed to the police the next morning when they showed up because Mylow's wife had called them to come arrest the intruders, was "NSA" -- National Security Agency.

But today his message was very different. "Look, we know what you've been doing. We don't like the idea the you're doing this. It's okay. I just want to thank you."

Then he had Mylow sign a waiver that he didn't really understand. Something to the effect that he wouldn't sue them.


Moral of the Story

Could the reversal of the rotor direction and the reversal of the MIB guy on the same day possibly be symbolic for a reversal in the direction we've been heading as a planet? Maybe we don't have to be largely cleansed off the face of the earth. Maybe we can learn to live in harmony with nature. Maybe Mother Earth can change her mind and tell Mylow to go ahead and help with this technology.

I'll tell you this, some of those really obnoxious skeptics who act more like paid provocateurs, should be glad they're not walking around in person with those of us who are trying to help bring this technology forward. They might have a black eye or two. Sheesh. Where do these guys get off. Why can't they just go find somewhere else to be obnoxious? I agreed yesterday to have a moderator clear out such from our mylow_magmo discussion list.

Regarding Mylow posting annotations on his latest video saying all this is fake and a fraud, he is just being sarcastic and is letting himself be sucked into the bait of some of the most obnoxious skeptics. I wish he could develop a thicker skin and just ignore them and focus on helping the myriad of supporters who are trying to help the process.

Regarding his annotation that he has shipped the device off to a private party, he did mention to me today that someone from Germany had asked to receive it to analyze it. He did sound like he was paying attention to that request, but I was surprised that he followed through because he guaranteed to me that he would send me a working unit. Hopefully that will still take place through some supplies we could send him -- involving readily available components.

# # #
Previous Story

* Magnet Motors > Mylow > Videos >
Mylow Posts Video of Running Bar-Magnet-Motor - After several weeks of enduring endless skepticism by people about his claim to a working, very simple, all-magnet motor design, Mylow has posted a very convincing video showing his latest iteration running. (PESN; April 30, 2009)

[at link, there are links]
---
http://pesn.com/2009/05/01/9501534_NSA_apologizes_to_Mylow/

Mark said...

[connect this with the moving walls above, and you have free electrical generation from wall motion through piezoelectric effects]

New technique harvests electricity from nature's motions
From ANI

Washington, October 31: Duke University engineers have developed a novel approach that they believe can more efficiently harvest electricity from the everyday motions of the natural world.


Energy harvesting is the process of converting one form of energy, such as motion, into another form of energy, in this case electricity.

Strategies range from the development of massive wind farms to produce large amounts of electricity to using the vibrations of walking to power small electronic devices.

Although motion is an abundant source of energy, only limited success has been achieved because the devices used only perform well over a narrow band of frequencies.

"Nature doesn't work in a single frequency, so we wanted to come up with a device that would work over a broad range of frequencies," said Samuel Stanton, graduate student in Duke's Pratt School of Engineering.

"By using magnets to 'tune' the bandwidth of the experimental device, we were able verify in the lab that this new non-linear approach can outperform conventional linear devices," he added.

Although the device they constructed looks deceptively simple, it was able to prove the team's theories on a small scale.

It is basically a small cantilever, several inches long and a quarter inch wide, with an end magnet that interacts with nearby magnets.

The cantilever base itself is made of a piezoelectric material, which has the unique property of releasing electrical voltage when it is strained.

The key to the new approach involved placing moveable magnets of opposing poles on either side of the magnet at the end of the cantilever arm.

By changing the distance of the moveable magnets, the researchers were able to "tune" the interactions of the system with its environment, and thus produce electricity over a broader spectrum of frequencies.

"These results suggest to us that this non-linear approach could harvest more of the frequencies from the same ambient vibrations," said Brian Mann, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials sciences, Duke's Pratt School of Engineering.

"More importantly, being able to capture more of the bandwidth makes it more likely that these types of devices could someday rival batteries as a portable power source," he added.


Copyright Asian News International/DailyIndia.com

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http://www.dailyindia.com/show/341987.php

Thiago daLuz said...

This was really informative, but also mildly worrying. How often do things like that happen, innovations getting destroyed for fear of...what were they even afraid of. I heard a year or two ago there was supposed to be some revolution in heating and cooling in Winnipeg, but it never materialized. I wonder if this is what happened.